Autonomy in Journalism: How It Is Related to Attitudes and Behavior of Media Professionals

Armin Scholl and Siegfried Weischenberg [WJMCR 2:4 September 1999] Sections:  Abstract|Introduction|Theoretical framework and hypothesesMethod|Results|Discussion Abstract Autonomy is a main characteristic of professions. Social system theory suggests observing journalism in terms of self-referentiality and external referentiality. In our study “Journalism in Germany,” we could identify a particular self-referential group of journalists, which differed from the rest of the sample […]

The Forgotten Battles: Congressional Hearings on Television Violence in the 1950s

Keisha L. Hoerrner [WJMCR 2:3 June 1999] Sections:  Abstract|Introduction|Conclusion Abstract Although Congress has been interested in television violence for more than four decades, little scholarly attention focuses on its first actions. This article looks at the 1952, 1954, and 1955 hearings, which laid the foundation for every subsequent congressional hearing on the issue, as well as […]

International News Coverage in Local Japanese Newspapers

Hiromi Cho and Stephen Lacy [WJMCR 2:2 March 1999] Sections: Abstract|Introduction|Literature Review|Method|Results|Discussion Abstract International news coverage accounted for slightly more than 7% of the news in 48 Japanese local newspapers during this six-month period, which was greater than the percentage found in earlier studies of U.S. newspapers. Although the majority of international news space was devoted to hard […]

Effectiveness of Negative Political Advertising

Won Ho Chang, Jae-Jin Park, and Sung Wook Shim [WJMCR 2:1 December 1998] Sections: Introduction|Hypotheses|Method|Results|Conclusion Introduction Throughout history politicians have used various methods, such as whistle-stop speeches, political advertising and political rallies, to achieve their “primary goal, the winning of votes.”1 However, over the years, politicians have found that it is most advantageous to use political advertising to persuade […]