How We Got Where We Are Now: 20 Years of Research Into Online Mass Communication: An Annotation

image_pdfimage_print

Part Four, 2005-2009: Continuing the Patterns

By Thomas H.P. Gould, Aobo Dong and Jacob A. Mauslein

WJMCR 34 (July 2011)

2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 |2009

We have looked at 15 years of research targeting online mass communications. This last five years we have found more articles addressing online subjects (782 to 616), but we have also found more overall articles in the period (4,514 to 3,824). The overall percentages of online articles increased from 11% to 13.6%, compared to the increase in all articles in the period of 18%. These asymmetrical increases suggest that interest in publishing (perhaps better described as “pressure to publish”) drove the creation of more new journals, as well as encouraging existing journal to publish more; but the focus on online subjects may be waning. That is, while we saw an increase in journal articles devoted to online mass communications, we did not see as many as we might have expected, given the overall, increase in publishing.

We resist drawing too much from this, except, perhaps, that online may finally have become absorbed into all areas of mass communications, an event we have expected for some time. Rather than seeing the delivery system as a more important topic than the messages themselves, we may be witnessing a return to content over electronics. Quantitatively and qualitatively, is a television commercial any different broadcast through a cable connection versus streamed to a computer monitor? This is a subject (controversy?) best addressed elsewhere.

In the period between 2005-2009, almost all 33 journals we examined were available online, though only a few were available through open access. While not undertaking a thorough examination of each journal’s publishing pattern, a casual examination of the data suggest that stalwarts, such as Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly and the Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media published roughly the same numbers of articles they had in the previous five years. Of some interest, perhaps, is that the percentage devoted to online research by both journals fell from 16.1% to 13.7% for the Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media and from 18.2% to 13.7% for Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly.

Table 1: Journal Articles by Journal, by Year, 2005-2009

20052005 -All20062006 -All20072007 – All20082008 – All20092009 – AllTotalAll%
Communication Law and Policy3150172182190197888.0%
Communication Quarterly12402332432602471215.8%
Communication Research2286262299362362115513.5%
Communication Theory22432122412302181137.1%
Critical Studies in Media Communication130333240525326141549.1%
Global Media and Communication428319134015318111149.6%
Human Communication Research3211217242263281612013.3%
International Journal of Advertising1220207211316251511912.6%
International Journal of Communications Law and Policy998900815510304369.8%
Internet Research213017311734213021309715562.6%
Journal of Advertising4316384422385332118211.5%
Journal of Advertising Research236539194683713454720323.2%
Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media6284401365368352417513.7%
Journal of Communication6438557413397353121314.6%
Journal of Communication Inquiry215112316118422118313.3%
Journal of Consumer Affairs220119217219424119911.1%
Journal of Consumer Marketing446248444144441152236.7%
Journal of Consumer Psychology03404103303654851922.6%
Journal of Consumer Research16516116317817853451.4%
Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising415414014114216117315.1%
Journal of Interactive Advertising1415121281011111016646485.9%
Journal of Public Relations Research0172180160193245945.3%
Journalism & Communication Monographs141514070732711.1%
Journalism and Mass Comm Quarterly3447449403406372820513.7%
Mass Communication & Society1183220225202191110110.9%
Media Psychology020121456326418121418.5%
Media, Culture and Society439338542347654212209.5%
Newspaper Research Journal3201246273286251912415.3%
Public Opinion Quarterly33603003503744171793.9%
Public Relations Review35234724454214832726810.1%
Visual Communication Quarterly11701502602402511070.9%
Web Journal of Mass Comm Research1400222266111478.6%
              
Totals112850106863121924111908157969616451413.6%

In the area of research methods, the trend we noted in the 2000-2004 annotation toward quantitative increased, from 45.6% to 71.3%. While the percentage of research employing essays as a method fell roughly 10%, those using qualitative methods fell even further, from 26% to just over one in ten (10.2%). We might offer any number of reasons why the interest in using qualitative methods would fall so precipitously. However, that might be best addresses, again, elsewhere. We would only add that the quantitative percentage for 2007 reached its zenith for the overall 20-year period, with almost 8 out of 10 favoring a numeric analysis method. The fall from 79.3% in 2007 to 73% in the last year of the study might suggest that the shift toward quantitative methodology is experiencing a push back. Again, further research and analysis—such as an examination of the syllabi of university mass communication courses in research methods—is necessary.

Table 2: Primary Research Methods, 2005-2009

Method Year20052006200720082009Total
Interpretive-Policy Analysis924111036
Interpretive-Essay (including History)202110151076
Survey-Content Analysis5256664663283
Survey-Interview/Case Study6611172262
Meta-Analysis22201016
Model Building4121715
Experiment1918262135119
Total112106121111157607

Finally, we acknowledge our approach to coding theories is open to criticism. We ask the gentle reader to forgive us if we neglected to notate every variation on a given theory as separate and/or new. We used broad categories (such as Information Processing/Uses and Gratification and Social Interaction) to capture theories and models that were part of families versus species. We also acknowledge the increase in model building that employed new concepts and the increase in the number of sub-theories that resisted inclusion in our general categories. Again, our intent here was only to suggest broad trends, not specific interest in one new model over another.

Table 3: Theories by Year, 2005-2009

Theory Year20052006200720082009Total
Access312017
Adoption/Diffusion111122111065
Agenda Building/Setting120216
Policy Analysis2824121831113
Information Processing/Uses and Gratification4142414670240
Social Interaction1816172941121
Other1010275355
Total112106121111157607

Note: “Other” includes a variety of models that do not fit into the overall set.

We would like to thank those who offered advice and suggestions, as well as those who patiently waited for the product to take shape. Overall, we looked at almost 16,000 journal articles, initially almost all in print and, eventually, almost all online.

2005

JoAnne Holman and Michael A. McGregor, “The Internet As Commons: The Issue of Access,” Communication Law and Policy, 10.1 (Summer 2005): 267-289.
Keywords: Internet, mass media, law and legislation, digital media, World Wide Web, data processing. 
Abstract: Existing and developing regulatory frameworks for the traditional mass media are ill-suited to the new information environment in part because they emphasize the control of media content and distribution by private media owners. An analysis of the Internet as a commons has the potential to shift the basis of analysis from existing frameworks to one that examines the roles and behaviors of participants and the effects of their collective actions. This framework can help policymakers understand the complexity of multifaceted information exchange, and thereby draft policy that promotes or protects the diversity of communications activities that occur in this new environment, with specific attention to the importance of access and deliberative democracy.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Cassandra Imfeld and Victoria Smith Ekstrand, “The Music Industry and the Legislative Development of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act’s Online Service Provider Provision,” Communication Law and Policy, 10.3 (Summer 2005): 291-312.
Keywords: Music trade, copyright, infringement, intellectual property rights, cultural industries
Abstract: The online service provider provision of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act—Section 512 of the Copyright Act—limits the liability of online or Internet service providers whose users infringe the copyrights of others. While the provision limits liability, it also offers significant powers to a copyright holder seeking to prosecute online copyright infringers. This article traces the legislative development of the provision, examining initial opposition by copyright holders in the music industry. That opposition changed to support after considerable expansion of the original proposal. The article concludes that the music industry successfully lobbied within a three-month window before the first version of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act was presented to Congress in May 1998. The expanded version of the provision included substantial new subpoena powers and takedown requirements.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Joshua Azriel, “The Internet and Hate Speech: An Examination of the Nuremberg Files Case,” Communication Law and Policy, 10.4 (Autumn 2005): 477-497.
Keywords: web sites, hate speech, communication policy, Internet Publishing and Broadcasting and Web Search Portals.
Abstract: The Internet is a resource for many types of personal information including telephone numbers and addresses. Because the Internet is a communications medium that does not always identify its users, it is difficult to know who is making use of the information posted there, or whether there are Web sites that list such information within specific contexts. This article examines the ruling of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in the 2002 Planned Parenthood case involving a Web site, the Nuremburg Files, that listed names, addresses and telephone numbers of abortion providers across the country. Using the 1969 Brandenburg test for incitement, the court ruled that the Web site threatened the doctors’ safety and ordered it shut down. The article concludes that the spirit of the Brandenburg test can be applied to Internet-based speech. Anyone who uses the Internet to threaten an individual or group should not be protected by the First Amendment.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Robert Duran, Lynne Kelly and James Keaten, “College Faculty Use and Perceptions of Electronic Mail to Communicate with Students,” Communication Quarterly, 53.2 (2005):  159-176.
Keywords: Faculty use of e-mail, Faculty-student communication.
Abstract: In spite of the potential of e-mail to enhance faculty–student interaction, there is a limited amount of actual research on instructional uses of e-mail, and even less research on e-mail exchange between faculty and students. The purpose of the present study was to examine faculty-initiated e-mail with students, their perceptions of students’ motives for using e-mail, and their views of the consequences of faculty–student e-mail. A survey was distributed to faculty at two institutions, a small private university and a mid-sized public university. Results revealed that faculty in general are receiving more than twice as many e-mail messages as they initiate and that female faculty report receiving more student e-mail than male faculty. Faculty motives for initiating e-mail appear to be utilitarian in nature such as to make course announcements. Faculty reported that students used e-mail to make appointments and to clarify and ask questions about course material but that a primary motive was to offer excuses such as for late work. In general, faculty perceive the use of e-mail as both beneficial and as a liability in the educational context. Finally, institutional differences were found for faculty perceptions of students’ motives for using e-mail and for the consequences of e-mail.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Dhavan V. Shah, Jaeho Cho, William P. Eveland, Jr. and Nojin Kwak, “Information and Expression in a Digital Age: Modeling Internet Effects on Civic Participation,” Communication Research, 32 (2005): 531-565.
This article examines the role of the Internet as a source of political information and a sphere for public expression. Informational media use, whether traditional news sources or online public affairs content, is expected to foster interpersonal political discussion and online civic messaging, contributing to increased civic participation. Using two-wave national panel survey data, three types of synchronous structural equation models are tested: cross sectional (relating individual differences), fixed effects (relating intraindividual change), and auto regressive (relating aggregate change). All models reveal that online media complement traditional media to foster political discussion and civic messaging. These two forms of political expression, in turn, influence civic participation. Other variable orderings are tested to compare the theorized model to alternative causal specifications. Results reveal that the model produces the best fit, empirically and theoretically, with the influence of the Internet, rivaling the mobilizing power of traditional modes of information and expression.
Keywords: civic engagement; computer-mediated communication; interpersonal discussion; media effects; political participation; social capital
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Craig R. Scott and C. Erik Timmerman, “Relating Computer, Communication, and Computer-Mediated Communication Apprehensions to New Communication Technology Use in the Workplace,” Communication Research, 32 (2005): 683-725.
Keywords: computer anxiety; communication apprehension; computer-mediated communication; communication technology; organizational communication; new media; techno-stress; technology use. 
Abstract: This study explores three issues regarding the use of multiple workplace communication technologies: the relationships between distinct forms of apprehension (computer, communication and writing) and use, the relative contribution of computer-mediated communication (CMC) apprehension for predicting use, and changes in these relationships over time. A trend study, which consisted of the collection of data from two samples (N= 205) separated by a 5-year interval, suggests full or partial support for the hypotheses involving computer and communication apprehension. Although apprehension levels remain stable, usage frequency changed for several of the technologies examined—resulting in stronger relationships between apprehensions and those technologies for which use has changed the most in the past 5 years. Most notably, a new measure of CMC apprehension generally predicts communication technology use—especially text-based and conferencing tools—more strongly than do more traditional apprehension types.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jeroen Janz, “The Emotional Appeal of Violent Video Games for Adolescent Males,” Communication Theory, 15.3 (August 2005): 219–241.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article proposes a theoretical explanation for the popularity of violent video games among adolescent male gamers. The author uses theories about media and emotion as well as theories about emotion as a process to develop a model for the unfolding of emotion in violent video games. It is argued that violent video games provide a gratifying context for the experience of emotions. The fact that gamers are largely in control of the game implies that they can voluntarily select the emotional situations they confront. This freedom is attractive for adolescents who are in the midst of constructing an identity. For them, the violent game is a safe, private laboratory where they can experience different emotions, including those that are controversial in ordinary life. Gamers may deliberately select emotions that sustain dominant masculine identity (e.g., anger), as well as emotions that are at odds with dominant masculinity (e.g., fear).
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Bruce Bimber, Andrew Flanagin and Cynthia Stohl, “Reconceptualizing Collective Action in the Contemporary Media Environment,” Communication Theory, 15.4 (2005): 365–388.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Collective action theory, which is widely applied to explain human phenomena in which public goods are at stake, traditionally rests on at least two main tenets: that individuals confront discrete decisions about free riding and that formal organization is central to locating and contacting potential participants in collective action, motivating them, and coordinating their actions. Recent uses of technologies of information and communication for collective action appear in some instances to violate these two tenets. In order to explain these, we reconceptualize collective action as a phenomenon of boundary crossing between private and public domains. We show how a reconceptualized theory of collective action can better account for certain contemporary phenomena, and we situate traditional collective action theory as a special case of our expanded theory.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Social Interaction

Lynn Schofield Clark, Christof Demont-Heinrich and Scott Webber, “Parents, ICTs, and Children’s Prospects for Success: Interviews along the Digital ‘Access Rainbow’,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 22.5 (December 2005): 409-426.
Keywords: ICTs; Cyberspace; Digital Divide; Parents; Children; Internet.
Abstract: Interviews with 52 parents of varying income levels and positions on the digital ‘‘access rainbow’’ are used to explore how parents discuss the widespread belief that ICT (information and communication technologies) access affects their children’s prospects for success. While all parents agreed that ICT competence is important, differences emerged along socioeconomic lines regarding how parents conceptualized the computer/success relationship. While upper-income parents demonstrated greater ICT proficiency and access and assumed that their children needed ICT proficiency for success, parents in the lower-income groups saw the need for ICT proficiency as more context-dependent and adopted broader definitions of success. All parents expressed concerns about the negative attributes of ICTs as entertainment rather than educational media; for lower- and middle-income families; however, this objection justified limits on use or access among children.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Rasha A. Abdulla, “Taking the e-train: The Development of the Internet in Egypt,” Global Media and Communication, 1.2 (2005): 148-165.
Keywords: Arab world, democratization, development, Egypt, internet, internet
effects, internet use.
 Abstract: Like many other countries in the Arab world, Egypt is trying to harness the internet as a powerful new medium to bridge the digital divide. This article starts by tracing the development of broadcast media technologies in Egypt, arguing that Egypt has historically made use of its position as a leader of media content in the Arab world to enhance development and culture as well as to advance the government’s political agenda. The article pays special attention to the development of the internet in Egypt, examining such issues as online connectivity, content and its Arabization. It argues that as a major provider of media content in the Arab world, and particularly with a new technocrat government, Egypt has the potential to lead the way towards greater democratization of communication and strengthening of civil society in the region.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Margarita Maass and Jorge A. González, “Technology, Global Flows and Local
Memories: Media Generations in ‘Global’ Mexico,” Global Media and Communication, 1.2 ( 2005): 167-184.
Keywords: Globalization, media generations, media memory, Mexico, symbolic
Ecologies, technology as social vector.
Abstract: This article presents part of the findings of a wider empirical study focusing on memories of three generations in Mexico. The study investigated the relationships between the three generational groups, their access to, and reception of, different media technologies, and how these affected the construction of their media memories. The authors show how social class, gender and age, and different media technologies (such as radio, television and the internet) interact to form media memories of ‘global’ events. Access to, and familiarity with, these material support systems combined with the social distribution of specific kinds of cognitive dispositions are the key conditions for making sense of media messages. Contesting some assumptions about the “globality” of media messages and experiences, this article’s conclusions and findings provide empirical evidence of a more complex situation. The study found only a limited global effect on the lower social classes, who form the majority of the population; in contrast, it was the privileged social classes of peripheral countries who ‘behaved’ in a global way and expressed their memories as global.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Gado Alzouma, “Myths of Digital Technology in Africa: Leapfrogging Development?” Global Media and Communication, 1.3 (2005): 339–356.
Keywords: Access, Africa, democracy, ICTs, internet, WSIS.
Abstract: Many multi- and bilateral agencies have integrated the promotion of information and communication technologies in Africa into their programmes. Along with African NGOs, they strongly advocate the use of ICTs by government offices, private enterprises, schools and the public. In general, groups and actors involved in such efforts share a set of dispositions and worldviews which are highly “modernist” and technocentrist and characterized by a propensity to view and act in favor of exogenous ‘technological’ solutions to development problems. One of the main characteristics of this rhetoric is that it accords no importance to existing social conditions, assuming that equipping people with computers will suffice to leapfrog them into the technological world of economic opportunities. This article critically reviews the main ideas presented by the proponents of this position in Africa and shows why there is a need for a more cautious approach to the question, without rejecting the promises of ICTs.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Lisa McLaughlin and Victor Pickard, “What is Bottom-up about Global Internet Governance?” Global Media and Communication, 1.3 (2005): 357–373.
Keywords: Gender, global policy, Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), internet governance, neo-corporatism, neo-liberalism, Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG), World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS).
Abstract: This article maintains that the price for inclusion in the World Summit on the
Information Society – which finally has been achieved through the Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) – has been the erosion of an oppositional civil society within the summit itself. Specifically, it evaluates the development of the WGIG as a manifestation of global neo-corporatism. In doing so, the article addresses recurrent patterns within neo-corporatist policy concentration that is oriented toward satisfying neo-liberal economic imperatives. The objective of this article is to provide an analysis of processes by which the diversity of interest representation that was characteristic of the first phase of the WSIS has become condensed into one agenda item focused on internet governance.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Yu Yuan1, Janet Fulk, Michelle Shumate, Peter R. Monge, J. Alison Bryant and Matthew Matsaganis, “Individual Participation in Organizational Information Commons: The Impact of Team Level Social Influence and Technology-Specific Competence, Human Communication Research, 31.2 (April 2005): 212-240.
Abstract: This research extended earlier public goods research on individual incentives to use an organizational information commons that was based in Marwell and Oliver’s (1993) collective action model. A revised theoretical model that incorporated team-level social influence and technology-specific competence was proposed. The model was tested using online survey data from 150 individuals in 13 work groups across 5 organizations. The research demonstrated that perceived team member behavior and technology-specific competence were positively related to individual use of intranets, over and above the collective level influences modeled in earlier research. These findings supported a more “socialized” model of individuals’ motivations to participate in organizational information sharing via collective repositories and suggested that management could boost levels of intranet usage through group level social influence and technology-specific training.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Hee Sun Park, Hye Eun Lee and Jeong An Song, “‘I Am Sorry to Send You SPAM’: Cross-Cultural Differences in Use of Apologies in Email Advertising in Korea and the U.S.,” Human Communication Research, 31.3 (July 2005): 365-398. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. A series of studies investigating cultural differences in apology usage in unsolicited email advertising messages (i.e., SPAM) are reported. Study 1 documented that in comparison to American SPAM, a greater percentage of Korean SPAM included apologies. The next five studies (“Ns” = 516, 3132, 662, 524, 536) tested various explanations for cross-cultural differences in uses of, and responses to, apologies. Findings indicated that advertising messages containing apologies were not necessarily more effective than advertising messages without apologies. Koreans, however, considered advertising messages with apologies as more credible and normal and exhibited a greater tendency to model other people’s apology use than did Americans. Thus, the frequent presence of apologies in Korean unsolicited email advertising is likely to be based on Koreans’ modeling behavior (i.e., a greater tendency to follow social norms).
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Jeremy N. Bailenson, Andrew C. Beall, Jack Loomis, Jim Blascovich and Matthew Turk, “Transformed Social Interaction, Augmented Gaze, and Social Influence in Immersive Virtual Environments,” Human Communication Research, 31.4 (October 2005): 511–537.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Immersive collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) are simulations in which geographically separated individuals interact in a shared, three-dimensional, digital space using immersive virtual environment technology. Unlike videoconference technology, which transmits direct video streams, immersive CVEs accurately track movements of interactants and render them nearly simultaneously (i.e., in real time) onto avatars, three-dimensional digital representations of the interactants. Nonverbal behaviors of interactants can be rendered veridically or transformed strategically (i.e., rendered nonveridically). This research examined augmented gaze, a transformation in which a given interactant’s actual head movements are transformed by an algorithm that renders his or her gaze directly at multiple interactants simultaneously, such that each of the others perceives that the transformed interactant is gazing only at him or her. In the current study, a presenter read a persuasive passage to two listeners under various transformed gaze conditions, including augmented gaze. Results showed that women agreed with a persuasive message more during augmented gaze than other gaze conditions. Men recalled more verbal information from the passage than women. Implications for theories of social interaction and computer-mediated communication are discussed.
Method: Experience
Theory: Social Interaction

Dongyoung Sohn and Joonhyung Jee, “Network structures of commercial portal sites: Implications for web advertising planning,” International Journal of Advertising, 24.4 (2005): 425-440.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Existing standards for the audience measurement and vehicle valuation of a website depend heavily on the traffic information of separate web pages. As a result, the hyperlink structure of a website has not been properly examined. This study attempts to extend the scope of existing web advertising planning perspectives by redirecting attention to the relational characteristics of websites as advertising vehicles. With two measures developed from network analysis methods (network density and network centrality), the hyperlink structures of five popular portal/search engine sites are analyzed and compared. Based on the analysis, this study develops a typology for classifying web pages and discusses how the typology can be used to design effective web advertisements.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Hyperlink Theory)

Zack Kertcher1 and Ainat N. Margalit, “Challenges to Authority, Burden of Legitimisation: The Printing Press and the Internet,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 10.3 (Autumn, 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The Internet is often regarded as a challenge to the nation-state’s ability to regulate flows of finance, information and symbols. Rather than examining whether it is possible to enforce regulation on such a media, this paper addresses two additional fundamental questions: (1) what do regulatory discourses and attempts to regulate reveal about the nation-state’s political authority under globalization, and (2) how does this authority vary across social, political and cultural contexts? In order to address these challenging queries we follow a unique path, both empirically and theoretically. Theoretically, we argue that political authority is a pivotal common denominator that undergirds diverse understandings of globalization. We then critically examine different conceptions of political authority and construct a typology that orients our study. Empirically, we follow our typology by comparing two historical phenomena: attempts by the Catholic Church to regulate the printing press during the 15th and 16th centuries, and attempts by China, Malaysia and the United States to regulate the Internet. Despite certain important commonalities, we posit that each of these cases illustrates a different model of the legitimization processes and transformations in political authority that occur under globalization.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Kenneth Katkin, “Communication Breakdown?: The Future of Global Connectivity after the Privatization of Intelsat,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 10.3 (Autumn, 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In 1971, 85 nations (including the United States) formed the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization “INTELSAT,” a public intergovernmental treaty organization. INTELSAT was charged with operating the world’s first global telecommunications satellite system, in order to guarantee the interconnectedness of the world’s communications systems and the availability of international telecommunications service to every nation on Earth. By the late 1980s, however, INTELSAT’s operations began to experience substantial competition from the private sector. In 2000, the proliferation of privately-owned telecommunications satellites and transoceanic fiber optic cables led the U.S. Congress to mandate the privatization of INTELSAT. That privatization process began in 2001, and was substantially completed on January 28, 2005, when INTELSAT’s former satellite system was sold to private investors for $5 billion dollars.  The privatization of INTELSAT has been said to threaten universal global connectivity and/or the continuation of international telecommunications service to developing countries. Are the legal safeguards instituted during the privatization (which include the maintenance of a residual treaty organization) sufficient to dispel such economic and political threats? Economically, the privatized satellite system is now legally obligated to serve developing countries at rates no higher than those charged prior to privatization. It likely will remain capable of honoring this legal commitment. Even if its business operations fail, however, this commitment would survive a bankruptcy. Politically, the privatized satellite system has been rendered subject to U.S. law, including U.S. international trade policies. Current U.S. law, however, strongly protects the satellite system’s ability to serve every country on Earth. Congress, of course, retains power to amend U.S. law. But certain political safeguards, including U.S. participation in the World Trade Organization, would interpose significant obstacles to any Congressional attempt to implement telecommunications sanctions as a means of advancing U.S. foreign policy. Accordingly, the privatization of INTELSAT is unlikely to undermine the universal global connectivity of the world’s communications systems. 
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Access

Robert Danay, “Copyright vs. Free Expression: The Case of Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing of Music in the United Kingdom,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 10.3 (Autumn, 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This paper explores the extent to which the peer-to-peer (p2p) file-sharing of music is a form of communication protected from the restrictions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (U.K.) (CDPA) by the guarantee of free expression enshrined in Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and incorporated into domestic law through the Human Rights Act 1998 (U.K.) (HRA). The paper first examines the protection offered to freedom of expression through the existing copyright scheme. It is asserted that due to a lack of context-sensitivity, mechanisms such as the idea-expression dichotomy must not be relied upon to deny the existence of prima facie breaches of Article 10(1) of the ECHR. Rather, such breaches must be acknowledged and justified (if possible) as being “necessary in a democratic society” under Article 10(2) of the ECHR. Next, the extent to which p2p music file-sharing represents an infringement under the terms of the CDPA (exclusive of any effect of the ECHR) is examined. It is concluded that such sharing does amount to an infringement under the Act and is not subject to any of the enumerated defenses. The final part of the paper explores the extent to which the statutory restriction on file-sharing of music may be permitted under Article 10 of the ECHR. It is suggested that, for a number of reasons, the CDPA’s restriction on free expression may not be “necessary in a democratic society” under Article 10(2) of the ECHR. As a result, should this statutory restriction be impugned in a U.K. courtroom in the context of p2p music file-sharing, such a court may be under an obligation to exculpate infringing parties under the “public interest” defense or to make a declaration of incompatibility under the HRA.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Simone Francesco Bonetti,” European Union Legislation and Free Contracts for Internet Access in the United States and Italy: Towards a Consumer Rights Framework,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 10.3 (Autumn, 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This paper seeks to add to the debate regarding the high level of privacy and consumer protection provided by European Union legislation, as compared to the United States. The first part of the paper provides an overview of the highly complex system of consumer protections by linking several regulatory initiatives in the wake of the European Parliament and Council Directive 00/31/EC. The result is a new legal framework for e-consumer protection that includes privacy protection. In the second part of the paper, the different free Internet access contract models in the U.S. and Italy are examined in order to test the implementation of the above-mentioned legislation from a European Community point of view. The analysis highlights the importance of a legal framework that seems capable of establishing the correct balance between the rights and duties of the e-consumer. At present, however, such a balance is not achieved by common U.S. and Italian free Internet access contracts.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Access

Christoph Engel, “Governing the Egalitarian Core of the Internet,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 10.3 (Autumn, 2005).
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: Few would claim that regulators, or academics working on regulatory policy, have neglected the Internet. However, most of their work is attracted by the global character of the Internet. Admittedly, this is a serious challenge to regulation, but it is not the only, and probably not even the most disquieting one. In the regulatory discourse, short shrift is given to the fact that the Internet originated in the egalitarian culture of American university computer labs. Its architecture was shaped during that period. Up to the present day, many key functions for Internet management are held by people coming from that culture. This paper argues that the egalitarian challenge to Internet governance has been largely overlooked. The challenge is serious, but not unmanageable. Nevertheless, regulators must use appropriate concepts to understand the challenge. A subfield of sociology, cultural theory, is particularly instrumental for that purpose. In order to address the challenge, regulators must use a set of governance tools that deviates considerably from standard regulatory responses.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Dan L. Burk, “Law as a Network Standard,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 10.3 (Autumn, 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract 
The problem of global information flows via computer networks can be conceived and understood as raising issues of competition, interoperability and standard-setting parallel to those in analysis of technical standards. Uniform standards, whether technical or legal, give rise to a constellation of positive and negative network effects. As a global network based upon the “end to end” principle of interoperability, the Internet mediates between different, otherwise incompatible computing platforms. To the extent that law and technological “code” may act as substitutes in shaping human behavior, the Internet similarly mediates between different, otherwise incompatible legal platforms. Much of the legal and social controversy surrounding the Internet stems from the interconnection of such incompatible legal systems. As with technical systems, problems of incompatibility may be addressed by the adoption of uniform legal standards. This, however, raises legal standard-setting problems similar to those seen in technical standard setting, where the standard may be “tipped” in favor of dominant producers. In particular, if law is considered a social product, the benefits of interjurisdictional competition and diversity may be lost as a single uniform legal standard dominates the market for law. 
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Nicos L. Tsilas, “The Threat to Innovation, Interoperability, and Government Procurement Options From Recently Proposed Definitions of ‘Open Standards’,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 10.3 (Autumn, 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: As the information technology (IT) marketplace becomes more competitive and heterogeneous in nature, the need for interoperability among diverse systems and components increases dramatically.2 Whereas 20 years ago, individuals and corporations customarily bought all of their IT equipment and services from one of the major vendors such as Digital, HP, IBM, or NCR, today they purchase and deploy multi-vendor networks of interoperable hardware and software. Today IT vendors accomplish interoperability in several often complementary and overlapping ways, including specifically designing interoperable products, publication of technology and licensing of related intellectual property (IP), and implementation of industry standards, including open standards such as TCP/IP, GSM, HTML, 802.11, and XML.3
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Lyombe Eko and Natasha Tolstikova, ” To Sign or not to Sign on the Dotted Line: The United States, the Russian Federation, and International Electronic Signature Policy,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 10.3 (Autumn, 2005). 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article compares the regulation of electronic signatures (e-signatures) in the United States and the Russian Federation as unique forms of communication that are the subject of international policy transfer through the framework of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). The aim was to determine the extent to which American and Russian legislation on e-signatures adhere to, or incorporates e-signature principles set forth in, the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures. It was found that the U.S. has embraced UNCITRAL e-signature principles and actively promotes their globalization. In contrast, the Russian Federation adopted a posture that is at variance with UNCITRAL’s globalist principles, opting for a closed, home–grown e-signature system. The e-signature policies of the U.S. and the Russian Federation are consistent with each country’s historical, political, and economic realities. Thus, even in an age of globalization, nation states succeed in putting their national imprint on the Internet in general, and on e-commerce in particular. 
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Luiz Antonio Joia and Paulo Sergio Sanz, “The Hidden Value of Sporadic Customers in e-Retailing: An Empirical Investigation,” Internet Research, 15.1 (2005): 7-20.
Keywords: Electronic commerce, Internet, Shopping, Customer retention, Buying behaviour, Profit maximization.
Abstract: Purpose – To analyze empirically the transaction profitability derived from sporadic and frequent customers in the e-retailing sector of minor home appliances in Brazil.
Design/methodology/approach – A company’s database was analyzed quantitatively to assess the transaction profitability derived from sporadic and frequent customers purchasing via the firm’s digital channel, namely its web site. Besides, qualitative evidence was also collected from interviews with the main professionals involved in marketing and e-commerce in the firm and through analysis of the company’s web site and e-mail communications with customers.
Findings – The commercial transaction profitability associated with sporadic customers can be higher than that derived from frequent purchasers.
Research limitations/implications – The study concentrated on a single company within a specific industry (minor home appliance e-retailing) based in a specific country, namely Brazil.
Practical implications – The benefits of web consumer retention would only seem to be advantageous for digital companies that are client-centric, which can interact with these consumers. Furthermore, the mere fact of using transactional practices, low differentiation between products and the emphasis on promotion of price on the web would seem to increase sensitivity to price on the part of the consumers, particularly those who make purchases more frequently.
Originality/value – To enable practitioners and academics to grasp fully the real value of frequent and sporadic clients, in order to allow digital companies to develop coherent strategies for them.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Social Interaction

Manuel J. Sanchez-Franco and Jose´ L. Roldan, “Web Acceptance and Usage Model: A Comparison Between Goal-directed and Experiential Web Users,” Internet Research, 15.1 (2005): 21-48.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Online operations, Consumer behaviour, Individual behaviour, User studies, User interfaces.
Abstract: Purpose – To analyze the web acceptance and usage between goal-directed users and experiential users, incorporating intrinsic motives to improve the particular and explanatory TAM (technology acceptance model) value – traditionally related to extrinsic motives.
Design/methodology/approach – A survey instrument was used to gather data to test the relationships shown in the research model. Data were collected from a sample of online questionnaires filled out by subscribers located in three discussion-mailing lists – administered by RedIris – about different topics (e.g. experimental sciences, social sciences and humanities). A structural equation modeling (SEM), specifically partial least squares (PLS), is proposed to assess the relationships between the constructs together with the predictive power of the research model.
Findings – The empirical development suggests that there is scope for further extension of TAM to adapt to the web-based usage and its profitable consequences. The article may help to further the empirical research and to clarify and examine a web acceptance and usage model. In general, experiential and goal-directed behaviors moderate the key relationships in the model. Experiential and goal-directed users do not weigh extrinsic and intrinsic motives in the same way when on the web. Goal-directed users are more driven by instrumental factors and focused on their decision-making process while experiential users are more motivated by process..
Research limitations/implications – First, constructs of enjoyment and concentration are used to define flow. However, because of the flow definition’s conceptual-vagueness, operationalizing the flow construct has been questioned in the previous empirical works. Second, the cross-sectional study is also an important limitation. Since the users’ perception and intention can change over time, it is important to measure these quantities at several points of time. Third, the sample sizes are relatively small. Fourth, the model needs to be tested with more objective measures to compare possible divergences. Finally, the model clearly does not include all the relevant variables. Practical implications – The results could be used to explain and to improve the experiential and goal-directed users’ experience of being and to return to the web.
Originality/value – The value of this study is to reveal the moderating influences of browsing-modes on relationship between flow and TAM-beliefs on the web, and, also, how the flow impacts the attitude and intention to use web between experiential and goal-directed users.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Bernard J. Jansen, Karen J. Jansen and Amanda Spink, “Using the Web to Look for Work: Implications for Online Job Seeking and Recruiting,” Internet Research, 15.1 (2005): 49-66
Keywords: Jobs, Internet, Search engines, Recruitment advertising.
Abstract: Purpose – The web is now a significant component of the recruitment and job search process.
However, very little is known about how companies and job seekers use the web, and the ultimate effectiveness of this process. The specific research questions guiding this study are: how do people search for job-related information on the web? How effective are these searches? And how likely are job seekers to find an appropriate job posting or application?
Design/methodology/approach – The data used to examine these questions come from job seekers submitting job-related queries to a major web search engine at three points in time over a five-year period.
Findings – Results indicate that individuals seeking job information generally submit only one query with several terms and over 45 percent of job-seeking queries contain a specific location reference. Of the documents retrieved, findings suggest that only 52 percent are relevant and only 40 percent of job-specific searches retrieve job postings.
Research limitations/implications – This study provides an important contribution to web research and online recruiting literature. The data come from actual web searches, providing a realistic glimpse into how job seekers are actually using the web.
Practical implications – The results of this research can assist organizations in seeking to use the web as part of their recruiting efforts, in designing corporate recruiting web sites, and in developing web systems to support job seeking and recruiting.
Originality/value – This research is one of the first studies to investigate job searching on the web using longitudinal real world data.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jürgen Kai-Uwe Brock and Yu (Josephine) Zhou, “Scale Development and Validation,” Internet Research, 15.1 (2005): 67-87
Keywords: Internet, Organizational analysis, Organizational processes, International business.
Abstract: Purpose – To contribute to the development of a theoretically grounded measure of organizational internet use (OIU) by conceptualizing and operationalizing it as a theoretical construct, and by empirically assessing its reliability and validity.
Design/methodology/approach – The focal construct OIU was conceptualized as an abstract collective object with three components, forming an index with formative, causal indicators. A multi-method research design – including a cross-sectional drop-and-collect survey among small technology-based firms (STBFs) in Germany and an observational study of web sites – was applied to assess empirically the theoretically developed construct OIU. This was achieved by using the component-based partial least squares (PLS) structural modeling technique using PLS-Graph.
Findings – The empirical assessment of the scale, applied to the international business domain, proved to be reliable and valid in the structural model and across assessment methods. 
Research limitations/implications – The focal construct was assessed among a very specific population. This limits the claims that can be made with regard to applying it in other industries, countries, and firms. Future research should address this by applying OIU in maximally different research contexts.
Practical implications – The developed construct has important implications for both managers and researchers. It should help in assessing levels of organizational internet use in a consistent fashion across populations and studies. It can be used for benchmarking purposes – of specific interest to managers – and it can be used to explore antecedents and consequences of organizational internet use – of specific interest to researchers.
Originality/value – Internet research is moving from anecdotal and exuberant internet euphoria to internet pessimism to internet realism. Only theoretically grounded, reliable and valid measures can support such a required transition. With this paper we have made an initial contribution for such a development to occur.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Sangkyun Kim and Choon Seong Leem, “Security of the Internet-based
Instant Messenger: Risks and Safeguards,” Internet Research, 15.1 (2005): 88-98.
Keywords: Internet, Computer software, Safety.
Abstract: Purpose – To identify controls that can harness the power and capabilities of instant messengers (IM) while minimizing potential security risks.
Design/methodology/approach – A risk analysis method and (CIS) model are used. Findings – IMis a great tool for enterprise productivity. However, it has so many risks, but one could identify and control these risks with technical and managerial countermeasures.
Research limitations/implications – This paper fails to provide detailed and specific risks of commercial IMs, and the case study provided in this paper focuses on the technical rather than managerial issues.
Practical implications – A very helpful case study that provides general risks and controls of recent IMs for the security officers of various organizations.
Originality/value – This paper outlined the risks of IM and potential controls for securing public IM in the workplace.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Policy

Je Ho Cheong and Myeong-Cheol Park, “Mobile Internet Acceptance in Korea,” Internet Research, 15.2 (2005): 125-140.
Keywords: Internet, Mobile communication systems, Individual behavior, South Korea.
Abstract: Purpose – The increasing number of M-internet subscribers and the fast growing revenue proves the great potential of M-internet as well as the enormous business opportunity in Korea. The success in this business is dependent on understanding the concerns of customers and identifying the factors that promote the use of M-internet. Thus, this paper aims to examine the human motivations underlying individual behavioral intention to use M-internet in Korea.
Design/methodology/approach – Employs TAM (technology acceptance model) as the base model and develops a more comprehensive version of TAM to better reflect M-internet context. The model employs perceived playfulness, contents quality, system quality, internet experience and perceived price level, in addition to perceived usefulness and ease of use. Investigates the causal relationships among the constructs used in this revised TAM and identifies the direct and indirect causal role of the constructs in developing the intention to use M-internet.
Findings – Finds that attitude toward M-internet is the most significant factor in predicting the behavioral intention to use M-internet. Also identifies the positive role of the perceived playfulness and the negative role of perceived price level in developing the attitude as well as the intention. The positive causal relationships of “perceived contents quality – perceived usefulness”, “perceived system quality– perceived usefulness” and “internet experience–perceived ease of use” were also witnessed.
Practical implications – Considering the explosive growth of the M-internet market, well-established business strategy in M-internet will deliver great success to the mobile operators. Thus, understanding comprehensive causal relationship among the constructs used in this revised TAM would help managers to better implement the strategic ramifications in promoting M-internet.
Originality/value – Develops a more comprehensive version of TAM to better reflect M-internet context in Korea, adding five new constructs and identifies the role of the construct in promoting the use of M-internet.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

A. Gunasekaran and E.W.T. Ngai, “E-commerce in Hong Kong: an Empirical Perspective and Analysis,” Internet Research, 15.2 (2005): 141-159.
Keywords: Electronic commerce, Hong Kong.
Abstract
Purpose – The main objective of this study is to develop a framework for: identifying the reasons for using e-commerce; understanding the implications of e-commerce in companies; and implementing and applying e-commerce successfully for improved organizational competitiveness and success.
Design/methodology/approach – A structured questionnaire was designed, pre-tested, modified, and used to capture data on e-commerce in Hong Kong. Based on the feedback from the pilot-test, the questionnaire was modified and a final questionnaire was developed and mailed to companies in Hong Kong. In the survey, conducted with Hong Kong companies, the perceived benefits and perceived barriers of e-commerce implementation are discussed.
Findings – The conceptual model based on the analysis of literature and some reported case experiences is developed using the current issues that have been highlighted as important e-commerce success factors of implementation. The major factors that influence the application and implementation of e-commerce are: perceived usefulness of web; perceived barriers of the internet for e-commerce; usage of the internet; and perceived benefits of the internet for e-commerce. In addition to this, country-specific factors such as culture, technology competency, government policy, educational level, influence the level of application of e-commerce.
Practical implications – The framework is the result of the validation of the theoretical model, together with the conclusions of the empirical analysis conducted in Hong Kong. The empirical analysis supported some of the assumptions of the theoretical model, but not others.  Based on the feedback received from respondents, the model has been revised to reflect these practical considerations.
Originality/value – Little research has been done to address the perceived benefits and potential barriers to e-commerce implementation in Hong Kong. This study is a timely and important one in that examines the current status of e-commerce implementation in Hong Kong. A generic framework is presented with the objective of supporting the application and implementation of the internet for e-commerce.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Shintaro Okazaki, “Mobile Advertising Adoption by Multinationals: Senior Executives’ Initial Responses,” Internet Research, 15.2 (2005): 160-180.
Keywords: Advertising, Internet, Mobile communication systems, Telephony, Multinational-companies, Spain.
Abstract: Purpose – Although the wireless internet attracts more and more interest from marketers and researchers, there is little empirical evidence of multinational corporations’ (MNCs) adoption of push-type mobile advertising in global markets. The aim of this study is to fill this research gap, by conducting an empirical survey of the perceptions of MNCs operating in Europe regarding SMS-based mobile advertising adoption.
Design/methodology/approach – The study proposes six basic constructs which are thought to influence MNCs’ decision-making process on mobile advertising adoption. On this base, a structured questionnaire is developed. The data are obtained by telephone interviews from 53 senior executives of MNCs’ subsidiaries in Spain.
Findings – Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that branding strategy, facilitating conditions, and security and costs are the strongest determinants of MNCs’ mobile advertising adoption. Furthermore, discriminant analysis indicates that Japanese, American and European firms are statistically classifiable according to their cultural affiliation in terms of their perceptions of mobile advertising adoption. Japanese firms are the least willing to use mobile advertising, while their American counterparts are the most motivated in this regard.
Originality/value – While SMS-based mobile marketing has been receiving an increasing attention from both academics and practitioners, there exists little empirical research on this area. In this vein, this study contributes to the literature in two ways. First, the study proposes a conceptual research model based on six basic constructs, which incorporate both theoretical and practical perspectives. Second, the model is tested by empirical data obtained from top managers of MNCs’ subsidiaries operating in a European market. The findings of this study thus offer useful insights based on their “hands-on” experience.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Teemu Ylikoski, “A Sequence Analysis of Consumers’ Online Searches,” Internet Research, 15.2 (2005): 181-194.
Keywords: Internet shopping, Internet, Consumer behavior.
Abstract: Purpose – To describe consumers’ heuristic and analytical searches for a pre-purchase information acquisition, and to assess the correspondence of flexibility of information task and the information found with a search. 
Design/methodology/approach – Propositions based on current research in web use and consumer studies. Tracked records of searches are used for descriptive analysis of transitional patterns in the data. Regression is used for statistical verification of the information provided by searches.
Findings – Consumer searches center on chaining events, indicating heavy reliance on hyperlink navigation between web sites. Formal searches are seldom used, although when employed, tend to have a high level of diagnosticity. The emphasis on heuristic behavior is logical, because the way consumer information is currently presented on the Internet rewards for this type of behavior. Use of heuristic search increases the likelihood of access to flexibly presented information.
Research limitations/implications – Consumers favor heuristic trial-and-error searches even in focused fact-finding search tasks, which are typically considered the domain of analytical seeking.
Consumers seem to benefit most from apparently inefficient, reactive and heuristic searches, because these are more likely to provide information in a format that the consumer can adapt. Convenience sample limits generalizability of findings.
Originality/value – While there is an increasing body of knowledge concerning Internet use for finding information, fewer studies have focused on consumer uses of the web in search. This paper provides new information of online consumers, an increasingly important topic.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Other (Search Theory)

Gerard Ryan and Mireia Valverde, “Waiting for Service on the Internet: Defining the Phenomenon and Identifying the Situations,” Internet Research, 15.2 (2005): 220-240.
Keywords: Consumer behavior, Internet, Qualitative research.
Abstract: Purpose – E-consumers consistently complain that the Internet is frustratingly slow. Most existing research on this phenomenon is based on the concept of “download delay”, that is, the time required for a web page to fully download to the e-consumer’s computer screen. This paper reports on an exploratory study of the phenomenon of waiting for service on the internet with the intention of extending the narrow conceptualisation of the phenomenon of “download delay” to a more user-based perspective of waiting on the internet.
Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on a qualitative research methodology. The research methods are seven asynchronous virtual focus groups involving 126 intensive internet users over 17 days and 92 participants who maintained personal diaries of waiting on the internet over a nine-week period.
Findings – A new definition of waiting on the internet is proposed based on extensive virtual focus group research. Subsequently, 14 distinct types of Internet waiting situations are identified based on the analysis of a total of 1,041 waiting situations as reported by the participants in the study.
Practical implications – A number of practical implications for various functional areas of the business are outlined. Conceptual and methodological contributions are also made.
Originality/value – The study is the first to present a broader conceptualization of waiting on the Internet from an e-consumer perspective and based on empirical research. All previous research has been based on just one type of online waiting, i.e. waiting for web pages to download to the user’s screen. This paper presents 13 “new” types of waiting situations on the Internet.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Ying-Chieh Chen, Patrick S. Chen, Jing-Jang Hwang, Larry Korba, Ronggong Song and George Yee, “An Analysis of Online Gaming Crime Characteristics,” Internet Research, 15.3 (2005): 246-261.
Keywords: Video games, Internet, Crimes, Online operations, Taiwan 
Abstract: Purpose – To arouse the public awareness of online gaming-related crimes and other societal influences so that these problems can be solved through education, laws and appropriate technologies.
Design/methodology/approach – A total of 613 criminal cases of online gaming crimes that happened in Taiwan during 2002 was gathered and analyzed. They were analyzed for special features then focusing on the tendency for online gaming crime. Related prosecutions, offenders, victims, criminal methods and so on, were analyzed.
Findings – According to our analysis of online gaming characteristics in Taiwan, the majority of online gaming crime is theft (73.7 percent) and fraud (20.2 percent). The crime scene is mainly in internet cafe´s (54.8 percent). Most crimes are committed within the 12:00 to 14:00 time period (11.9 percent). Identity theft (43.4 percent) and social engineering (43.9 percent) are the major criminal means. The offenders (95.8 percent) and victims (87.8 percent) are mainly male and offenders always proceed alone (88.3 percent). The age of offenders is quite low (63.3 percent in the age range of 15-20), and 8.3 percent of offenders are under 15 years old. The offenders are mostly students (46.7 percent) and the unemployed (24 percent), most of them (81.9 percent) not having criminal records. The type of game giving rise to most of the criminal cases is Lineage Online (93.3 percent). The average value of the online gaming loss is about US$459 and 34.3 percent of criminal loss is between $100 and $300.
Research limitations/implications – These criminal cases were retrieved from Taiwan in 2002. Some criminal behavior may have been limited to a certain area or a certain period.
Practical implications – Provides a useful source of information and constructive advice for the public who will sense the seriousness and influence of online gaming crimes. Further, this topic may have implications on e-commence, e-services, or web-based activities beyond gaming.
Originality/value – Since there is little published research in this area, this paper provides the public with a good and original introduction to a topic of growing importance.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

C.M. Chewar, D. Scott McCrickard, and John M. Carroll, “Analyzing the Social Capital Value Chain in Community Network Interfaces,” Internet Research, 15.3 (2005): 262-280.
Keywords: Man machine interface, Design, Interface management.
Abstract: Purpose – This work aims to probe how interface designers concerned with human-computer interaction of community networks might use the theoretical constructs of social capital and activity awareness.
Design/methodology/approach – A design model for community network interfaces is introduced that reconciles various computer-mediated communication research contributions with support for typical community network scenarios of use. Using this model, an inspection is performed on existing community network implementations (available December 2002) and then the adequacy of the model for informing the design process is examined.
Findings – Based on the insight gained through this analysis, a generic prototype and new user evaluation method are introduced that allow survey of user reaction to community network design elements under differing conditions. It is shown how results obtained through this method frame a value-chain understanding of conceptual tradeoffs.
Research limitations/implications – To demonstrate the new user evaluation method in an analysis of critical design tradeoffs, the issues of persistent virtual identity implementation and usage motivation are probed. However, the evaluation method must be validated with other issues and tested by researchers that were not part of its creation process.
Practical implications – Contributions from this paper include tools (a design model, a generic prototype, and an evaluation method) linking theory with community design artifacts, building on previous work. Evaluators now have indicators for assessing community informatics.
Originality/value – Interface designers of community networks and those interested in social capital theory will appreciate the link between practice and theory provided by this approach.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Other (Social Capital)

Stephanie Hackett and Bambang Parmanto, “A Longitudinal Evaluation of Accessibility: Higher Education Web Sites,” Internet Research, 15.3 (2005): 281-294.
Keywords: Higher education, Educational policy, Internet, Disabled people.
Abstract: Purpose – Using Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine, higher education web sites were retrospectively analyzed to study the effects that technological advances in web design have had on accessibility for persons with disabilities.
Design/methodology/approach – A convenience sample of higher education web sites was studied for years 1997-2002. The homepage and pages 1-level down were evaluated. Web accessibility barrier (WAB) and complexity scores were calculated. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine trends in the data and Pearson’s correlation (r) was computed to evaluate the relationship between accessibility and complexity.
Findings – Higher education web sites become progressively inaccessible as complexity increases.
Research limitations/implications – The WAB score is a proxy of web accessibility. While the WAB score can give an indication of the accessibility of a web site, it cannot differentiate between barriers posing minimal limitations and those posing absolute inaccessibility. A future study is planned to have users with disabilities examine web sites with differing WAB scores to correlate how well the WAB score is gauging accessibility of web sites from the perspective of the user.
Practical implications – Findings from studies such as this can lead to improved guidelines, policies, and overall awareness of web accessibility for persons with disabilities.
Originality/value – There are limited studies that have taken a longitudinal look at the accessibility of web sites and explored the reasons for the trend of decreasing accessibility.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Access

Bussakorn Jaruwachirathanakul and Dieter Fink, “Internet Banking Adoption Strategies for a Developing Country: the Case of Thailand,” Internet Research, 15.3 (2005): 296-311.
Keywords: Banking, Thailand, Internet, Developing countries, Consumer behavior.
Abstract: Purpose – The objective of the paper is to identify the factors that encourage consumers to adopt internet banking services in Thailand and to use the study’s findings to develop strategies for banks on how to maximize the rate of adoption.
Design/methodology/approach – Quantitative research with a sample size of 600 achieved by sending questionnaires to 15 people in each of 40 large companies in Bangkok. The study is based on the Decomposed Planned Behavior.
Findings – The attitudinal factors that appear to encourage the adoption of Internet banking in Thailand most are “Features of the web site” and “Perceived usefulness”, while the most significant impediment to adoption is a perceived behavioural control, namely “External environment”. The significant moderating factors are gender, educational level, income, internet experience and internet banking experience, but not age.
Research limitations/implications – In this study, encouragement factors are those that are able to be controlled by banks, while impediment factors are those that are not able to be controlled.
Practical implications – It is essential for banks to facilitate encouragement and restrict impediment factors. In addition to the direct “push” from internet banks (in respect of the encouragement factors), indirect persuasion should be carried out as a “pull” mechanism (in respect of the impediment factors).
Originality/value – The study identified a number of specific strategies that Thai banks could follow to maximize the adoption of Internet banking.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Kim Ramus and Niels Asger Nielsen, “Online Grocery Retailing: What Do Consumers Think?” Internet Research, 15.3 (2005): 335-362.
Keywords: Consumer behavior, Electronic commerce, Marketing theory.
Abstract: Purpose – To use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework to explore in depth the range of beliefs held by consumers about internet shopping in general and internet grocery shopping in particular.
Design/methodology/approach – Seven focus group interviews, four in the United Kingdom and three in Denmark, were conducted among consumers with different degrees of experience with internet grocery shopping. This diversification of respondents was chosen to capture a broad range of the consumer beliefs that predict intentions to buy groceries online or not. The TPB framework was used to construct the interview guide that was followed in all focus groups.
Findings – An unexpected result of the explorative study was that the seven groups consisting of more or less experienced Internet shoppers differed only little in their pool of beliefs (outcome and control beliefs). Beliefs about Internet grocery shopping, positive as well as negative, were remarkably congruent across groups. In the minds of consumers, internet grocery shopping is an advantage compared with conventional grocery shopping in terms of convenience, product range and price. Disadvantages, which could act as mental barriers, are, for instance, the risk of receiving inferior quality groceries and the loss of the recreational aspect of grocery shopping.
Research limitations/implications – An important potential limitation of this research is the choice of focus groups as research methodology, which can prevent the elicitation of certain types of beliefs. If important beliefs concern issues of a more sensitive, personal character they are not likely to be mentioned in a focus group. Another limitation is the explorative nature of the research, which makes it impossible to attach weights to the importance of the elicited beliefs in predicting internet shopping behavior.
Practical implications – The findings could be used to direct attention to consumer beliefs about internet grocery shopping which have the potential of acting as barriers to this line of e-commerce.
Originality/value – To shed some light on the role of consumers in an underperforming and understudied branch of internet retailing. Barriers in the consumers’ minds to shop for groceries online are identified using an established theoretical framework.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Other (Planned Behavior Theory)

Kenneth C.C. Yang, “Consumers’ Attitudes Toward Regulation of Internet Auction Sites: A Third-person Effect Perspective,” Internet Research, 15.4 (2005): 359-377.
Keywords: Internet, Auctions, Regulation, Surveys
Abstract
Purpose – The purposes of this study are to examine Internet users’ perception of potential harm among a list of products available on internet auction sites, to discuss the influence of the third-person effect on internet users’ pro-regulatory attitudes, and to investigate the effects of users’ characteristics and perceived harm on their attitudes toward regulation of online auction industry.
Design/methodology/approach – An online questionnaire survey was designed and employed to collect information about internet users’ third-person effect perception, pro-regulatory attitudes toward internet auction sites, and control variables such as demographics, internet usage, and innovative characteristics. A convenience sample of 592 internet users was recruited to take part in this study.
Findings – Internet users’ perceptual differences are statistically significant between the estimated influence on self, teenagers, and other adults for each product. Perceived harm to self consistently predicts Internet users’ pro-regulatory attitudes, but not for teenagers and other adults. Perceived harm to self also predicts pro-regulatory attitudes toward these web sites, even after controlling for potential confounding variables.
Research limitations/implications – The study is limited by its convenient sampling method and measurement of internet users’ actual and intended behavior. Nevertheless, because internet users play a complex role of buyers, sellers, and possible victims on auction sites, it is important to examine perceptions and motivations underlying their support for regulating online auction industry.
Originality/value – The integrated approach of mass communication, electronic commerce activities, and public policy-making perspectives ensures that future regulatory proposal of online auction industry will be comprehensive.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Yuval Elovici, Chanan Glezer, and Bracha Shapira, “Enhancing Customer Privacy While Searching for Products and Services on the World Wide Web,” Internet Research, 15.4 (2005): 378-399.
Keywords: Internet, Privacy, Electronic commerce, Customer profiling.
Abstract: Purpose – To propose a model of a privacy-enhanced catalogue search system (PECSS) in an attempt to address privacy threats to consumers, who search for products and services on the world wide web.
Design/methodology/approach – The model extends an agent-based architecture for electronic catalogue mediation by supplementing it with a privacy enhancement mechanism. This mechanism introduces fake queries into the original stream of user queries, in an attempt to reduce the similarity between the actual interests of users (“internal user profile”) and the interests as observed by potential eavesdroppers on the web (“external user profile”). A prototype was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the model.
Findings – The evaluation of the model indicates that, by generating five fake queries per each original user query, the user’s profile is hidden most effectively from any potential eavesdropper. Future research is needed to identify the optimal glossary of fake queries for various clients. The model also should be tested against various attacks perpetrated against the mixed stream of original and fake queries (i.e. statistical clustering).
Research limitations/implications – The model’s feasibility was evaluated through a prototype. It was not empirically tested against various statistical methods used by intruders to reveal the original queries.
Practical implications – A useful architecture for electronic commerce providers, internet service providers (ISP) and individual clients who are concerned with their privacy and wish to minimize their dependencies on third-party security providers.
Originality/value – The contribution of the PECSS model stems from the fact that, as the internet gradually transforms into a non-free service, anonymous browsing cannot be employed any more to protect consumers’ privacy, and therefore other approaches should be explored. Moreover, unlike other approaches, our model does not rely on the honesty of any third mediators and proxies that are also exposed to the interests of the client. In addition, the proposed model is scalable as it is installed on the user’s computer.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Policy

Dimitrios Lekkas, Stefanos Gritzalis, and Lilian Mitrou, “Withdrawing a Declaration of Will: Towards a Framework for Digital Signature Revocation,” Internet Research, 15.1 (2005): 400-420.
Keywords: Data security, Digital signatures, Extensible Markup Language.
Abstract: Purpose – The objective of this paper is to investigate the legal and technical reasons why a declaration of will, denoted by a digital signature, can be cancelled and how this cancellation can be technically achieved.
Design/methodology/approach – Proposes a technical framework for establishing a signature revocation mechanism based on special data structures, the signature revocation tokens (SRT), and investigates the alternatives for disseminating the signature status information (SSI) to the relying parties.
Findings – A relying party has to take into consideration the possible existence of a signature revocation, in order to decide on the validity of a digital signature. A scheme based on a central public repository for the archival and distribution of signature revocation tokens exhibits significant advantages against other alternatives.
Originality/value – Identifies various intrinsic problems of the digital signature creation process that raise several questions on whether the signer performs a conscious and willful act, although he/she is held liable for this action. The law faces the eventual right of the signer to claim a revocation of a previously made declaration of will, especially in cases of an error, fraud or duress.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Lin-Chih Chen and Cheng-Jye Luh, “Web page prediction from meta-search results,” Internet Research, 15.4 (2005): 421-446.
Keywords: Search engines, Individual behaviour, Worldwide web, Information retrieval.
Abstract: Purpose – This study aims to present a new web page recommendation system that can help users to reduce navigational time on the internet.
Design/methodology/approach – The proposed design is based on the primacy effect of browsing behavior, that users prefer top ranking items in search results. This approach is intuitive and requires no training data at all.
Findings – A user study showed that users are more satisfied with the proposed search methods than with general search engines using hot Keywords. Moreover, two performance measures confirmed that the proposed search methods out-perform other meta-search and search engines.
Research limitations/implications – The research has limitations and future work is planned along several directions. First, the search methods implemented are primarily based on the keyword match between the contents of web pages and the user query items. Using the semantic web to recommend concepts and items relevant to the user query might be very helpful in finding the exact contents that users want, particularly when the users do not have enough knowledge about the domains in which they are searching. Second, offering a mechanism that groups search results to improve the way search results are segmented and displayed also assists users to locate the contents they need. Finally, more user feedback is needed to fine-tune the search parameters including a and b to improve the performance.
Practical implications – The proposed model can be used to improve the search performance of any search engine.
Originality/value – First, compared with the democratic voting procedure used by meta-search engines, search engine vector voting (SVV) enables a specific combination of search parameters, denoted as a and b, to be applied to a voted search engine, so that users can either narrow or expand their search results to meet their search preferences. Second, unlike page quality analysis, the hyperlink prediction (HLP) determines qualified pages by simply measuring their user behavior function (UBF) values, and thus takes less computing power. Finally, the advantages of HLP over statistical analysis are that it does not need training data, and it can target both multi-site and site-specific analysis.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Other (Search Theory)

Carlos Flavián, Miguel Guinalíu and Eduardo Torres, “The Influence of Corporate Image on Consumer Trust: A Comparative Analysis in Traditional Versus Internet Banking,” Internet Research, 15.4 (2005): 447-470.
Keywords: Corporate image, Trust, Financial services, Internet banking.
Abstract: Purpose – To analyze the relationship between corporate image and consumer trust in the context of financial services distribution.
Design/methodology/approach – This paper analyzes the causal relationship that exists between corporate image and consumer trust in the financial services distribution through traditional channels, as well as over the Internet. This paper also analyzes the moderating effect of relationship duration on the influence of the corporate image on trust. 
Findings – The results obtained show that in distribution through traditional channels no significant differences exist in the intensity of the effect of the image on trust in terms of the relationship duration. Nevertheless, significant differences in the financial services distribution over the internet have been observed. 
Practical implications – The significant influence that image exerts on consumer trust shows us that corporate image becomes a key tool for the management of trust in financial services distribution. 
Originality/value – Despite the importance that researchers have assigned to the variables of corporate image and trust, much of the work so far is in the initial phase of development. Thus, the majority of the works have been approached from a fundamentally theoretical perspective, or else the empirical testing has been carried out in an indirect way, based on factors that form part of the image or are related to it. Because of this, today there is no research that has empirically evaluated the role played by corporate image in the levels of trust of the consumer of financial services.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

M. Coetzee and J.H.P. Eloff, “Autonomous Trust for Web Services,” Internet Research, 15.5 (2005): 498-507.
Keywords: Internet, Services, Trust.
Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to show that information and evidence found in the XML-based environment of web services can allow web services providers to gain a sense of the trustworthiness of web services requestors over time.
Design/methodology/approach – A literature review on trust in web services environment is provided. Trust management models, and an existing trust specification for web services are discussed. Next, a conceptual framework for web services trust formation is presented.
Findings – The paper makes explicit types of information that can be used for trust formation. Web services providers are given the ability to trust requestors autonomously by making use of information that is published through web services standards, defined over and above a web services interface. The approach incorporates elements of social trust as it is concerned with more than cryptographic controls. It has mechanisms that allow a web services provider to manage trust autonomously, enabling different types of trust for different situations.
Research limitations/implications – A conceptual framework for trust formation has been defined that identifies a proposal for trust calculation. The paper does not address the implementation of the framework, and calculation of trust over information categories.
Practical implications – The paper identifies a practical approach to autonomous web services trust by making use of web services standards such as WS-Policy and WS Metadata Exchange.
Originality/value – This paper identifies a taxonomy of trust information that can be used to make explicit the requirements for web services trust.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Hanjun Ko, Chang-Hoan Cho and Marilyn S Roberts, “Internet Uses and Gratifications: A Structural Equation Model of Global Interactive Advertising,” Journal of Advertising, 34.2 (Summer 2005): 57-70.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study investigates the interactivity construct in terms of its antecedents i.e., motivations for using the Internet and consequences i.e., attitude toward the site, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. A structural equation model was developed for an empirical test, based on uses and gratification theory applied to the interactivity context. A sample of 385 college students in the United States and Korea participated in the experiment. The findings suggest that consumers who have high information motivations are more likely to engage in human-message interaction on a Web site, whereas social interaction motivations are more strongly related to human-human interaction. Both human-message and human-human interactions had a positive effect on attitude toward the site, which leads to positive attitude toward the brand and purchase intention
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Robert S Moore, Claire Allison Stammerjohan and Robin A Coulter, “Banner advertiser-web site context congruity and color effects on attention and attitudes,” Journal of Advertising, 34.2 (2005): 71-84.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: These experiments were conducted in an online environment, considering “the effects of the congruity between the product foci of the advertiser and the web site, as well as banner color and banner color-text contrast on measures of attention (i.e., recall and recognition) and attitudes toward the ad and the Web site.” The first experiment found incongruity to have a “more favorable effect on recall and recognition,” and congruity to have a “more favorable effect on attitudes.” There were some inconclusive findings about color schemes as well, and overall attitude toward the website was found to be “more positive for those who did not recall or recognize the ad.” Color was found to have a limited effect on the behaviors of the web users, and while some extreme manipulations of colors (such as red background and white letters) drew greater attention, the “color-contrast combinations did not differentially affect Web browsers’ attention levels.”
    Some important implications to take away from these experiments have to do with the locale of banner advertisements–specific sites they are located on and pertain to. Regarding my thesis, the authors stress the idea that sometime incongruence is needed to attract consumers’ initial attention, although the incongruence operates on a fine line. The environment in which these advertisements are placed are extremely relevant to its success. Another avenue is the effect that the banner advertisement can have on the host site. Can there be a symbiotic relationship that exists between the two? And in that case, can that maybe be a revenue source that the banner advertisement company can take advantage of? In these results, there is a hint that banner advertisement color may play a role, and the authors suggest that further research should take place in this area. Specifically,  eye tracking devices would be useful to see how different color schemes are attended to and viewed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Chang-Hoan Cho and Hongsik John Choon, “Cross-cultural Comparisons of Interactivity on Corporate Web Sites: U.S., U.K., Japan and Korea,” Journal of Advertising, 34.2 (Summer 2005): 99-115.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: In order to understand the role of corporate website in marketing communication mix, this study investigates information content and advertising communication appeals reflected in top U.S. and Chinese  companies relative to their different stages of e-commerce development and socio-cultural environments. The  results suggest that most U.S. corporate websites were based on the e-commerce model and featured  significantly more detailed product information. In contrast, most Chinese corporate websites followed the image building model, emphasizing general company information, including history, missions, and company’s  engagement with society. Additionally, U.S. websites emphasized more individualistic appeals whereas Chinese corporate websites presented more collectivistic appeals. Based on the results, the future development of e-commerce in China is also discussed. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Maria Sicilia, Salvador Ruiz and Jose L Munuera, “Effects of Interactivity in a Web Site: The Moderating Effect of Need for Cognition,” Journal of Advertising, 34.3 (Fall 2005): 31-45.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: This paper examines how consumers process the information available, and what their experiences are, when exposed to an interactive Web site as compared with a non-interactive Web site. The experiment developed analyzes two versions of a Web site in which the capacity to interact with the message has been manipulated. The results show that the interactive Web site leads to more information processing, higher favorability toward the product and the Web site, and greater flow state intensity. In addition, the findings confirm the hypothesized moderating effect of need for cognition on information processing. Implications for new media researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Henry Assael, “A Demographic and Psychographic Profile of Heavy Internet Users and Users by Type of Internet Usage,” Journal of Advertising Research, 34.1 (March 2005): 93-123.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: With the penetration rate of the web approaching 70 percent, profiles of general web usage are less important. Web marketers must begin to focus on the profile of heavy web users and users by type of web usage. This article develops a demographic and lifestyle profile of heavy web users (those using the web for 20 hours a week or more) based on a survey of over 5,000 respondents. It also identifies six key web usage categories—Web Generalists, Downloaders, Self-Improvers, Entertainment Seekers, Stock Traders, and Socializers—and develops a profile of each. This may be the first study providing a detailed demographic and lifestyle description of both heavy users and web usage types. The profiles should be useful to web marketers for selecting media and setting the tone of their marketing effort in targeting these groups.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis

Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Nigel Hollis, “Ten Years of Learning on How Online Advertising Builds Brands,” Journal of Advertising Research, 34.2 (June 2005): 255-268.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: Online advertising has been with us for over 10 years. During that time two different paradigms have characterized the way the effectiveness of online advertising has been assessed: brand building or direct response. In general the direct response paradigm has become the yardstick of online advertising success due to the universal measurement of click-through. This article proposes that the two paradigms are not contradictory but are in fact complementary and that the applicability of either model depends on the mindset of the audience as much as the intent of the advertisement. The article outlines a conceptual framework that integrates an established brand equity model with different stages of the purchase process and then uses existing learning, new research data, and case studies to illustrate the various ways in which online advertising can help build brands and increase the probability of purchase. The article concludes that click-through is primarily a consequence of the brand building effect combined with a willingness to learn more about the specific brand as a result of an immediate need for a product or service of that type.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Seounmi Youn, “Teenagers’ Perceptions of Online Privacy and Coping Behaviors: A Risk/Benefit Appraisal Approach,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49.1 (2005): 86-110.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: Applying Rogers’s (1975, 1983) protection motivation theory to the online privacy context, this study determined that risk and benefit appraisals explain teenagers’ willingness to provide information to a Web site, which, in turn, affected their risk-lowering behaviors. Survey data from 326 high school students revealed that a higher level of risk perception of information disclosure led to less willingness to provide information. In contrast, as teenagers perceived more benefits from information disclosure, they were more willing to provide information. Subsequently, as teenagers were less likely to give out their information, they tended to engage in several risk-reducing strategies such as falsifying information, providing incomplete information, or going to alternative Web sites that do not ask for personal information. Implications for public policies and self-regulations to protect teenagers’ online privacy were discussed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Ven-hwei Lo and Ran Wei, “Exposure to Internet Pornography and Taiwanese Adolescents’ Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 49.2 (June, 2005): 221-238.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: Soon after its commercialization in 1993, the Internet and the World Wide Web gained prominence in producing, disseminating, storing, and presenting pornographic materials known as cyberporn or cybersex. Content analyses (Heider and Harp, 2000; Mehta and Plaza, 1997; Rimm, 1985) have shown that pornographic materials posted and distributed on the Internet have been presented in an unprecedented and interactive dimension. Concerns over the excessive growth of Internet pornography have given rise to a moral panic (McMurdo, 1997). Evidence in the literature has established an association of exposure to pornographic materials with sexual arousal and cognitive effects, especially changes in attitudes (such as disinhibition) and values (such as sexual callousness). The conclusions of the impact on behavioral effect, however, are inconsistent. A large number of studies reported effects of use of pornography on aggression, but other studies (e.g., Donnerstein, Linz, and Penrod, 1987; Linz, Donnerstein, and Adams, 1989) have suggested that aggression accompanied materials containing sexual violence. Several meta-analytic analyses provided the most compelling evidence (Allen, D’Alessio, and Brezgel, 1995; Allen, Emmers, Gebhardt, and Giery, 1995) to support the proposition that consumption of either nonviolent or violent pornography may lead to some serious attitudinal and behavioral effects. Not surprisingly, policymakers, parents, and educators fear cyberporn will cause greater social harm than traditional pornography.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Silvia Knobloch-Westerwick, Nikhil Sharma, Derek L Hansen and Scott Alter, “Impact of Popularity Indications on Readers’ Selective Exposure to Online News,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49.3 (2005): 296-313.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: Selecting news online may differ from traditional news choices, as most formal importance indicators in traditional media do not convert directly to online news. However, online portals feature news recommendations based on collaborative filtering. To investigate how recommendations affect information choices, 93 participants browsed online news that featured explicit (average rating) or implicit (times viewed) recommendations or no recommendations (control group) while news exposure was logged. Participants picked more articles if the portal featured explicit recommendations, and stronger explicit recommendations instigated longer exposure to associated articles. Implicit recommendations produced a curvilinear effect with longer exposure for low and high numbers.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Zizi Papacharissi and Jan Fernback, “Online Privacy and Consumer Protection: An Analysis of Portal Privacy Statements,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49.3 (2005): 259-281. 
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: The advent of information technologies has raised public concern regarding privacy, as documented by the results of several surveys. Although extensive, online privacy statements seldom provide explicit reassurance that consumer information will be kept confidential and will not be exploited. This research examines these privacy statements to determine their overall utility. We evaluate the overall efficacy of privacy statements and focus on the language, format, privacy reassurances, complexity of legal and technical terms and perceived statement credibility. A content analysis of privacy statements reveals that privacy statements do not always protect customer interests as much as they serve as legal safeguards for the companies involved. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

David Tewksbury, “The seeds of audience fragmentation: specialization in the use of online news sites,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49.3 (2005): 332-348.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: Abstract: A number of recent appraisals of developing media technologies have emphasized the potential for the new media to fragment audiences (e.g., Chaffee and Metzger, 2001; Havick, 2000). This fragmentation is presumed to result from technologies that allow and even encourage people to narrow the focus of their media consumption to pursue their individualized interests and needs (Sunstein, 2001; Webster and Phalen, 1997; cf. Webster and Lin, 2002). As a result of a narrowed focus on specific content, people appear likely to ignore other messages. Katz (1996) has argued that such a process is problematic for the functioning of modern democracies. Fragmented audiences are unlikely to consume a common diet of news, potentially leaving them under-informed about central issues facing a nation. Individually tailored media use “seems to be fast displacing national comings-together, and pleasure seems to be pushing public affairs ever more out of sight” (Katz, 1996, p. 25). Such an environment threatens the very foundation of political systems based on assumptions of citizen awareness and involvement (Berelson, 1952; cf. Schudson, 1998).
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Chang-Hoan Cho and Hongsik John Cheon, “Children’s exposure to negative Internet content: effects of family context,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49.3 (2005): 488-509.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The Internet has become an indispensable element of life for most people in the contemporary world, and children are not excluded. Because of the ubiquitous availability of Internet access, in schools and libraries, children are increasingly becoming involved in this new technology (Steyer and Clinton, 2003). As of December 2003, 23 million children in the United States ages 6 to 17 have Internet access at home, which is a threefold increase since 2000 (MediaPost, 2003). According to a survey conducted by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting in July 2002, 78% of family households with children have Internet access at home. A survey by Yahoo and Carat showed that children ages 12 to 17 used the Internet an average of 16.7 hours per week in 2003 (Indian television, 2003). Given this extensive usage, the Internet has the potential to be a very powerful socialization agent (Huston, Watkins, and Kunkel, 1989).
Method: Survey – Content Analysis

Theory: Social Interaction

Melissa Wood Alemán, “Embracing and Resisting Romantic Fantasies as the Rhetorical Vision on a SeniorNet Discussion Board,” Journal of Communication, 55.1 (2005): 5-21.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: A fantasy theme analysis of a SeniorNet discussion board found participants simultaneously embracing and resisting the relationships constructed in traditional romance narratives. The rhetorical vision that emerged illustrates how life-span conditions facilitate talk about romantic relationships. Three fantasies coalesced to construct the rhetorical vision “good men are hard to find”: the knight in shining armor, searching for a bargain, and fishing for men. Through these fantasies, the rhetorical community resisted female subordination found in traditional romance narratives while embracing the need for love, partnership, and physical intimacy. As the heroines in these fantasies, women were constructed as independent, vital and fulfilled, yet wanting to find heterosexual partnerships. The heroes upheld this construction of “woman,” while the villains infringed upon females’ valued independence. In this way, narratives that evidenced the struggle over the meaning of romance were tools for the participants’ empowerment.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Bruce W. Hardy and Dietram A. Scheufele, “Examining Differential Gains From Internet Use: Comparing the Moderating Role of Talk and Online Interactions,” Journal of Communication, 55.1 (2005): 71-84. 
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: The idea that interpersonal discussion moderates the effect of public affairs mass media on participatory behavior has been empirically supported by recent research. However, these studies focus on face-to-face conversations as the only means by which citizens discuss political issues with others. This study takes the idea one step further and not only examines the effects of face-to-face interactions, but examines the effects of computer-mediated interactions and internet hard-news use on participatory behavior. We found that not only did internet hard-news use have a positive main effect on participatory behavior, but that this effect was moderated by both face-to-face interpersonal discussion and computer-mediated interactions such as chat. This study explores explanations for this phenomenon and implications for future research.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Byoungkwan Lee and Ron Tamborini, “Third-Person Effect and Internet Pornography: The Influence of Collectivism and Internet Self-Efficacy,” Journal of Communication, 55.2 (2005): 292-310.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Within the context of Internet pornography, a survey of both U.S. and South Korean college students (N = 232) examined the influence of individualism-collectivism and media self-efficacy on the third-person effect. Two findings emerged: First, this study demonstrates the third-person effect of the Internet for the first time within Western culture. Participants perceived that Internet pornography’s negative effect was greater on others than themselves, and this third-person perception predicted support for Internet censorship. Second, although prior research failed to support conjecture that culture shapes third-person perception, these data show culture as an important antecedent; collectivism diminished third-person perception and subsequent support for Internet pornography censorship. The impact of Internet self-efficacy was not substantial. The influence of collectivism on the third-person effect generally and public perceptions of Internet pornography in particular signals its import to scholars interested in social policy and social influence.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

J.B. Walther, G. Gay and J.T. Hancock, “How Do Communication and Technology Researchers Study the Internet?” Journal of Communication, 55:3 (2005): 632–657. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: As a partial review of the field of communication and technology, this essay revisits Newhagen and Rafaeli’s (1996) Journal of Communication article that asked why communication researchers should study the Internet. Research directions, findings and theories are discussed under the organization of the 5 important qualities of the Internet that Newhagen and Rafaeli identified: multimedia, hypertextuality, packet switching, synchronicity, and interactivity. The article concludes with an assessment of theory development in communication and technology research, issues facing theoretical growth, and an answer to the question of what this research might teach us.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Other (Hypertextuality Theory)

S.E. Caplan, “A Social Skill Account of Problematic Internet Use,” Journal of Communication, 55:4 (2005): 721–736.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract:
This study integrates research on social skill and self-presentation into the recently introduced cognitive-behavioral theory of generalized problematic Internet use. The model proposed and tested here predicted that individuals who lack self-presentational skill are especially likely to prefer online social interaction over face-to-face communication. Further, the model predicted that a preference for online social interaction fosters compulsive Internet use, which results in negative outcomes. Participants in this study completed measures of social skill, preference for online social interaction, compulsive Internet use and negative outcomes associated with Internet use. Structural equation modeling analysis techniques tested the proposed model. The analysis indicated a good fit between the hypothesized model and the current data.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Identity Theory)

Joseph B. Waither and Ulla Bunz, ” The Rules of Virtual Groups: Trust, Liking, and Performance in Computer-Mediated Communication,” Journal of Communication, 55.4 (2005): 828-846.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Research on virtual groups reflects concerns about the development of trust and liking and about the performance of partners who do not see each other or work proximally. Previous studies have explored behaviors leading to subjectively experienced trust and/or liking, or trusting behaviors associated with group output, but have not linked behaviors, subjective affect, and output quality. Deriving principles from the social information processing theory of Computer-mediated communication, this research identified and tested six communication rules for virtual groups. Employing a quasi-experimental procedure to maximize the variance in rule-following behavior, some distributed groups in a cross-university course were assigned to follow rules as part of their grades on group assignments conducted using computer-mediated communication from which messages were collected and later coded. Through self-reported measures of rule following and affect, results reveal correlations between each rule with trust and liking. Less consistent are the relationships between rule following, specific observed behaviors, and actual performance quality. Interpretations suggest that a powerful set of collaboration rules has been identified or that the mere following of any rules and norms reduces uncertainty and enhances trust in distributed work teams.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Lincoln Dahlberg, “The Corporate Colonization of Online Attention and the Marginalization of Critical Communication?” Journal of Communication Inquiry 29:2 (April 2005): 160-180.
Keywords: corporate colonization; critical communication; democracy; Internet; online attention; portal
Abstract: This article provides a general exploration of the argument that the Internet’s potential for extending strong democratic culture through critical communication is being undermined by a corporate colonization of cyberspace. The article investigates which sites are attracting the attention of participants seeking public content and interaction. The investigation finds that large corporate portals and commercial media sites are dominating online attention for news, information, and interaction, privileging consumer content and practices while marginalizing many voices and critical forms of participation. This situation threatens to limit the Internet’s contribution to the expansion of democratic culture. More research is needed to identify exactly what is being represented on which sites and how different groups are participating. However, the general colonization trend seems clear, and this article concludes by considering public policy options and civil society initiatives that may increase the visibility of marginalized voices and critical communication online.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Social Interaction

Brenda Chan, “Imagining the Homeland: The Internet and Diasporic Discourse of Nationalism,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 29:4 (October 2005): 336-368. 
Keywords: Internet; liminal spaces; Chinese migrants; national identity; nationalism 
Abstract: This article examines the identity discourses of Chinese migrants in cyberspace in the light of contemporary theorizing of Chinese national identities and Chinese nationalism. The study adopts a qualitative methodology, based on the textual analysis of postings on Internet forums frequented by migrants from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) who are currently studying and working in Singapore, and in-depth interviews with the forum participants. Findings show that the Internet opens up liminal spaces from which migrants can resist, challenge and speak against regimes of truth imposed on them by their homeland and the host society. Furthermore, the combination of text and image on the forums enable the migrants from the PRC to produce an online imaginary of China as a superpower and an empire, thus articulating a form of resistance against the perceived hegemony of the United States in the international system and the disciplining of the host state.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Robert N. Mayer, Jisu Huh and Brenda J. Cude, “Cues of Credibility and Price Performance of Life Insurance Comparison Web Sites,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 39.1 (Summer 2005): 71-94.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: An array of Web sites is available to help consumers find the best deals on products and services. While these sites have the potential to save time and money by directly comparing alternatives, consumers still have the task of assessing the credibility of these comparison sites. Experts recommend that consumers look for certain key disclosures or ‘‘cues’’ to assess a site’s credibility (e.g., a site’s identity, the currency and authoritativeness of its information, its sponsors and business relationships, and its privacy practices). Focusing on 32 life insurance comparison Web sites, this research found that these recommended cues are often not present on Web sites and, when they are, do not seem to predict a site’s ability to deliver the lowest-priced quotes for term life insurance policies.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Nora J. Rifon, Robert Larose and Sejung Marina Choi, “Your Privacy Is Sealed: Effects of Web Privacy Seals on Trust and Personal Disclosures,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 39.2 (Winter 2005): 339-362.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Online privacy is an issue of increasing national importance, and voluntary privacy seals provided by third-party organizations such as TRUSTe and BBBOnline have been proposed as a means of assuring consumer privacy. Few studies have examined privacy seal effects. This study presents results of an online experiment that evaluated consumer response to privacy seals in a naturalistic exposure setting. Findings suggest that privacy seals enhance trust in the Web site and expectations that the site would inform the user of its information practices. While concern for privacy-threatening information practices had no influence, privacy self-efficacy, confidence in ability to protect one’s privacy, moderated seal effects. Implications for the continued role of privacy seals are discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Policy

Dennis L. Duff, “Affiliate marketing and its impact on e-commerce,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22.2/3 (2005): 161-163.
Keywords: Internet marketing; Marketing strategy.
Abstract: Affiliate marketing has become a major strategic consideration for all companies participating in e-commerce. The concept has certain technological complexities that have been made simpler through the development of several network companies that facilitate the tracking and settlement of payments between various companies on the internet. The strategy represents the ultimate in genuine pay for performance marketing and, as a result, represents one of the most promising long-term marketing strategies for e-commerce. In this article we will explore the inner workings of affiliate marketing, we will define the affiliate marketing marketplace including some of the participants and we will explore the characteristics of a successful long-term relationship.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Social Interaction

Herbjørn Nysveen, Per E Pedersen and Helge Thorbjørnsen, “Explaining intention to use mobile chat services: moderating effects of gender,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22.4/5 (2005): 247-256.
Keywords: Mobile communication systems; User studies; Gender; Market segmentation.
Abstract: Purpose – In this article the authors aim to investigate the moderating effects of gender in explaining intention to use mobile chat services. 
Design/methodology/approach – An extended adoption model based on the technology acceptance model and theory of reasoned action is applied for pin-pointing the antecedents of intention to use mobile chat services and for revealing cross-gender differences. The hypotheses are tested on data from a survey of 684 users of mobile chat services. 
Findings – The study results suggest that social norms and intrinsic motives such as enjoyment are important determinants of intention to use among female users, whereas extrinsic motives such as usefulness and – somewhat surprisingly – expressiveness are key drivers among men.
Research limitations/implications – The findings put renewed focus on non-utilitarian motives and illuminate the role of gender in technology adoption.
Practical implications – The cross-gender differences observed give several guidelines for mobile service developers and marketers in how to accommodate female versus male users.
Originality/value – The paper provides important and new insights both into mobile services adoption and into gender as an important segmentation variable in marketing.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Dennis A Pitta and Danielle Fowler, “Internet community forums: an untapped resource for consumer marketers,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22.4/5 (2005): 265-274.
Keywords: Communications, Consumer marketing, Internet
Abstract:  Purpose – To explore an emerging area in internet practice that has implication for consumer marketers.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper integrates concepts including a range of recently published (1993-2004) theoretical works and ongoing case developments in internet practice.
Findings – Provides information and action approaches to consumer marketers that may increase the success, providing want-satisfying market offerings. Outlines the market research benefits of monitoring and participating in internet community forums and offers practical suggestions for maximizing their value in the marketing and marketing research. It also provides a series of tactics that consumer marketers may use to maximize the value of internet community forums for their firms.
Research limitations/implications – The theoretical concepts that form the foundation of the paper appear to have a significant application to consumer marketing, but have not been tested empirically.
Practical implications – Uncovers a previously unrecognized source of direct consumer input and cooperation in the design and valuation of new products and the identification of emerging consumer wants.
Originality/value – This paper describes the nature and application of internet community forums to an important marketing process. It offers the potential of increasing marketing success by clearly and accurately identifying the wants of specific market segments.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Calin Gurau, “Pharmaceutical marketing on the internet: marketing techniques and customer profile,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22.7 (2005): 421-439.
Keywords: Pharmaceuticals industry; Consumer psychology; Marketing strategy; Internet.
Abstract: Purpose – Attempts to investigate the perceived advantages and risks associated with online pharmaceutical transactions, and on this basis, to propose a specific segmentation of consumers.
Design/methodology/approach – Analyses the marketing procedures applied by pharmaceutical sites to emphasize the specific advantages and to minimize the perception of transactional risks, as well as the segmentation techniques applied online.
Findings – The results of the study indicate the existence of four main consumer categories. This schematic categorization needs further development, in order to define more precisely the decision taking process and the online shopping behaviour for each customer segment, as well as the level of post-purchase satisfaction. On the other hand, the paper demonstrated that the marketing approach of various online pharmacies is determined by the transactional model applied.
Originality/value – The empirical analysis presented in this paper should be complemented by future qualitative study, in order to facilitate a deeper understanding of the factors determining the growing success of online pharmacies.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Ann E. Schlosser, “Posting versus Lurking: Communicating in a Multiple Audience Context,” Journal of Consumer Research, 32 (September 2005): 260-265.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Two experiments examined public and private responding in a multiple-audience context—a context in which members have varying opinions. Study find  that posters (those communicating their experience to others) are influenced only by another’s negative opinion because it triggers such social concerns as appearing indiscriminate. Consequently, they adjust their public attitudes downward. Self-presentational concerns appear to cause this negativity bias: lurkers (those not posting their opinion) were less affected by another’s negative opinion. Furthermore, posters presented more than one side when publicly explaining their attitudes. These effects persisted despite posters’ favorable product experiences and commitment to these attitudes.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Barbara Phillips and Wei-Na Lee, “Interactive Animation: Exploring Spokes-Characters on the Internet,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 27.1 (Spring 2005): 1-17.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Study examines one type of animation that has strong positive effects in traditional media—the spokes-character—by asking: how are advertisers using spokes-characters on their Web sites and how should they be using them? A content analysis of corporate Web sites containing spokes-characters shows limited animation and opportunity for interactivity. An experiment that examines the impact of adding animation and sound to character Web sites suggests that animation can increase character liking, perceived entertainment, and Web site liking. A second experiment that examines the impact of adding opportunities for interactivity suggests that higher levels of interactivity increase perceived entertainment, social presence, and Web site liking.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Surendra N. Singh, Nikunj Dalal, Sanjay Mishra and Vivek H. Patil, “A Communications View of Web Page Perception,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 27.1 (Spring 2005): 30-52.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This paper develops a model to measure people’s perception of web pages based on the premise that the World Wide Web is a persuasive technology intentionally designed to change a person’s attitudes and behaviors. The model, derived from the persuasion literature, particularly appraisal theory and the affect-as-information model, assumes that feelings induced by a web page directly influence its evaluations and the behavioral intentions (BI) of users. The model also postulates that the attitude toward the web page (Awp) will mediate the effects of feelings and evaluations on BI. In two studies, it is demonstrated that this model and measures based on it provide a psychometrically valid system of eliciting user reactions to web pages. The implications of this model and a number of future research issues are discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Appraisal Theory)

Debbie D. DuFrene, Brian T. Engelland, Carol M. Lehman and Rodney A. Pearson,
“Changes in Consumer Attitudes Resulting from Participation in a Permission E-mail Campaign,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 27.1 (Spring 2005): 65-77.
Keywords: N.A.
Abstract: As permission (opt-in) e-mail is used increasingly for marketing products and services, traditional ideas about persuasive communication should be reexamined in light of the interactivity offered by e-mail marketing campaigns. This exploratory study utilized a longitudinal analysis to assess changes in prospects’ attitudes as a result of participation in a company’s permission e-mail marketing campaign. The sample of college students at two universities experienced statistically significant improvement in their attitude toward the brand and company, in their feelings of trust, and in their intention to purchase after receiving only three e-mail communications. Implications are drawn for development of permission marketing communications that build trust and ongoing relationships with customers.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Hong-Youl Ha, “The Relationships between 3-D Advertisings and Risk
Perceptions on the Web: The Role of Brand and Emotion,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 27.2 (Fall 2005) 55-66.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: 3-D advertising has emerged as a new form of rich advertising enabling consumers to inspect products on the Web much as they can in the retail store. In contrast to developing Internet technologies, many researchers found that consumers are still aware of considerable risks associated with online purchase, regardless of Web advertisements. It is crucial to understand the relationships between risk perceptions, brand and emotion. This study fills a gap of relationships between 3-D advertising and consumers’ perceived risk, and investigates roles of brand and emotion on perceived risk. The findings showed that 3- D advertising has a significant effect upon reducing consumer’s perception of risk, whereas brand works as an antecedent that directly reduces that risk. Additionally, while a positive emotional state in 3-D advertising plays a positive role in reducing consumers’ performance risk, it does not reduce financial risk. We discuss the implications of these findings.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

S. Shyam Sundar and Jinhee Kim, “Interactivity and Persuasion: Influencing Attitudes with Information and Involvement,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5.2 (Spring 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The recent arrival of interactive messaging/marketing units (IMUs) begs the question: Does interacting with an advertisement enhance its persuasive appeal? How does interactivity compare with other structural features of online ads such as animation 
and ad shape? A 3 (Interactivity: Low, Medium, High) x 2 (Animation: Animated, Static) x 2 (Ad Shape: Banner, Square) fully-crossed factorial within-participants experiment was conducted to explore these questions. All participants (N = 48) were exposed to 12 news-article Web pages, with one ad in each of them. Results show not only that the level of interactivity is positively associated with ad and product attitudes, but also that it interacts with animation and ad shape in complex ways to influence the persuasion process.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Qimei Chen, David A. Griffith and Fuyuan Shen, “The Effects of Interactivity on Cross-Channel Communication Effectiveness,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5.2 (Spring 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of web site interactivity on consumers’ trust in brands and product evaluations, and their subsequent purchase intentions in a multi-channel context. Results from the experiment indicated that through greater interactivity, individuals developed greater trust in the vendor and better understanding of its products. Further, it was demonstrated that trust and product evaluation carried interactivity’s influence onto not only online purchase intention, but also offline purchase intention at a brand-specific business level. These findings indicate that online interactivity can have broad implications for multi-channel marketing.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Guohua Wu, “The Mediating Role of Perceived Interactivity in the Effect of Actual Interactivity on Attitude toward the Website,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5.2 (Spring 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to reconcile seemingly inconsistent findings regarding the effects of interactivity on communication outcomes such as attitude toward the website in two different interactivity research streams (i.e., actual interactivity vs. perceived interactivity) by proposing that perceived interactivity mediates the effect of actual interactivity on attitude toward the website. Empirical evidence supports the mediating role of perceived interactivity. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of building a theory of interactivity and providing practical insights into interactive advertising and marketing communications.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Mark Tremayne, “Lessons Learned from Experiments with Interactivity on the Web,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5.2 (Spring 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article reviews the empirical literature on interactivity, primarily studies based on experimental designs, and concludes that two conceptualizations of interactivity are beginning to dominate: the functional and the perceptual. Suggestions concerning future experiments with interactivity are offered.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Christina Spurgeon, “Losers and Lovers: Mobile Phone Services Advertising and the New Media Consumer/Producer,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5.2 (Spring 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: How do advertising practices need to adapt and change in order to effectively engage new media consumers? Integration has been an important, overarching industry response in recent decades (Cappo 2003; Turow 1997). More recently, branded content has attracted a lot of attention as an integrated technique that is potentially well-suited to nationally and internationally recognized brands (Donaton 2004). This paper considers ‘conversational’ interaction with consumers as another technique that has been successfully used to market new media usage, most notably to drive consumer adoption of mobile phone data services. It also highlights the international significance of the mobile phone as an immensely popular new media platform, but one which has generally developed “under the radar” (Bond 1998) of much academic and trade literature.
Recent developments in new media and communication studies provide the theoretical basis for the typology of interactivity developed here. This typology outlines a continuum of interactivity. It provides a foundation for considering the way in which new media consumer input is being used in new media services advertising. This development is facilitated by the “conversational’”’ interactivity of new media such as the Internet and the mobile phone. Enabled by the flexibility of new media and communications networks, consumers can also now actively participate as producers of campaign materials. They can now be thought of as producers (Hartley 2004). Two case studies of recent successful advertising campaigns for mobile services are used as exemplars of the ways in which advertisers and agencies can actively seek out and make use of consumer creative input within an active campaign. Virgin Mobile Australia’s 2003 campaign for SMS services, which featured lovable loser ‘Warren’, is compared and contrasted with Hong Kong carrier CSL’s ‘Lovers’ campaigns of 2002 and 2003 for mobile data services.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Padmini Patwardhanand Jyotika Ramaprasad, “Rational Integrative Model of Online Consumer Decision Making,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.1 (Fall 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Based on traditional rational consumer theories about beliefs preceding intent to act and knowledge preceding behavior, this study proposed, and empirically tested, a hierarchical path model of decision making in the online environment, focusing on the Internet’s role in two decision stages: pre-purchase search and evaluation, and actual purchase. Both direct and indirect effects were posited in the sequential model using four Internet related variables: pre-purchase search beliefs, purchase beliefs, actual pre-purchase search, and actual purchase.
The empirical test was conducted among consumers in the United States and India with 291 respondents taking the online survey (186 for the United States, 105 for India). For both U.S. and Indian respondents, each conceptualized stage of online decision-making was significantly impacted by the stages preceding it, either directly or indirectly. In terms of direct effects, an antecedent Internet belief variable (pre-purchase search beliefs) impacted a consequent belief variable (purchase beliefs), and an antecedent action variable (pre-purchase search) impacted a consequent action variable (purchase). Further, the consequent belief variable (purchase beliefs) impacted the immediately following antecedent action variable (pre-purchase search). In terms of indirect effects, all antecedent variables impacted consequent variables at each stage of the model.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Ginger Rosenkrans, “Online Auctions as Advertising Revenue in the Media Mix,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.1 (Fall 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Online auctions hosted by newspapers to enhance the media mix are relatively new compared to other models of online advertising. This study examined the Ventura County Star newspaper’s open-cry, “going-going-gone” deadline, 12-day local online auctions for seven months. During these same months, the Ventura County Star deployed online banner ads. This research study investigated the effectiveness of the newspaper’s local online auction format by the advertising revenue generated from local auctions for seven months compared to concurrent revenue generated from online banner ads during the same time frame. In addition, it examined local online auctions’ page impressions to investigate how much traffic was increased to the site. Based on the metrics provided by Netgravity software, findings demonstrated that local online auctions’ revenue surpassed banner ad revenue and traffic was increased to the site.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Stefan G. Nicovich, “The Effect of Involvement on Ad Judgment in a Video Game Environment: The Mediating Role of Presence,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.1 (Fall 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In this study the relationship between involvement, presence and ad judgment in a computer-mediated communications environment was investigated. A popular computer game was modified to incorporate advertisements within the actual game play. Results indicated that involvement affects ad judgment and that the degree of experienced presence within the environment mediated this relationship.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Leslie Townsend, “The Status of Wireless Survey Solutions: The Emerging ‘Power of the Thumb’,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.1 (Fall 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Due to the increasing penetration of cell phone-only households, survey administration via wireless devices is gaining attention. Regulations currently prohibit autodialing of cell phones, making administration by telephone cumbersome at best. This article focuses primarily upon use of the wireless web for survey administration in conjunction with SMS (Short Message Service). Survey functionality can mimic the experience of a traditional web survey although screen size severely limits information display. Significant issues including higher costs, lack of available panels, unknown incentive structures, and uncertain user acceptance need to be addressed, but applications exist today for survey administration on wireless devices. One of the most promising involves the use of camera phones for ethnography studies and longitudinal diaries. Future enhancements will enable new and unique applications that are not currently addressable by today’s survey technology solutions.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Juran Kim, Sally J. McMillan and Jang-Sun Hwang, “Strategies for the Super Bowl of Advertising: An Analysis of How the Web is Integrated into Campaigns,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.1 (Fall 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Advertisers spend millions of dollars on Super Bowl advertising. Are those ads part of larger campaigns? Specifically is the Web integrated with Super Bowl advertising? This study examined overall strategy (transformational vs. informational), message strategy (what to say), and creative strategy (how to say it) of the 2003 Super Bowl ads and related Web sites. Television commercials used transformational strategies more than did Web sites. Message strategies were more consistent across media than were creative strategies. Thus, campaigns may be integrated in “what to say” even when the “how to say it” seems different. Some unexpected relationships were found between message and creative strategies but these findings highlight the need to tailor messages to technological capabilities of media.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Shelly Rodgers, Yan Jin. Ruth Rettie, Frank Alpert and Doyle Yoon, “Internet Motives of Users in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Korea: A Cross-Cultural Replication of the WMI,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.1 (Fall 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The Web Motivation Inventory (WMI) is used in academic research and is cited in the academic Internet advertising literature. To date, the scale has only been tested on U.S. consumers. This research replicates the WMI using consumers from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and South Korea. Our findings revealed the same four-factor structure for three of the four countries, providing evidence of the scale’s global stability. However, the four motives–research, communicate, surf and shop-differed significantly among the countries.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Ainsworth Anthony Bailey, “Consumer Awareness and Use of Product Review Websites,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.1 (Fall 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This paper reports on a study that was undertaken to assess consumer awareness, and use, of product review websites. Factors included the impact of e-opinion leadership, consumer susceptibility to informational influence, and gender on awareness and use of these websites. Participants completed a survey that solicited information on awareness of product review websites, extent of usage, the aforementioned individual difference factors, as well as demographic information. Results indicated that consumers, generally, are aware of the existence of product review websites and there is moderate usage of, and varied uses for, these types of websites. Gender and certain individual difference factors, in particular e-opinion leadership, have an impact on usage and perceptions of these types of websites. Limitations of the study and future research issues are presented.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

William N. Swain, “Perceptions of Interactivity and Consumer Control in Marketing Communication: An Exploratory Survey of Marketing Communication Professionals,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.1 (Fall 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The literature of marketing communication in the latter half of the 1990s offers evidence that interactive marketing is a significant presence in the field of marketing communication, and that control of interactive communication in many cases is passing into the hands of consumers. Perceptions of the development of communication interactivity, and measurement of the outcomes of interactive marketing communication–both as a basis for measuring marketing success and as a basis for determining marketing communication investment and agency compensation–are therefore legitimate subjects for research inquiry. A survey was conducted among marketing communication executives and educators to investigate perceptions of the present and future status of interactive and consumer-controlled interactive marketing communication, the degree of preparation for them, preferences for their measurement, and preferences for methods of compensating agencies for interactive marketing communication services.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Maureen E. Hupfer and Alex Grey, “Getting Something for Nothing: The Impact of a Sample Offer and User Mode on Banner Ad Response,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.1 (Fall 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: An Internet banner that advertised a free sample generated higher click-through than a banner ad with information only. The ad attitude and site focus of experiential users were positively affected by the sample offer, but this incentive had a negative effect on goal-directed searchers, who appeared to regard the sample-offer banner as a distraction that interfered with search goals and reduced satisfaction experienced at the host site. Beliefs about bias in the site information were unaffected and goal-directed searchers expressed more favorable return visit intentions than experiential users. Further research is needed to clarify the effects of incentive-offer banners on experiential versus goal-directed users. In particular, the Interactive Advertising Model theorizing concerning goal-directed searchers should be examined more closely.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Steven Schild and Kim Oren, “The Party Line Online: An Oligarchy of Opinion on a Public Affairs Listserve,” Journalism and Communication Monographs, 7 (2005): 5-47.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: During a 6-month period analyzed in this study, a small number of ideologically like-minded participants dominated a listserve created in a small Midwestern city for discussion of public-policy issues. That dominant group exerted an oligarchy of opinion that led to online discussions about, and raises larger questions about, whether the listserve was achieving its goal of “creating a community-wide discussion.” This study examines two controversial issues about which the preponderance of opinion expressed online did not reflect the preponderance of opinion expressed in letters to the editor in two newspapers in the same city and, in one case, at the ballot box. Also examined are online conversations about bow the dominant opinion on the listserve may have caused some subscribers to participate as “lurkers” rather than as writers who expressed their opinions online. Note: The best way to show the flavor of the listserve was to quote extensively from messages posted there. Many of those messages contained mechanical and/or grammatical errors. Because the errors were so common, using the traditional “sic” to cite them would have disrupted the narrative flow of this study and may have been construed as an implicit—and unfairly negative—criticism of the quality of the postings. As such, the messages were quoted verbatim, and “sic” was not used to identify errors.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

William P. Cassidy, “Variations on a Theme: the Professional Role Conceptions of Print and Online Newspaper Journalists,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82.2 (Summer 2005): 264-280.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: A national survey (N=655) examining the professional role conceptions of print and online newspaper journalists revealed the print group perceived the Interpretive/Investigative role as significantly more important than the online group. No significant differences were found between the groups in their perceptions of the Adversarial and Populist Mobilizer roles. Results were mixed for the Disseminator role. The online group rated getting information to the public as quickly as possible as significantly more important than the print group.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Agenda Setting/Building

Patricia Moy, Edith Manosevitch, Keith Stamm and Kate Dunsmore, “Linking Dimensions of Internet Use and Civic Engagement,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82.3 (Autumn 2005): 571-586.
Abstract: Given scholars’ concerns with media influences on civic life, it is not surprising that researchers have begun to focus on how the Internet may enhance or erode levels of civic engagement. Collectively, however, these studies are rife with inconsistencies in the explication and operationalization of the predictor variable, Internet use. This study investigates the role of Internet use in shaping civic engagement, looking specifically at multiple conceptualizations and measurements. Results from a community study (N = 301) indicate nuanced relationships between dimensions of Internet use and forms of civic engagement. These relationships are discussed in light of citizens’ use of more traditional media. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly is the property of Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Kaye D Trammell and Ana Keshelashvili, “Examining the New Influencers: A Self-Presentation Study of A-List Blogs,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82.4 (Winter 2005): 968-982.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study investigated impression management tactics and self-presentation on popular A-list blogs. Building on Goffman’s constructs of self-presentation and operationalizing impression management strategies, this study content analyzed the most-linked-to blogs. A-list bloggers reveal more information about themselves than other bloggers and actively engage in impression management. Differences in blogs based on gender confirm traditional gendered online behavior. Findings indicate the diversity of blogs and encourage researchers to understand the pieces of blogs before purporting to understand the medium as a whole.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Carol J. Pardun, Kelly Ladin L’Engle and Jane D. Brown, “Linking Exposure to Outcomes: Early Adolescents’ Consumption of Sexual Content in Six Media, Mass Communication and Society, 8.2 (2005): 75-91.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: A media-use questionnaire was completed by 3,261 7th and 8th graders and a sub-sample of 1,074 respondents was interviewed about their sexual attitudes and behaviors. Based on results from the media survey, respondents’ top television shows, movies, music, Internet sites, and newspapers were content analyzed for portrayals or references to pubertal development, romantic relationships, body exposure or nudity, sexual innuendo, touching and kissing, and sexual intercourse. Overall, 11% of the media used by respondents contained sexual content. A measure called the Sexual Media Diet (SMD) was developed to assess each individual’s exposure to sexual content in the media, based on the combination of media consumption and content. The SMD measure showed a statistically significant association with adolescents’ sexual activity and future intentions to be sexually active, with measures of movie and music exposure showing the strongest associations. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Andrew Leyshon, Peter Webb, Shaun French, Nigel Thrift and Louise Crewe, “On the Reproduction of the Musical Economy after the Internet,” Media, Culture and Society, 27.2 (2005): 177–209.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: This article examines a crisis of reproduction that began to afflict the music industry in the late 20th century. It considers the causes of the crisis and explores some of the ways in which the industry is being reformed in the face of the emergence of a new regime of socio-technical organization. The musical economy, at the time of writing, was dominated by four large corporations – AOL-Time Warner, Sony/BMG, Universal and EMI – that were responsible for 80 percent of global music sales and had significant interests across the media, entertainment and technology sectors. In the early 21st century, the music divisions of all these companies experienced a reversal of fortune, linked to falling sales and numerous misplaced investments. This marked a significant break with what, in retrospect, may subsequently be interpreted as a ‘golden era’ in the history of the music industry, during which it enjoyed about 15 years of steady growth in recorded music sales following the introduction of the compact disc (CDs) as the predominant format for the playback of recorded music (Figure 1). In 2001, global music industry sales fell by 5 percent, and then by over 9 percent in the first half of 2002 (Sanghera, 2002) (Figure 2). For an industry used to year-on-year sales growth, this reversal had serious consequences, with the leading firms in the sector posting disastrous financial results. Vivendi-Universal, for example, recorded a staggering $12 billion loss for the first nine months of 2002 (Economist, 2003a), although part of this loss was due to activities in other areas, such as motion pictures. EMI, which is the least diversified of the major companies, and the most reliant upon sales of recorded music, recorded a financial loss of £54.4 million in the six months to September 2001 (Economist, 2003b).1 The other companies experienced similar losses and, as a result, the major record companies have resorted to dramatic acts and gestures. Rosters of artists and repertoire have been reduced, and have been turned over more rapidly. In extreme cases under-performing acts have been bought out of their contracts altogether, so that the companies can avoid future outlays on production and marketing for material that, in their estimation, would not be recouped. The rapid circulation of artists through record companies has been accompanied by a similar high turnover of staff, within what was already a precarious industry in which to work.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Policy

Ananda Mitra, “Creating Immigrant Identities in Cybernetic Space: Examples from a Non-resident Indian Website,” Media, Culture and Society, 27.3 (2005): 371–390.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: A significant development in the 20th century has been the ease with which people can travel from one place to another, thus transporting their physical bodies to distant places. In the realm of the ‘analog’ this has meant that the fixity of space has been disrupted since transportation technologies have made it possible to travel conveniently and efficiently. One of the consequences of this convenience has been the increasing movement of people as they have easily migrated from a place of origin and immigrated to a place of adoption. Certainly changes in economic, political and technological relations between nations have facilitated this movement, but the sheer ease with which these movements can take place has added the necessary incentive to this process. For example, Britain has seen a significant increase in political asylum seekers after the opening of the tunnel under the English Channel as people have literally clung on to the trains that now ply between France and England (Travis, 2001).
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Harmeet Sawhney and Seungwhan Lee, “Arenas of innovation: understanding new configurational potentialities of communication technologies,” Media, Culture and Society, 27.3 (2005): 391–414.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: ‘No idea ever emerges full-blown from the head of Jove, or a secondary muse’ (Bell, 1973: 33). It arises as a little speck of insight that evolves as it bounces from one mind to another within an epistemic setting. The epistemic settings vary greatly in nature, as do the minds that populate them. The 18th-century French salons, with their leading ladies and eclectic mix of writers and thinkers, were an ‘informal academy for stimulating ideas by stimulating their authors’ (Coser, 1970: 14). The Bell Laboratories also stoked creativity by gathering a diverse array of creative talent. It, however, adopted a systems approach for facilitating communication among them. As Jack Morton, a long-time veteran of Bell Laboratories emphatically explained, “specialized people can become a system only through coupling with each other – and effective interaction in the tough creative process of innovation can come only through facile two-way communications between people” (Morton, 1971: 60). In effect, Bell Laboratories sought to create channels of communication between creative minds via organizational mechanisms or “couplings”, what French salons had opened up through dinner and wine. Lest we dismiss the contrast as simply a problem of scaling up, let us consider one more case – Silicon Valley. Rogers and Larsen tell us that we “ought to think of Silicon Valley not just as a geographical place, nor simply as the main center of the microelectronics industry not even as several thousand high-tech firms, but as a network” (1984: 79–80, italics in original). It is the informal information exchange mechanisms of Silicon Valley – extensive collegial networks spun by chronic job-hopping and the bars and other watering holes that constantly revitalize them – that give it its dynamism.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Maxim Waldstein, “The Politics of the Web: The Case of One Newsgroup.” Media, Culture and Society, 27.5 (2005): 739–763.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: What does it mean that the Internet is political? Of course, as in the case of other communication media, the Internet can be used for propaganda and publicity by various political forces. However, this is only the politics on the web, not of the web. In fact, the enthusiasts of this relatively new medium argue that, as a field of equal opportunities for participation and contribution, the net is profoundly liberal and, thus, nonpolitical. There can be no politics of the web, they argue, because this medium does not involve monopoly and exclusion of any kind. This logic is often justified by referring to J¨urgen Habermas’s theory of ‘uncoerced communication’ as a basic precondition for liberal democracy (e.g. Gimmler, 2001). For enthusiasts, the web is an embodiment of the normative ‘ideal speech situation’. As an ultimate medium of rational and deliberative democracy, it can only be optimized in its liberal predispositions. This is a key direction in the mainstream studies of the internet.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Shelly Rodgers, Glen T Cameron and Ann M Brill, “Ad Placement in E-Newspapers Affects Memory, Attitude,” Newspaper Research Journal, 26.1 (Winter 2005): 16-27.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: Findings reveal that sponsors may benefit more from advertisements at the beginning or middle of news content, depending on their marketing goals.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Scott R Maier, “Comparing Internet vs. Paper in Newspaper Source Surveys,” Newspaper Research Journal, 26.2/3 (Spring 2005): 57-71.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: Despite the Charnley method’s longevity, establishing an accuracy benchmark for newspapers has remained elusive. Most accuracy studies have involved a single local news market and commonly the cooperation of the newspaper being examined, thus potentially limiting the validity and reliability if this line of research. Seeking to address these limitations, Maier explores the feasibility of using Internet technology to facilitate a cross-market, independent accuracy survey of news sources.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jack Rosenberry, “Few Papers Use Online Techniques to Improve Public Communication,” Newspaper Research Journal, 26.4 (Fall 2005): 61-73.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: A content analysis of 47 online newspapers sites finds that few newspapers are using Internet’s interactive technologies to improve coverage of public affairs.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Scott Fricker, Mirta Galesic, Roger Tourangeau and Ting Yan, “An Experimental Comparison of Web and Telephone Surveys,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 69.3 (Fall 2005): 370-392.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: We carried out an experiment that compared telephone and Web versions of a questionnaire that assessed attitudes toward science and knowledge of basic scientific facts. Members of a random digit dial sample were initially contacted by telephone and answered a few screening questions, including one that asked whether they had Internet access. Those with Internet access were randomly assigned to complete either a Web version of the questionnaire or a computer-assisted telephone interview. There were four main findings. First, although we offered cases assigned to the Web survey a larger incentive, fewer of them completed the online questionnaire; almost all those who were assigned to the telephone condition completed the interview. The two samples of Web users nonetheless had similar demographic characteristics. Second, the Web survey produced less item nonresponse than the telephone survey. The Web questionnaire prompted respondents when they left an item blank, whereas the telephone interviewers accepted “no opinion” answers without probing them. Third, Web respondents gave less differentiated answers to batteries of attitude items than their telephone counterparts. The Web questionnaire presented these items in a grid that may have made their similarity more salient. Finally, Web respondents took longer to complete the knowledge items, particularly those requiring open-ended answers, than the telephone respondents, and Web respondents answered a higher percentage of them correctly. These differences between Web and telephone surveys probably reflect both inherent differences between the two modes and incidental features of our implementation of the survey. The mode differences also vary by item type and by respondent age.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Diana C. Mutz, “Social Trust and E-Commerce: Experimental Evidence for The Effects of Social Trust on Individuals’ Economic Behavior,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 69.3 (Fall 2005):  393-416.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: In this study, an experimental design embedded in a national survey is used to examine the impact of social trust on participation in e-commerce. To what extent does generalized trust in people influence economic behavior, particularly in newly established realms such as the Internet? Although some previous work has posited a role for social trust in encouraging both e-commerce and economic development more generally, evidence has been based on cross-sectional associations and, primarily, at the aggregate level of entire countries. While these relationships have been suggestive, studies have yet to confirm a causal role for social trust in influencing e-commerce. Would increasing levels of social trust actually encourage greater e-commerce participation? This study combines the representativeness of a national survey with the internal validity of an experimental design to answer this question.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Mark M. Blumenthal, “Toward an Open-Source Methodology: What We Can Learn from the Blogosphere,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 69.5 (2005): 655-669.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: During the 2004 election campaign, millions of political enthusiasts downloaded poll data on the Internet, while “Weblogs” provided a new forum for commentary on survey methodology. At the same time, traditional public opinion surveys came under pressure from declining cooperation, contact and coverage rates, and many automated and Internet surveys began to proliferate. This article provides some examples of “blog” commentary on automated and Internet polls and then explores the lessons to be learned from the spirit of innovation and openness of the Internet in evaluating new survey methods such as automated polls and those conducted over the Internet.

“Andy Warhol (updated): ‘. . . In the future, everyone will be a polling expert for 15 minutes.'” A user comment posted on the Weblog on DailyKos.com (2004b):
For many in the survey research profession, the future as described by the DailyKos commenter seems to have already arrived. During the 2004 election campaign, millions of political enthusiasts downloaded poll data on the Internet, while the emergence of “Weblogs” fostered an unusual amount of commentary and discussion on polls, much of it partisan and combative. The birth of this medium occurs in an environment where technological and social change put continuing pressure on the conduct of surveys. Yet for all the partisan rancor directed at pollsters in 2004, the spirit of innovation and openness of the Internet may have lessons to teach us about how to evaluate emerging new survey methods such as automated polls and those conducted over the Internet. This essay has three sections. The first reviews some of the discussion of polling and survey methodology on the Internet during the 2004 campaign, with special emphasis on developments in automated and Internet-based surveys. The second will consider the challenge to the survey research profession posed by these new methodologies and suggest a response. The final section will offer advice to survey consumers.
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Lance V. Portera and Lynne M. Sallot, “Web Power: a Survey of Practitioners’ World Wide Web Use and Their Perceptions of its Effects on Their Decision-making Power,” Public Relations Review, 31.1 (2005): 111–119.
Keywords: Power in public relations; Practitioners’ web use; Upper echelons theory; Finkelstein’s taxonomy of power 
Abstract: 
A national e-mail survey investigated how 432 public relations practitioners perceive their World Wide Web use impacts their decision-making power in their organizations. Practitioners’ web use appears to be positively related to three of Finkelstein’s [Finkelstein, S. (1992). Power in top management teams: Dimensions, measurement and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 35(3), 505–538] conceptualizations of power derived from “upper echelons” theory from the strategic management literature—structural, expert and prestige power. “Super users” who use the web more frequently for productivity and efficiency, for research and evaluation, and for issues communication are most likely to perceive the web empowered them to be promoted (structural power). Practitioners who use the web more frequently for productivity and efficiency as well as for issues communication are more likely to perceive the web empowers them as experts in their organizations (expert power) and enhances how others see them (prestige power). Practitioner-owners perceive that greater web use leads to greater expert power than did non-owners.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Upper Echelons Theory)

Muhammad I. Ayish, ” Virtual Public Relations in the United Arab Emirates: A Case Study of 20 UAE Organizations’ Use of the Internet,” Public Relations Review, 31.3 (2005): 381–388
Keywords: Virtual; United Arab Emirates; Dubai; Elisalat; Public relations; EPRA; MEPRA . 
Abstract: This paper analyzes the use of the Internet as a public relations tool by 20 government and private organizations in the United Arab Emirates. It concludes that, among other findings, UAE public relations staff members continue to play their traditional role in real world situations but when it comes to online communications, they do not seem to have a big say in controlling the flow of information to the public. This may suggest that what appears online about a certain organization may be in tune with what is carried out in real world communications.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Upper Echelons Theory)

Chris Galloway, “Cyber-PR and “Dynamic Touch,” Public Relations Review 31.5 (2005) 572–577
Keywords: Mobile; Dynamic touch; Idol; Postmodern 
Abstract: Mobile communications technologies challenge public relations practitioners to expand their thinking and practice. Liberating electronic communication from fixed devices means that familiar PR approaches designed to reach audiences through such equipment are insufficient in themselves. They need to be complemented by new strategies, including those based on conceptualizing cyber-PR as dynamic communicative “touch.”
Method: Interpretive – Essay (including History)
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Larry Mullen, “Visual Education and the Internet Camp: An Aesthetic Analysis of Underprivileged Children’s Web Pages,” Visual Communication Quarterly, 12.1-2 (2005): 78-95.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: This study examined children’s web pages that were created in a visual literacy program called “The Internet Camp.” Because there is little evaluative research regarding the effects of visual literacy programs, this study was conducted as a small step toward filling this gap in the literature. The study provides a history of visual literacy programs, background on the children who participated in the program, and an analysis of their web pages. Initially it was thought that the children’s underprivileged status might affect their web page design. An aesthetic analysis found no profound influence of their social status on their web pages. An overall primitive, yet sophisticated style was evident in their web page designs. The outcome of the literacy program found little linkage between the children’s social status and how and what they visually created.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Thomas Gould, “Where’s Qualitative Research Going Online? Patterns of Methodology in Mass Communication, 1993-2003,” Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 8.2 (March 2005).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The battle is as old as academia. One side is filled with the certainty of numbers; the other with the confidence of language. The battle is not at all confided to mass communication, but has ranged far and wide, from research into management to family therapy to tourism to electrostatics. The debate can turn brutal. A recent correspondence with an anonymous reviewer for a major communication journal evoked the declaration that “qualitative research is not really a research method. Perhaps it is a form of analysis.” The reviewer went on to suggest that interpretive essays and other forms of qualitative research were not of the status of “real research” as exemplified by quantitative methods. Researchers fond of qualitative methods have equally confrontational opinions to offer, albeit, more defensive in nature. The data suggest that online communications may attract more than expected numbers of qualitative research over the period, certainly more than reported by Kamhawi and Weaver for offline research topics. However, the trend was consistently down over the period of study, suggesting a strong shift toward quantitative methods, such as experiments and surveys. It may be the newness of online communications that draws more early application of qualitative methodologies. No doubt some more interpretative techniques would have been used in the early days of the printing press, had the opportunity presented itself.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

2006

Jorge Pena and Jeffrey T. Hancock, “An Analysis of Socioemotional and Task Communication in Online Multiplayer Video Games,” Communication Research, 33.1 (2006): 92-109. 
Keywords: computer-mediated communication; video games; interaction process analysis; social information processing; socioemotional and task communication; computer experience
Abstract: Communication within recreational computer-mediated settings has received less attention than interaction in instrumental and organizational contexts. The present study compared the socioemotional and task-oriented content of 5,826 text messages produced by participants of an online video game. The results suggest that participants produced significantly more socioemotional than task content. Consistent with predictions flowing from Social Information Processing Theory, the vast majority of messages were socioemotional and positively valenced, despite the ostensible game objective of fighting other participants. Experience level played an important role in message production. More experienced participants produced both more positive and fewer negative socioemotional messages than the less experienced and used more specialized language conventions (e.g., emoticons, scripted emotes and abbreviations). The results are discussed in the context of previous research examining the effect of communication medium and interaction purpose on socioemotional and task message production.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jennifer L. Gibbs, Nicole B. Ellison, and Rebecca D. Heino, “Self-Presentation in Online Personals: The Role of Anticipated Future Interaction, Self-Disclosure, and Perceived Success in Internet Dating,” Communication Research, 33.2 (2006): 152-177.
Keywords: online dating; online personals; Internet relationships; computer-mediated communication; self-presentation; self-disclosure; anticipated future interaction; mixed-mode relationships
Abstract: This study investigates self-disclosure in the novel context of online dating relationships. Using a national random sample of Match.com members (N = 349), the authors tested a model of relational goals, self-disclosure, and perceived success in online dating. The authors’ findings provide support for social penetration theory and the social information processing and hyperpersonal perspectives as well as highlight the positive effect of anticipated future face-to-face interaction on online self-disclosure. The authors find that perceived online dating success is predicted by four dimensions of self-disclosure (honesty, amount, intent and valence), although honesty has a negative effect. Furthermore, online dating experience is a strong predictor of perceived success in online dating. Additionally, the authors identify predictors of strategic success versus self-presentation success. This research extends existing theory on computer-mediated communication, self-disclosure and relational success to the increasingly important arena of mixed-mode relationships, in which participants move from mediated to face-to-face communication. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jochen Peter and Patti M. Valkenburg, “Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Material on the Internet,” Communication Research, 33.2 (2006): 178-204.
Keywords: pornography; gender differences; sensation seeking; life satisfaction;
Internet use
Abstract: Drawing on a survey of 745 Dutch adolescents ages 13 to 18, the authors investigated (a) the occurrence and frequency of adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit material on the Internet and (b) the correlates of this exposure. Seventy-one percent of the male adolescents and 40% of the female adolescents had been exposed to some kind of online sexually explicit material in the 6 months prior to the interview. Adolescents were more likely to be exposed to sexually explicit material online if they were male, were high sensation seekers, were less satisfied with their lives, were more sexually interested, used sexual content in other media more often, had a fast Internet connection, and had friends that were predominantly younger. Among male adolescents, a more advanced pubertal status was also associated with more frequent exposure to online sexually explicit material. Among female adolescents, greater sexual experience decreased exposure to online sexually explicit material.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Miriam J. Metzger, “Trust and Disclosure Effects of Site, Vendor, and Consumer Characteristics on Web Site Trust and Disclosure,” Communication Research, 33.2 (2006): 155-179.
Keywords: Internet privacy; trust; disclosure; reputation; electronic commerce
Abstract: This study examines the role that communication plays in fostering trust and disclosure in electronic commerce exchanges. In particular, this research explores how characteristics of online vendors and consumers interact with Web site communications to affect consumer behavior online. The study relies on two relatively recent models of electronic exchange, the Internet consumer trust model and the electronic exchange model, to examine the effectiveness of certain trust and assurance mechanisms (i.e., privacy policies and seals), as well as e-tailer reputation and individuals’ concern for privacy and data security, on trust and disclosure of personal information to commercial Web sites. Results suggest that the vendor’s reputation is important in influencing e-tailer trust and that the content of privacy assurances do not affect trust or disclosure. The findings have important implications for both theoretical models of electronic exchange and for firms engaged in electronic commerce.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Consumer Trust and Electronic Exchange Models)

Eun-Ju Lee, “Norms in Computer-Mediated Communication? When and How Does Depersonalization Increase Conformity to Group,” Communication Research, 33.6 (2006): 423-447.
Keywords: depersonalization; social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE); conformity; need for public individuation; group identification
Abstract: The experiment reported herein examined how depersonalization, operationalized as the lack of individuating information, affects conformity to a group norm in anonymous computer-mediated communication. Participants made a decision about choice dilemmas and exchanged their decisions and supporting arguments with three ostensible partners via computer, who unanimously endorsed the position opposite of the participant’s. As predicted, depersonalization led to a more extreme perception of the group norm, better recall of the interactants’ arguments, and more positive evaluations of the interactants’ arguments through group identification, albeit only for women. Moreover, depersonalization was more likely to facilitate conformity to group norms among those with higher need for public individuation and among women. A test of indirect effects showed that group identification and extremity of the perceived group norm mediated the effects of depersonalization on conformity.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Matthew S. Eastin and Robert P. Griffiths, “Among Male Game Players Beyond the Shooter Game: Examining Presence and Hostile Outcomes,” Communication Research, 33.6 (2006): 448-466.
Keywords: video games; violence; presence; hostility; expectations; bias; general aggression model; priming; competition; Internet use; online gaming; multiuser
Abstract: Investigating male game players, this study explores how game interface (virtual reality [VR] and standard console), game content (fighting, shooting, and driving), and game context (human and computer competition) influence levels of presence and hostile expectation bias—the expectation others will think, feel, speak and act aggressively during social conflict. In addition to game interface and game content influencing hostile expectations, significant interactions were detected for hostile expectations. Presence, although not as predicted, also significantly differed across game interface and game content. Through the development and testing of each gaming experience, this study demonstrates that simply testing violent and nonviolent game situations underestimates the complexity of contemporary video-game play.
Method: Experiment

Theory: Social Interaction

Vincent Price, Lilach Nir and Joseph N. Cappella, “Normative and Informational Influences in Online Political Discussions,” Communication Theory 16.1 (2006) 47–74.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: How do the statements made by people in online political discussions affect other people’s willingness to express their own opinions, or argue for them? And how does group interaction ultimately shape individual opinions? We examine carefully whether and how patterns of group discussion shape (a) individuals’ expressive behavior within those discussions and (b) changes in personal opinions. This research proposes that the argumentative ‘‘climate’’ of group opinion indeed affects postdiscussion opinions, and that a primary mechanism responsible for this effect is an intermediate influence on individual participants’ own expressions during the online discussions. We find support for these propositions in data from a series of 60 online group discussions, involving ordinary citizens, about the tax plans offered by rival U.S. presidential candidates George W. Bush and Al Gore in 2000.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Social Interaction

Clarissa David, Joseph N. Cappella and Martin Fishbein, “The Social Diffusion of Influence Among Adolescents: Group Interaction in a Chat Room Environment About Anti-drug Advertisements,” Communication Theory, 16.1 (2006): 118–140.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: One route to influence in mass communication campaigns to reduce risky behavior is through interpersonal discussion of the content of the campaign and other behaviors pertinent to those targeted by the campaign. The goal of this study was to test the effects of online group interaction among adolescents about anti-marijuana advertisements on relevant attitudes and behaviors. A between-subjects post-only experimental design was used to test two crossed factors, online chat and strength of arguments in anti-drug ads. A sample of 535 students was randomly assigned to one of four conditions: chat and strong-argument ads, chat and weak-argument ads, no chat and strong-argument ads, and no chat and weak-argument ads. The group interactions about anti-drug ads lead to negative effects such that those who chatted reported more pro-marijuana attitudes and subjective normative beliefs than those who just viewed the ads. No support was found for the hypothesis that strong-argument ads would result in more anti-drug beliefs relative to weak-argument ads in either the chat or the no-chat conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that viewing anti-drug ads and discussing them with peers may result in deleterious effects in adolescents.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Scott C. D‘Urso, “Who’s Watching Us at Work? Toward a Structural–Perceptual Model of Electronic Monitoring and Surveillance in Organizations,” Communication Theory, 16 (2006): 281–303.
Abstract: Nearly 80% of organizations now employ some form of employee surveillance. This significant level of use infers a salient need for additional theory and research into the effects of monitoring and surveillance. Accordingly, this essay examines the panoptic effects of electronic monitoring and surveillance (EM/S) of social communication in the workplace and the underlying structural and perceptual elements that lead to these effects. It also provides future scholarly perspectives for studying EM/S and privacy in the organization from the vantage point of contemporary communication technologies, such as the telephone, voice mail, e-mail, and instant messaging, utilized for organizational communication. Finally, four propositions are presented in conjunction with a new communication-based model of EM/S, providing a framework incorporating three key components of the panoptic effect: (a) communication technology use, (b) organizational factors, and (c) organizational policies for EM/S.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Other (Monitoring and Surveillance)

Victor W. Pickard, “Assessing the Radical Democracy of Indymedia: Discursive, Technical, and Institutional Constructions,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 23.1 (2006): 19-38.
Keywords: Alternative Media; Cyberactivism; Democratic Theory; Independent Media
Centers; Indymedia; Networks; Radical Democracy; Social Movements
Abstract: This study examines the radical democratic principles manifest in Indymedia’s discursive, technical, and institutional practices. By focusing on a case study of the Seattle Independent Media Center and contextualizing it within theories and critiques of radical democracy, this article fleshes out strengths, weaknesses, and recurring tensions endemic to Indymedia’s internet-based activism. These findings have important implications for alternative media making and radical politics in general.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

David Croteau, “The Growth of Self-Produced Media Content and the Challenge to Media Studies,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 23.4 (2006): 340-344.
Abstract: In the coming years, the field of media studies faces a unique challenge. Until now, scholars usually have focused on centralized media producers, the content they create, and the relatively broad*though increasingly fragmented*audiences they reach. However, the much-anticipated era of broadband is finally beginning to bear fruit, creating opportunities for new forms of media production and distribution. With brand name recognition and massive promotion budgets, the big corporate media players will continue to hold sway, but their dominance is likely to erode as new technologies enable small-time media producers to create and distribute their own content via the mainstream channel of the Internet. There will be a wide range of producers, including start-up commercial enterprises, independent non-profits, religious groups, hobby enthusiasts, political organizations, ethnic groups, and the informal efforts of individuals or small groups of friends. The new proliferation of this varied media content—what the author refers to broadly as ‘‘self-produced’’ media—will present interesting opportunities and challenges for media scholars.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Michelle Rodino-Colocino, “Selling Women on PDAs from ‘Simply Palm’ to ‘Audrey’: How Moore’s Law Met Parkinson’s Law in the Kitchen ,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 23.5 (2006): 375-390.
Keywords: PDA; computer; marketing; advertising; gender; work; domestication; discourse; Audrey; Palm; Moore’s Law
Abstract: This essay investigates key moments in the history of personal digital assistant (PDA) marketing to women. Analyzing promotional texts for three PDAs that received considerable press coverage from 1999 to 2001, this essay explores the cultural significance of the convergence of anxieties about women’s place in the gendered division of labor with the computer industry’s changing marketing imperatives. Drawing on an array of promotional texts, including news articles, press releases, promotional Web sites and ads appearing in newspapers and magazines, this paper tells the story of how the computer industry aimed to sell smaller, faster computing devices to women while promising to mediate and thus reproduce women’s overwork as paid and familial laborers. After experimenting with the PDA as a sexy fashionable gadget for working women, marketers approached women as mothers with ‘‘Audrey,’’ an Internet appliance designed for the kitchen.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Other (Moore’s Law)

Oliver Boyd-Barrett, “Cyberspace, globalization and empire,” Global Media and Communication, 2 (2006): 21-41.
Keywords: China, hegemony, ICTs, India, media imperialism, TNCs, USA
Abstract: The article proposes that the framework of media imperialism is appropriate for the study of US dominance of information and communication technology (ICT) industries in the period 1975–2000. Early media imperialism theories focused on US television exports at a time when such exports were set to decline in many local markets. Covert influences such as ownership, business models, professional values, content formatting, audience preferences, cultural hybrids and technologies, were insufficiently considered. In particular, the earlier focus on television and content may have distracted attention from the emergence of microprocessor-based computer networking technologies, their significance for the development of ICT industries, and the profound influence these have exerted on US economic and foreign policies. This article documents the continuing dominance of US corporate power, of US-based transnational corporations (TNCs) and, among them, of ICT industries, within the global economy. It charts US dominance of most spheres of computing and telecommunications at the turn of the 21st century. With specific reference to intelligence estimates of future global trends it assesses the significance of the ‘Asian challenge’, specifically the challenge of Asian ICT activity to the prospects of a continuation of US hegemony.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Robert A. Saunders, “Denationalized Digerati in the Virtual Near Abroad: The Internet’s Paradoxical Impact on National Identity among Minority Russians,” Global Media and Communication, 2 (2006): 43-69.
Keywords: cyberspace, digerati, Russia, ethnic minorities, ethnic Russians, globalization, internet and society, national identity, near abroad, new media
Abstract: This article focuses on Internet use as a mediating factor in identity formulation and maintenance among the minority Russian community living within post- Soviet space, but outside of the Russian Federation. I argue that regular internet usage among ethnic Russians in the near abroad has precipitated a denationalization of identity since the breakup of the USSR. The shock of the collapse of the Soviet Union, the often painful demands of living as an “immigrant” in one’s birth country, and the concurrent psychic traumas of globalization have created a powerful nexus which has deeply impacted younger near abroad Russians who, in turn, have turned to cyberspace to help them make sense of their place in world – a process which has, rather paradoxically, promoted postnational, globalist identities. Through regular web use and the creation of transnational communication networks, these Russian digerati are increasingly acting as agents of globalization within their own communities and steadily distinguishing themselves from the larger Russian community residing in the ethnic homeland.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Jack Linchuan Qiu, “The Changing Web of Chinese Nationalism,” Global Media and Communication, 2 (2006): 125-129.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: An essential component in nation-building processes around the world, nationalism is central to China’s online discourse and the evolving political identity of Chinese internet users. While politicians and activists in the country prefer the label, ‘patriotism’ (aiguozhuyi), the fundamental idea is clear: to many of today’s Chinese netizens, allegiance to the nation takes priority over other identities, ideologies and political actions. Nationalism, in this broad sense, underlies almost all political discussion in China’s cyberspace due to the withering away of communism, the need of the authorities to maintain social cohesion and the lack of alternatives created by the censorship regime. But as the anti-Japanese protests in April 2005 demonstrate, web-based nationalistic formations can materialize offline in a way that poses a threat to not only social stability in cities like Beijing and Shanghai but also the actual standing of the party-state as the only legitimate representative of the Chinese nation.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Arun Vishwanath, “The Effect of the Number of Opinion Seekers and Leaders on Technology Attitudes and Choices,” Human Communication Research, 32.3 (2006) 322–350.
Abstract: Status, which implies a positive evaluation by other members of the group, remains one aspect of group structure that has not received much theoretical or empirical evaluation. Although a number of researchers have focused on status and its emergence, the influence of the number of group members who share status has never been explored. This paper focuses on group relationships and examines the impact of the number of opinion seekers and opinion leaders on individual technology-related attitudes and behavior. The research model was built on the social influence model presented by J. Fulk (1993) and tested across multiple moderating variables suggested in the social psychological literature including cohesiveness, three types of uncertainty, two levels of uncertainty, and two media types. Contrary to the dominant theoretical position, the number of opinion leaders did not always influence technology attitudes; rather, in host of high-attraction conditions, the number of opinion seekers had a significant influence. The influence of the number of opinion seekers was moderated by the degree of cohesiveness—indicating internalization of attitudes rather than compliance. Also moderating this relationship were the type and level of uncertainty and the type of media chosen.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Joshua Pila, “Access to Global Telecommunications: A Comparative Discussion of the International Legal Issues Confronting the Telecommunications Relay Service,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy 11 (Autumn 2006): 1-21.
Abstract: The U.S. Telecommunications Relay Service (“TRS”) strives to facilitate access to telecommunications services for hearing and/or speech impaired people. This system, and other countries’ similar efforts, fails to take account of new technologies such as Internet Protocol (“IP”) and the increasingly global reach of telecommunications networks. The system works well for traditional domestic calls, but performs poorly when challenged by calls that traverse international networks or leave the Public Switched Telephone Network (“PSTN”). In these cases, conflicting regulatory obligations, network architectures, cross-border funding mechanisms and international standardization issues interfere with TRS users’ ability to communicate in a functionally equivalent manner. This paper analyzes current U.S. TRS regulations and technologies, compares this system to Great Britain’s TypeTalk regime, explains system faults in international and IP contexts, and argues that U.S. and international telecommunications regulators should understand and attempt to resolve these challenges by: 1) a registration system for IP Relay, 2) a shared funding mechanism for required TRS provision tied to TRS usage, and 3) international negotiation on industry-wide standards.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Sheng-cheng Lin and Fu-ren Lin, “An Ecosystem View on Online Communities of Practice,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 11 (Autumn 2006): 1-31. 
Keywords: Online communities of practice, knowledge management, ecosystem, evolutionary model
Abstract: A community of practice (CoP) is a group of people who share common concerns, problems, or passions for a domain, and who deepen their knowledge and expertise through interaction on an ongoing basis. People view a CoP as a wellspring of precious knowledge in the era of knowledge economy. Notably, many researchers support the notion that a CoP is not designed or made but grown. However, there is no systematic theory of online community development. Based on the properties of autotrophic and open system of online CoPs, there are several differences between traditional groups and online CoPs. Interestingly, there exists an ideal mapping between the properties of an online CoP and an ecological ecosystem. This study adopts Yin’s analytic strategy of descriptive framework and Odum’s ecosystem model to develop an online CoP ecosystem model to identify the evolution of an ecosystem over time. Finally, some policies implications for development of online communities of practice are proposed based on the ecosystem view. 
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Celene Navarrete-A. and Esperanza Huerta, “Building Virtual Bridges to Home: The Use of the Internet by Transnational Communities of Immigrants,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy 11, (Autumn 2006): 1-20. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: For decades transnational communities of immigrants have used various forms of communication to maintain ties with their places of origin. Transnational communities of immigrants are creating and enhancing virtual spaces for (re)creating and maintaining a SOC across national borders. This paper explores the concept of sense of virtual community in transnational groups of immigrants. We review research from different disciplines to understand how the Internet is shaping the ability of dispersed national groups to create, preserve and extend their SOC in virtual spaces. The theory of SOC applied to virtual communities provides the frame of reference in which this phenomenon is analyzed. Based on our analysis of the literature we argue that the unique characteristics of communities of immigrants—such as shared histories, cultural values, experiences, common country of origin, and offline interaction—shape the nature and dynamics of their interactions online. Social, political and economic implications of the offline/online interaction are also addressed for the host and home society.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Rosemary Stockdale and Michael Borovicka, “Ghost Towns or Vibrant Villages? Constructing Business-Sponsored Online Communities,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 11 (Autumn 2006): 1-21. 
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: Businesses are being encouraged to construct online communities to interact with their customers and to realize the many benefits such communities offer. These benefits include enhanced brand recognition and more opportunities to develop close customer relationships. However, there remains little understanding of how such communities should be developed and maintained and many have failed, languishing as ‘ghost towns’ online. A case study of Lonely Planet examines the way in which the travel publisher has established a vibrant online community with more than 250,000 members. Analysis shows that the company has integrated the elements of a socially constructed community with those of a business one. Lonely Planet has increased the value proposition for their customers while nurturing a sense of social belonging. This case study of a vibrant business-sponsored online community contributes to more understanding of how such communities can be developed.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Rosemary Stockdale and Karine Barzilai-Nahon, “Gatekeepers, Virtual Communities and the Gated:  Multidimensional Tensions in Cyberspace,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 11 (Autumn 2006): 1-28. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Gatekeeping/Information Control is exercised frequently and daily in virtual communities. In this context, Gatekeeping mainly exists in four different levels of stakeholders: formal regulators, infrastructure regulators (e.g., service providers), communities’ managers and members of the communities (serving in two roles: as representatives of the communities or as individuals). The article analyzes the sensitive balance of relationships among these stakeholders. Additionally, it examines how power is manifested and exercised through information control in forums. Three levels that impact gatekeeping’s nature are analyzed – the gatekeepers, the community and the gated while addressing: first, the duality of gatekeepers as protectors or manipulators; second, the politics of power of marginalized groups in cyberspace; and finally, the meaning of gated anonymity to information control.  
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Will Wai-kit Ma, Theodore H.K. Clark and Pu Li, “Cognitive Style and Acceptance of Online Community Weblogs Systems,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 11 (Autumn 2006): 1-12. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Weblogs (“blogs”) are becoming increasingly important over time, with researchers asking why millions of Internet users are so eager to post their own diary on the web every day. This study collected data from 265 business school undergraduate students on their opinions concerning weblog usage and attitudes. The study then used cognitive style to analyze differences among various user types. Analysis of the respondents’ cognitive styles placed them along a spectrum with two extremes: intuitive (with non-linear thinking) and analytic (using rational information processing). Group analysis found significant differences between the two cognitive groups: performance expectancy was significantly higher in the analytical group, while effort expectancy and social influence were higher in influencing intention to use within the intuitive group.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Tammara Combs Turner and Karen E. Fisher, “Social Types in Technical News Groups: Implications for Information Flow,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 11 (Autumn 2006): 1-21. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Using Fisher and Durrance’s2 framework of information communities, this study examines the roles played by differed social types in information flow within online technical newsgroups. Data collection methods included content analysis of discussion threads from technical newsgroups, focus groups, participant observation and interviews with key informants, along with quantitative analysis of data obtained from Microsoft Research’s Netscan project. Findings support and expand the information communities framework. Four social types were identified: (1) Questioners, (2) Answer People, (3) Community Managers and (4) Moguls. Newsgroups facilitated social and information exchanges among individuals from diverse backgrounds, cultures, and geographic locations as they posted and replied to messages publicly available for viewing. Interaction of these various social types cultivated information flow as users engaged in information seeking, giving and use behavior. Implications for information policy are discussed.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Katarzyna A. Czapracka, “Where Antitrust Ends and IP Begins—on the Roots of the TransAtlantic Clashes,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 11 (Autumn 2006): 1-55. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: U.S. antitrust enforcers see little scope for antitrust policy to mitigate the consequences of imperfect IP policies. They are reluctant to intervene in what is perceived to be the sphere of IP policy and take the view that any competitive concerns are better remedied by changes in the IP policy. This trend corresponds with shielding antitrust policy away from fields occupied by other forms of regulation. Exactly the opposite tendencies are present in EU competition law. Both the European Commission and the ECJ seem to see a role for competition law to correct improvidently defined IPRs, even if it entails adjusting competition principles. It may seem reasonable, as unlike competition policy, most issues relating to IP policy within the European Union are still decided at the national level. Yet, there is an inherent danger in this approach. It may lead antitrust authorities to adopt analytically questionable approaches that undermine the coherence of antitrust law. Competition agencies must be particularly cautious in adopting the measures to curb IP laws, as they may discourage private R&D investment. The Commission’s views on application of Article 82 to interoperability information, as expressed in the Microsoft Decision and the Article 82 Paper, confirm that these reservations are valid.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Kathryn Waite, “Task Scenario Effects on Bank Web Site Expectations,” Internet Research, 16.1 (2006): 7-22.
Keywords: Worldwide web, Financial services, Banks, Virtual banking
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this research is to explore whether consumer expectations of web site attributes differ according to information-seeking or transaction tasks. Information seeking is a distinct online activity and is an important first stage of the Internet adoption process. However, there is little empirical research that compares online search and transaction behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – This pilot study focuses on retail bank web sites in order to select a service familiar to consumers for which a web site would serve as both an information source and a transaction channel. A self-administered questionnaire collected data from a convenience sample of 160 UK adults in December 2005. The questionnaire measured normative and predictive expectations of systems and information quality. Findings – The findings show differences between task contexts with regards to the requirement to supply personal details, the presence of a search engine and the inclusion of moving graphics. There are implications for studies informed by the SERVQUAL approach to measuring web site quality. Research limitations/implications – The acknowledged research limitations are the sampling method, sample size, sample composition and industry context, which contribute to the low generalizability of the results. However, the findings indicate that there are differences in task scenario worthy of investigation in broader studies. Originality/value – Task scenario differences mean that data collection instruments should specify to respondents for which task a multi-functional web site is being measured. This will be of value to practitioners and researchers who are studying web site quality. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Marie-Claude Boudreau and Richard T. Watson, “Internet Advertising Strategy Alignment,” Internet Research, 16.1 (2006): 23-37.
Keywords: Corporate strategy, Worldwide web, Strategic alignment, Internet, Advertising, Multinational companies
Abstract: Purpose – Because the web can be an influential medium for attracting and retaining customers, it is critical to examine the connection between web advertising and corporate strategy. This is particularly true for multinational organizations, which face the most complex organizational environment. The purpose of this paper is to propose that multinational organizations should be concerned with alignment of their strategy and web image because of the size and geographic spread of their operations.
Design/methodology/approach – This research paper reviews the fundamental global strategies that corporations can pursue (e.g. integration, transnational, national responsiveness) and then empirically examine the relationship between corporate global strategy and web advertising strategy for 20 multinational organizations.
Findings – The results show that misalignment between corporate global strategy and web advertising strategy is reasonably common. For two thirds of the companies in our sample, there was imperfect alignment.
Originality/value – The paper suggests three reasons why this can be, and offer a tool that enables organizations to recognize how they should handle design and content matters for the combination of corporate and national web sites.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Risk)

Evangelos Moustakas, C. Ranganathan and Penny Duquenoy, “E-mail Marketing at the Crossroads: A Stakeholder Analysis of Unsolicited Commercial E-mail (Spam),” Internet Research, 16.1 (2006): 38-52.
Keywords: Electronic mail, Internet marketing, Stakeholder analysis
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual overview of the process of unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE), propose a typology of UCE, and delineate key stakeholders of UCE, their roles and potential responses through a stakeholder analysis.
Design/methodology/approach – Based on the extant literature, this paper provides a
conceptualization of the UCE process, delineating specific types of UCE. It uses stakeholder analysis to identify key members in the UCE process and the potential roles to be played by them in combating UCE.
Findings – This paper proposes a four-way typology of the UCE process, identifies key stakeholders, and also mechanisms for tackling UCE.
Research limitations/applications – Given the limited empirical research on this topic, this paper is exploratory in nature, integrating concepts from marketing and e-commerce research streams. It will provide a solid conceptual foundation for future empirical research on UCE.
Practical implications – This paper will be a useful resource for customers, Internet merchants, policy makers, direct marketing associations, agencies and consumer awareness groups that are working on Internet security, privacy and anti-spam issues.
Originality/value – This paper addresses an important and timely issue, filling an important gap in current research on e-mail marketing. It provides conceptual foundations on UCE, and deploys stakeholder analysis to suggest useful guidelines for practice.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Other (Stakehoder)

Paula M.C. Swatman, Cornelia Krueger and Kornelia van der Beek, “The Changing Digital Content Landscape: An Evaluation of e-Business Model Development in European Online News and Music,” Internet Research, 16.1 (2006): 53-80.
Keywords: Electronic media, Europe, Internet, Music industry, Newspaper publishers, Worldwide web
Abstract: Purpose – To provide an empirically based analysis and evaluation of the existing and possible future evolution of Internet business models within the digital content market, focusing particularly on the possibilities for cooperation and coopetition within this market-space. 
Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a three-year study of the European online news and online music sectors, comprising a set of preliminary, scene-setting case studies of a number of major players within the European online news and music sectors; a detailed, two-stage survey made up of online questionnaires and face-to-face interviews; and a small number of in-depth case studies. 
Findings – Provides a discussion of the changes taking place in the online news and music sectors, the evolution of the business models within them, the driving forces we have identified, and finally some predictions about what the future may hold for both these sectors. 
Research limitations/implications – The research is indicative, rather than general – being centered on European participants in two sectors of the digital content market-space in the period between May 2003 and August 2004. 
Practical implications – A rich evaluation of these two fast-moving digital content sectors, providing empirically based insights into the ways in which they are evolving and changing and into parallels with other, similar sectors of the digital content market. 
Originality/value – This paper is the first major empirical evaluation of the digital content market-space and offers practical assistance, as well as new theoretical insights on e-business model evolution in this area.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Other (Competition)

Tom M.Y. Lin, Heng-Hui Wu, Chun-Wei Liao and Tzu-Hsin Liu, “Why are Some E-mails Forwarded and Others Not?” Internet Research, 16.1 (2006): 81-93.
Keywords: Electronic mail, Electronic commerce, Social networks, Behaviour, Customer relations, Taiwan
Abstract: Purpose – This study aims to explain why e-mails trigger emotional response states in receivers and to explore the influence of e-mail formats on the receivers’ intention to forward e-mails.
Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from 305 undergraduate and EMBA students in one university in Northern Taiwan. Participants were asked to fill out the questionnaire based on any forwarded e-mail that they had recently received.
Findings – This study reveals that people will have a stronger intention to forward e-mails that make them feel positive emotions, display richer information, are greater in length, or include audio and visual information.
Research limitations/implications – This study shows that e-mail forwarding function maintains guanxi with others, supporting the social psychology theory that personal emotional states will trigger specific behaviors. Also, this paper extends the explanation of the “information richness” theory concerning the influence of format on receivers’ e-mail forwarding intentions.
Practical implications – This study can assist marketing managers in developing e-commerce by exploiting the special features of e-mails identified in the study.
Originality/value – This study provides a behavioral model of the type of e-mails most likely to be forwarded. Enterprises can use this model in developing better guanxi with their customers.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Ana R. Del Aguila-Obra and Antonio Padilla-Mele´ndez, “Organizational Factors Affecting Internet Technology Adoption,” Internet Research, 16.1 (2006): 94-110.
Keywords: Internet, Innovation, Companies, Communication technologies, Spain
Abstract: Purpose – To explore the factors that affect the implementation of Internet technologies and to what extent the size of the company, as an organizational factor, influences that process.
Design/methodology/approach – According to the innovation adoption theory, it was found that Internet adoption in firms is a process with different stages where a company is in one of a number of development stages depending on some variables related to organizational factors, such as the availability of technology resources, organizational structure, and managerial capabilities. The paper identified empirically different stages in the Internet adoption process and linked them with those factors. It analyzed questionnaire-based data from 280 companies, applying factor and clustering analysis.
Findings – Four main groups of companies were found according to their stage in the adoption of Internet technologies. The paper established that, contrary to the literature suggestions, the size of the company does not have any effect on the availability of these Internet technologies but it does for managerial capabilities. The smaller the size of the firm, the greater the possibilities of using external advice in adopting Internet technologies, because small firms usually have fewer managerial capabilities. In the mean time, a more sophisticated technology development was identified in larger firms.
Research limitations/implications – As in all empirical research, the characteristics of this study limit the applicability of the findings. First, the study concentrated in businesses that already were using Internet technologies, because they have registered their domain name. Consequently, the study firms that did not have a Spanish domain name were omitted; however, firms could have a “.com” or “.org” domain name and still be Spanish firms. Also, other companies without any domain name on the Internet were not included in the study. Second, the study applied a classification analysis with exploratory purposes about the characteristics of the business according to the cluster of pertinence. Nevertheless, a longitudinal study could be more useful explaining whether or not these companies follow the process described. Third, a more detailed questionnaire with more specific questions could be more helpful to gain a better description of the phases of a more sophisticated technology adoption (i.e. the acceptance/routinization and infusion stages).
Practical implications – This paper has some relatively important managerial implications. First, the fact of having a domain name does not mean that the companies are in the acceptance/routinization phase and even less in the infusion phase. From this, the paper identified how the majority of firms were in the so-called initial stages of the Internet technologies adoption process. Second, it is possible that managers who do not perceive the strategic value of these technologies are managing the majority of these firms. Third, as more businesses implement these technologies in their processes, presumably more competitive pressure will exist to adopt Internet technologies. 
Originality/value – This paper contributes to the research into the organizational factors that affect Internet adoption.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

L. Kazatzopoulos, C. Delakouridis, G.F. Marias and P. Georgiadis, “An Incentive-based Architecture to Enable Privacy in Dynamic Environments,” Internet Research, 16.2 (2006): 170-188.
Keywords: Privacy, Incentives (psychology)
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose the use of priority-based incentives for collaborative hiding of confidential information in dynamic environments, such as self-organized networks, peer-to-peer systems, pervasive and grid computing applications.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper documents the necessity of ISSON (Incentives for
Secret-sharing in Self-Organized Networks); it provides functional and technical details on the proposed architecture; and, it assesses its feasibility in mobile ad-hoc networks through real experiments. The paper elaborates on the availability of the hidden information through an analytical framework.
Findings – Through the real experiments, ISSON was found to be efficient in terms of communication and processing costs. Additionally, it avoids collusions for unauthorized revealing of the hidden information, and ensures the unlinkability and availability of the secret when it is divided and stored to peers.
Originality/value – The proposed, incentive-based, privacy enforcement architecture is novel and applies to distributed, dynamic, and self-configured computing environments.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Policy

Carlos Flavian and Raquel Gurrea, “The Choice of Digital Newspapers: Influence of Reader Goals and User Experience,” Internet Research, 16.3 (2006): 231-247.
Keywords: Internet, Newspapers, User studies
Abstract: Purpose – To analyze press reader behavior in the digital medium: identify the main goals that lead readers to read the press and analyze their influence on the choice of digital newspapers. Moreover, the research analyses the moderator effect of user experience.
Design/methodology/approach – First, qualitative studies were carried out which allow reader objectives to be identified and the hypotheses to be established. Subsequently a survey was applied to a representative sample of users. The scales were validated and refined, after which the hypotheses were tested by way of a structural equation model and a multi-sample analysis.
Findings – The goals based on the search for specific information and for updated news have a positive effect on reading newspapers on the Internet. In contrast, there is no significant effect when reading is for entertainment. This last relationship has been found to be moderated by the user experience variable.
Research limitations/implications – The main aspects which justify digital newspaper reading should be considered in order to increase its use. Similarly, attention is drawn to the probable evolution of reader behavior, which could depend on the level of user’s experience with the Internet press. 
Originality/value – This is one of the first studies that analyses reader behavior on the part of the Internet press readership. In this sense, it provides a significant contribution in that it sets out to identify patterns of behavior on the part of readers of digital newspapers, as well as to study reader goals from a global perspective.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Pradeep Korgaonkar, Ronnie Silverblatt and Tulay Girard, “Online Retailing, Product Classifications, and Consumer Preferences,” Internet Research, 16.3 (2006): 267-288.
Keywords: Consumer behaviour, Internet, Electronic commerce
Abstract: Purpose – To investigate if consumer online patronage is influenced by product category and online store type.
Design/methodology/approach – Building on the prior work in this area by the authors and other researchers the study collected data in two phases to investigate the study hypotheses.
Findings – The study results suggest that consumers’ online patronage is differed based on product type. Interaction effects of the online stores and product type were significant too. Additionally, the rank order of importance of the Internet attribute varied among the three types of online retailers.
Research limitations/implications – The study results should be replicated in other markets. Future studies may also include a variety of different types of online outlets to improve the conclusiveness of the findings reported in this study.
Practical implications – The results should be of interest to the online retailers in choosing the types of merchandise and services to emphasis in the retailers marketing program.
Originality/value – The paper should be of interest to academicians as well as practitioners as it contributes to the small but growing literature in the area of online retailing. It adds to the literature on the product classification paradigm as well as offers practical guidelines for managers.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Matthew K.O. Lee, Christy M.K. Cheung, Kai H. Lim and Choon Ling Sia, “Understanding Customer Knowledge Sharing in Web-based Discussion Boards: An Exploratory Study,” Internet Research, 16.3 (2006): 289-303.
Abstract: Purpose – The proliferation and advance of web-based technologies create expanded opportunities for retailers to gain a better understanding of their customers. However, the success of these web-based discussion boards depends solely on whether customers are willing to share their knowledge and experience with other customers in these discussion boards. Thus, this study aims at identifying the factors that drive knowledge sharing among customers in web-based discussion boards.
Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory study with 104 respondents was conducted to identify and categorize the key factors of customer knowledge sharing in web-based discussion boards.
Findings – The results indicate that the enjoyment of helping others is the most frequently cited reason for customer knowledge sharing in web-based discussion boards. On the other hand, the lack of knowledge self-efficacy is the mostly cited reason explaining why customers do not want to share knowledge with others.
Research limitations/implications – The exploratory analysis suggests that the underlying reasons that motivate and inhibit customers to share are very different. There is a need to integrate multiple theoretical perspectives from across the social and technical domains if this phenomenon is to be better understood.
Practical implications – Building upon the findings of this study, some generic guidelines for retailers and web designers for promoting customer sharing in web-based discussion boards are outlined.
Originality/value – This research is one of the first studies to use the socio-technical perspective to investigate customer knowledge sharing phenomena in web-based discussion boards.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Katariina Maenpaa, “Clustering the Consumers on the Basis of their Perceptions of the Internet Banking Services.” Internet Research, 16.3 (2006): 304-322.
Keywords: Internet, Electronic commerce, Banking, Consumer behaviour, Cluster analysis
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to explore Internet banking services (IBS), consumers availing the services and the potential development possibilities of the services in the challenging operational environment.
Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of exploratory interviews, previous Internet banking studies and relating literature, seven dimensions of IBS ranging from very practical to more hedonic are developed and explored. The users of IBS are examined by clustering them on the basis of differences in perceptions of the proposed service dimensions. Data set comprised of 300 computer-supported interviews.
Findings – The major finding is that three of the consumer clusters do not value service dimensions containing experiential features, whereas the fourth cluster, comprising mainly of youngsters, perceived those service dimensions very appealing.
Practical implications – Two alternative approaches are suggested to the developing and designing IBS. The cost-effective strategy for serving currently profitable customers is to adhere to basic IBS that they prefer. However, designing versatile and experiential IBS might prove to be lucrative investment for the future. The biggest consumer cluster comprising of youngsters, potential bank customers of tomorrow, preferred more diversified and even entertaining features.
Originality/value – The study represents strategically interesting viewpoints to design and develop IBS in order to achieve optimal results in the future.
Method: Survey – Interviews/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

H. Cenk Ozmutlu, Fatih Cavdur and Seda Ozmutlu, “Automatic New Topic Identification in Search Engine Transaction Logs,” Internet Research, 16.3 (2006): 323-338.
Keywords: Search engines, Identification, Information retrieval, Cluster analysis
Abstract: Purpose – Content analysis of search engine user queries is an important task, since successful exploitation of the content of queries can result in the design of efficient information retrieval algorithms of search engines, which can offer custom-tailored services to the web user. Identification of topic changes within a user search session is a key issue in content analysis of search engine user queries. The purpose of this study is to address these issues.
Design/methodology/approach – This study applies genetic algorithms and Dempster-Shafer theory, proposed by He et al., to automatically identify topic changes in a user session by using statistical characteristics of queries, such as time intervals and query reformulation patterns. A sample data log from the Norwegian search engine FAST (currently owned by overture) is selected to apply Dempster-Shafer theory and genetic algorithms for identifying topic changes in the data log.
Findings – As a result, 97.7 percent of topic shifts and 87.2 percent of topic continuations were estimated correctly. The findings are consistent with the previous application of the Dempster-Shafer theory and genetic algorithms on a different search engine data log. This finding could be implied as an indication that content-ignorant topic identification, using query patterns and time intervals, is a promising line of research.
Originality/value – Studies an important dimension of user behavior in information retrieval.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Demspter-Shafer)

Rong-An Shang, Yu-Chen Chen and Hsueh-Jung Liao, “The Value of Participation in Virtual Consumer Communities on Brand Loyalty,” Internet Research, 16.4 (2006): 398-418.
Keywords: Internet, Brand loyalty, Buying behaviour
Abstract: Purpose – To examine the effects of consumers’ lurking and posting behaviors in virtual consumer communities on specific brand loyalty.
Design/methodology/approach – An online survey of a virtual community of Apple computer users was conducted to test a model of involvement, participation, loyalty, trust, and attitudes toward the brand exist in messages within the community.
Findings – The causes and effects of lurking and posting differed. Lurking contributed to brand loyalty more than posting did, and the primary purpose of lurking was to look for information regarding product function/performance, instead of satisfying consumers’ affective needs.
Research limitations/implications – As a result of the limitations in a computer mediated communication environment, virtual consumer communities should be perceived as an arena for weak-tied strangers to communicate for word-of-mouth (WOM) behavior, rather than as a brand community.
Practical implications – Although negative messages in a community can hurt brand image, companies should encourage the establishment of communities about their products and encourage consumers to participate in them.
Originality/value – Although the importance of virtual communities has been recognized, few studies have been done to examine the business value of consumer communities. Based on perspectives of brand community and WOM behavior, this paper contributes to virtual community and marketing research by clarifying the effects of consumers’ lurking and posting behaviors in a consumer community on brand loyalty.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Amanda Spink, Bernard J. Jansen, Vinish Kathuria and Sherry Koshman, “Overlap Among Major Web Search Engines,” Internet Research, 16.4 (2006): 419-426.
Keywords: World wide web, Search engines Abstract: Purpose – This paper reports the findings of a major study examining the overlap among results retrieved by three major web search engines. The goal of the research was to: measure the overlap across three major web search engines on the first results page overlap (i.e. share the same results) and the differences across a wide range of user defined search terms; determine the differences in the first page of search results and their rankings (each web search engine’s view of the most relevant content) across single-source web search engines, including both sponsored and non-sponsored results; and measure the degree to which a meta-search web engine, such as Dogpile.com, provides searchers with the most highly ranked search results from three major single source web search engines.
Design/methodology/approach – The authors collected 10,316 random Dogpile.com queries and ran an overlap algorithm using the URL for each result by query. The overlap of first result page search for each query was then summarized across all 10,316 to determine the overall overlap metrics. For a given query, the URL of each result for each engine was retrieved from the database.
Findings – The percent of total results unique retrieved by only one of the three major web search engines was 85 percent, retrieved by two web search engines was 12 percent, and retrieved by all three web search engines was 3 percent. This small level of overlap reflects major differences in web search engines retrieval and ranking results. Research limitations/implications – This study provides an important contribution to the web research literature. The findings point to the value of meta-search engines in web retrieval to overcome the biases of single search engines.
Practical implications – The results of this research can inform people and organizations that seek to use the web as part of their information seeking efforts, and the design of web search engines.
Originality/value – This research is a large investigation into web search engine overlap using real data from a major web meta-search engine and single web search engines that sheds light on the uniqueness of top results retrieved by web search engines.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Pablo Zoghbi Manrique de Lara, Domingo Verano Tacoronte and Jyh-Ming Ting Ding, “Do Current Anti-cyberloafing Disciplinary Practices Have a Replica in Research Findings? A Study of the Effects of Coercive Strategies on Workplace Internet Misuse,” Internet Research, 16.4 (2006): 450-467.
Keywords: Leadership, Punishment, Internet, Control theory, Workplace
Abstract: Purpose – This study aims to test the extent to which current coercive control strategies receive research support in controlling deviant workplace Internet behavior, also called cyberloafing. Consequently, it examines the relationship between cyberloafing and three classic coercive variables: perceived organizational control (POC), fear of formal punishment (FFP) and physical leadership proximity (LPP) as sensed by the employee. The model tested suggests that perceptions of leader physical proximity (LPP) antecede both the organizational amount of control (POC) and FFP and these both ones, in turn, affect cyberloafing. Additionally, the model suggests that POC increases FFP. 
Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from 147 (19.4 percent) of the 758 non-teaching staff at a Spanish public university. Accessibility of individual e-mail accounts was similar for all employees. E-mails asking for collaboration were sent in two phases. A questionnaire was posted on the university intranet and could be accessed by clicking on a link in the e-mails.
Findings – Structural equation modeling results show that LPP is a significant positively associated antecedent of POC and FFP. Moreover, POC, in turn, decreases cyberloafing, while FFP increases it. Finally, POC and FFP fully mediate the relationship between LPP and cyberloafing. Research limitations/implications – The researched employees have job conditions inherent to the peculiarities of the public sector which may limit the ability to extrapolate the findings in the private sector. The fear construct was assessed by a self-supplied scale, and thus the presence of shades of other similar emotions could not be discounted. Findings provide a more understandable mechanism of the influence of supervisor proximity on cyberloafing.
Practical implications – These findings contribute to an understanding of the ways in which organizations can control cyberloafing and provide reservations about the intimidator strategy efficiency. Supervisor proximity through the employee’s control senses appear as an effective strategy. 
Originality/value – The study of the joint interaction of the cited coercive variables against cyberloafing is unprecedented.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Dong Hee Shin, “Distributed inter-organizational systems and innovation processes,” Internet Research, 16.5 (2006): 553-572.
Keywords: Computer software, Employee behavior, Computer communications software,
Computer networks
Abstract: Purpose – This research provides a contextual analysis of the introduction of a distributed inter-organizational system (DIOS) in three organizations.
Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory case study was conducted to assess the user reactions and the consequences of implementing a videoconferencing system in the organizations.
Findings – Respondents reported radically different experiences with the DIOS videoconferencing. Activity theory is used as a framework for analyzing the organizational context at the three sites and exploring the consequences of using the system. It describes a range of human activities and innovation underlying the inter-organizational work process and suggests that deficiencies in actors’ activity of the process limit the value of DIOS process.
Research limitations/implications – A context-sensitive research approach to explain the DIOS design and use shows how human activities are included into DIOS. Meso level focus of activity analysis suggests an implication for IOS literature which supplements the findings from activity theory. The paper concludes by examining extant theorizing about innovation and suggests points of departure suggested by the conceptual frame.
Practical implications – The research provides a valuable reference for DIOS designers in particular public organizations’ process innovation. It further gives a lesson that DIOS design engages not only technical innovations, but also accompanies significant organizational changes.
Originality/value – This research contributes to DIOS planning research by clarifying the relations of the DIOS planning process and its consequences. It further clarifies the environmental and organizational factors in terms of political economy perspective identified by previous IOS research. 
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Kelli S Burns and Richard J Lutz, “The Function of Format: Consumer Responses to Six On-line Advertising Formats,” Journal of Advertising, 35.1(Spring 2006): 53-63.
Keywords: N/A/
Abstract: This study represents an initial empirical test of a new construct–attitude toward on-line advertising format (AFORMAT). An on-line survey was used to examine both antecedents and consequences of AFORMAT for each of six on-line ad formats (e.g., pop-ups, banners, skyscrapers). Regression analyses revealed AFORMAT to be significantly related to attitude toward the ad (AAD) for all formats. Furthermore, AFORMAT was significantly related to self-reported on-line ad behaviors such as clickthrough. Overall, the results strongly suggest that the nature of the on-line ad format is an important characteristic that influences on-line advertising response.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Gary L Geissler, George M Zinkhan and Richard T Watson, “The Influence of Homepage: Complexity on Consumer Attention, Attitudes, and Purchase Intent,”
Journal of Advertising, 35.2 (Summer 2006): 69-80.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The Web is an increasingly important component of promotional strategy for many organizations. To date, most advertising research has focused on banner ads. In the present study, home pages as promotional vehicles are evaluated. Specifically, we examine the influence of perceived home page complexity on communication effectiveness, as measured by attention to the home page, attitude toward the home page, attitude toward the company, and purchase intent. Qualitative research is used to identify important factors that appear to influence perceptions of home page complexity, including home page length, number of graphics, number of links, amount of text, and use of animation. A pretest experiment further aided in the selection of appropriate factors and factor levels to manipulate in a subsequent, main experiment. The findings in the main experiment suggest that consumers respond more favorable toward home pages that fall in a moderate range of perceived complexity.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Stephen K Koernig and Neil Granitz, “Progressive Yet Traditional: The Portrayal of Women Compared to That of Men in e-Commerce Magazine Advertising,” Journal of Advertising, 35.2 (Summer 2006): 81-97.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Advertising serves as a form of communication and cultural record that can reflect the social condition and be a constructor of those who view the ads (Kellner 1995). However, this cultural record may not always reflect reality; instead it may create and perpetuate cultural stereotypes (Kates and Shaw-Garlock 1999). A significant body of research focusing on the United States and international settings has analyzed sex roles in advertisements, generally demonstrating negative and inaccurate stereotypes of women. Traditionally, women have been depicted as dependent on men, and are shown primarily in domestic scenarios related to happy families and perfectionism. In contrast, men have been shown in the workplace, and are portrayed as knowledgeable, powerful, and driven; they are also depicted in a wide variety of locations, situations, and occupations.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Chun-Yao Huang and Chen-Shun Lin, “Modeling the Audience’s Banner Ad Exposure for Internet Advertising Planning,” Journal of Advertising, 35.2 (Summer 2006): 123-135.
Keywords: N/A/
Abstract: The authors focus on methods to measure and plan for Internet advertising. Since Internet audiences are not bound by a schedule in the conventional sense, they propose that an exposure model for banner advertising be analyzed by frequency of Web site visits. They believe that a negative binomial distribution (NBD) model, which has been used in analyzing repeat behaviors in marketing science, can be employed as a model for measuring banner ad exposure. The model performs well for the description and prediction of the extent of exposure to online advertising campaigns and can serve as a foundation for future modeling efforts.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Negative Binomial Distribution)

Chang-Hoan Cho and HyoungKoo Khang, “The State of Internet-Related Research in Communications, Marketing, and Advertising: 1994-2003,” Journal of Advertising, 35.3 (Fall 2006): 143-163.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study analyzes trends, patterns and rigorousness in research studies about the Internet through a content analysis of published Internet-related papers in 15 major journals in communications, marketing and advertising between 1994 and 2003. Five hundred thirty seven papers of 4,050 total papers in the 15 journals (13.3%) were about the Internet. The results of this study demonstrate a definite pattern of increase in Internet research, the existence of a wide dispersion of individual and institutional contributors, a need for a more explicit theoretical framework, and a need for better methodological rigors in Internet research. In terms of topical coverage, this study concludes that Internet research deals with diverse research topics, but has not quite reached the last phase of Wimmer and Dominick’s (2002) media developmental model (i.e., how we can improve the Internet).
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Grace J Johnson, Gordon C Bruner II and Anand Kumar, “Interactivity and its Facets Revisited,” Journal of Advertising, 35.4 (Winter 2006): 35-52.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Interactivity is reviewed with the goal of addressing several important shortcomings in existing work: a need for generalizability of definitions across all situations and technologies; an explicit incorporation of the nonverbal facet of communication; and a reconsideration of control as an intrinsic aspect of all manners of interactivity. Based on this review, four facets of interactivity are proposed and tested experimentally. Three of the facets–responsiveness, nonverbal information, and speed of response–were found to be significantly related to perceived interactivity. It is important to note that support was also found for modeling interactivity as a second-order formative construct. Implications of the findings for interactivity theory, as well as for managers developing advertising strategies using interactive media, are discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Barbara Briers, Siegfried Dewitte and Jan Van den Bergh, “E-zines Silence the Brand Detractors,” Journal of Advertising Research 46.2 (June 2006): 199-209.
Keywords: Research; Preference; Studies; Indexes; Implications 
Abstract: In this paper we investigated whether a company’s recommendation factor can be increased by opt-in e-zines. A sample of 817 railway travelers was interviewed on the train. Using Reichheld’s (2001) recommendation index, respondents were categorized as brand detractors, passively satisfied customers, or brand promoters. Respondents giving permission (n = 555) received either none or three e-zines in a period of six weeks. Post-measurement results (n = 221) showed that the proportion of detractors was significantly lower among respondents who received the newsletters compared to those who received no e-zines. Personalization to the receivers’ lifestyle, however, had a negative effect on recommendation. We conclude with managerial implications and suggestions for future research.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Carolyn A Lin, “Predicting Webcasting Adoption via Personal Innovativeness and Perceived Utilities,” Journal of Advertising Research, 46.2 (June 2006): 228-239.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Broadcasting over the internet presents a new frontier for media and advertising industries to conquer. At the local level, the greatest asset of a television station is its “localism” with the audience still regarding television stations as the most effective source for local weather, traffic, and sports news as well as advertising compared to cable television, public television, newspapers, magazine, or the internet. Hence, the unique advantage that a television station website can offer may involve providing locally-oriented webcasting services as well as serving as a portal to features and other websites of local interest. This study explored the profile of early adopters of webcasting, the potential predictors of webcasting adoption and audience interest in different types of local webcast features. A national sample representing the top 50 television markets in the United States was interviewed via a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system for data collection. Study results found that webcasting adopters suited the profile of “early adopters” of online technology. Moreover, personal innovativeness, perceived utilities of webcasting as well as online-use frequency and per-online-use duration were found to be significant predictors of webcasting adoption (although demographic characteristics were not). Findings on audience adoption interest in local webcast features, and their implications for advertisers, were also discussed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Robert V. Kozinets, “Click to Connect: Netnography and Tribal Advertising,” Journal of Advertising Research, 46.3 (September 2006): 279-289.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Copywriters ground advertising insight in their understanding of the consumer. In contemporary consumer culture, much meaningful consumption takes places in a communal, collective, and tribal environment. Advertisers and copywriters in particular would benefit from a culturally-grounded understanding of the language, meanings, rituals, and practices of the consumer tribes with which advertising seeks to communicate. This article suggests that the rigorous application of netnography the online practice of anthropology could be helpful to advertisers and copywriters as they seek this enhanced understanding. Netnography is faster, simpler, timelier and much less expensive than traditional ethnography. Because it is unelicited, it is more naturalistic and unobtrusive than focus groups, surveys, or interviews. However, it still largely text-based, anonymous, poses ethical issues, is often overwhelming, can invite superficial and decontextualized interpretation, and requires considerable researcher acuity. In a detailed interpretation of a single newsgroup posting, author seeks seek to demonstrate the level of cultural nuance required for quality netnographic interpretation and the potential of the method for generating technocultural insights to guide advertising copywriters.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Social Interaction

Gwen S. Ishmael and Jerry W. Thomas, “Worth a Thousand Words,” Journal of Advertising Research, 46.3 (September 2006): 274-278.
Keywords: N/A/
Abstract: A look into online ethnography. This article describes what online ethnography is and how to analyze it. Online ethnography provides a snapshot of respondents’ real-life experiences in order to truly understand not just what they report they do, but what they are actually doing and how that behavior drives their decisions.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

K. Kenski and T. Jomini, “Connections between Internet Use and Political Efficacy, Knowledge, and Participation,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50.2 (2006): 173-192.
Keywords: Internet use; Internet access; Internet exposure; online exposure; political efficacy; political knowledge; political participation
Abstract: Using data from the 2000 National Annenberg Election Survey, this study looks at the relationships between Internet access and exposure to presidential campaign information online and political efficacy, knowledge, and participation. Our results show that Internet access and online campaign exposure are significantly associated with these important political variables. Several of the associations between Internet access and exposure with political efficacy, knowledge, and participation are detectable even when taking sociodemographic variables, party identification, partisan strength, political interest and several other media exposures variables into account.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Matthew S. Eastin, Mong-Shan Yang and Amy I. Nathanson, “Children of the Net: An Empirical Exploration Into the Evaluation of Internet Content,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50.2 (2006): 211-230.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: During a typical online search, users are faced with literally thousands of information sources as well as unsolicited information such as advertising. Judging the legitimacy of information presented and focusing on needed content can be difficult for children. Thus, the current study examines how children evaluate information online. Manipulating the presence of a source, advertising and dynamism to understand information recall and credibility perceptions, this project initiates a needed research agenda aimed at children and their Internet experiences. Results demonstrate that content such as source, advertising, and dynamism do influence credibility perceptions and recall.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Cassandra van Buren, “Critical Analysis of Racist Post-9/11 Web Animations,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50.3 (2006): 537-554.
Abstract: Of particular relevance to this study, as narratives that provide a foundation for interpreting post-9/11 anti-Arab animations, are those cartoons Sampson (1998) discussed that construct Arabs in negative characterizations. These works illustrate that the use of negative stereotypes to represent Arabs is not a recent phenomenon in the U.S. cultural lexicon. Sampson documented that the Arabs in these earlier animations are often characterized by affording them various African American dialects and accents, a narrative move that addresses a complexity in and conflation of racial tensions among White Americans, producers and audiences alike.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Dmitri Williams, “Groups and Goblins: the Social and Civic Impact of an Online Game,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50.4 (2006): 651-670.
Abstract: Video games have joined the media mainstream and are now played regularly by a majority of Americans (Entertainment Software Association [ESA], 2005). As an industry, they gross almost as much as motion pictures. Although many people perceive video games to be the province of children (Williams, 2003), their use has become an all-ages phenomenon, with the average player now 30 years of age and rising (ESA, 2005). Nevertheless, the cultural reception surrounding video games has focused research attention largely on their potentially harmful effects on interpersonal violence and aggression in adolescents (Anderson and Dill, 2000; Sherry, 2001). Recently, scholars have begun to take notice of the socially networked aspect of game play, opening up new lines of inquiry (Griffiths, Davies, and Chappell, 2003; Jones, 2003). In particular, games played over broadband networks, whether they are based on personal computers or console systems, have begun to link people from around the world as they engage in a shared play experience. These computing networks create social networks (Wellman and Gullia, 1999), which in turn have brought networked gaming into the research arena of Internet effects. Online gaming, then, has become a place to test hypotheses about civic engagement, social capital, and the displacement of face-to-face interactions.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Dmitri Williams, “Virtual Cultivation: Online Worlds, Offline Perceptions,” Journal of Communication, 56.1 (2006): 69-87.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The first longitudinal, controlled experiment of a video game explored the presence of cultivation effects due to play. Over the course of a month, participants in an online game changed their perceptions of real-world dangers. However, these dangers only corresponded to events and situations found in the game world, not other real-world crimes. This targeted finding is at odds with the broader spreading activation postulated by some cultivation researchers. The results, their implications for theory, and the study of games are discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Sriram Kalyanaraman and S. Shyam Sundar, “The Psychological Appeal of Personalized Content in Web Portals: Does Customization Affect Attitudes and Behavior?” Journal of Communication, 56.1 (2006): 110-132.
Keywords: N/A/
Abstract: Internet technology has made possible the widespread dissemination of individualized media messages, but we know very little about their psychological import. A between subjects experiment (N = 60) with three levels of customization (low, medium, high) was designed to examine whether greater levels of personalized content engender more positive attitudes. The results not only confirm this hypothesis but also reveal the mediating role played by users’ perceptions of relevance, involvement, interactivity, and novelty of portal content. In addition, customization has behavioral effects in that it affects users’ browsing activity.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Rebecca Verser and Robert H. Wicks, “Managing Voter Impressions: The Use of Images on Presidential Candidate Web Sites During the 2000 Campaign,” Journal of Communication, 56.2 (2006): 178–197.
Abstract: Presidents Kennedy, Reagan, and Clinton mastered of art of using television to manage impressions in the television age. With the advent of the Internet, recent presidential campaigns have begun to recognize the potential of this medium in shaping images and managing impressions among voters. This study focuses on the 2000 presidential election and the images of the presidential candidates appearing on their official campaign Web sites. It also evaluates the visual strategies the candidates used and the overall themes of the images. Each candidate appeared to present campaign photographs in ways that may have been orchestrated to enhance their appeal and reverse negative media portrayals.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Kenichi Ishii, “Implications of Mobility: The Uses of Personal Communication Media in Everyday Life,” Journal of Communication, 56.1 (2006): 346-365.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examined the impact of mobile communications on interpersonal relationships in daily life. Based on a nationwide survey in Japan, landline phone, mobile voice phone, mobile mail (text messaging), and PC e-mail were compared to assess their usage in terms of social network and psychological factors. The results indicated that young, nonfamily-related pairs of friends, living close to each other with frequent face-to- face contact were more likely to use mobile media. Social skill levels are negatively correlated with relative preference for mobile mail in comparison with mobile voice phone. These findings suggest that mobile mail is preferable for Japanese young people who tend to avoid direct communication and that its use maintains existing bonds rather than create new ones. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Kirstie M. Farrar, Marina Krcmar and Kristine L. Nowak, “Contextual Features of Violent Video Games, Mental Models, and Aggression,” Journal of Communication, 56.2 (2006): 387-405.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This experiment employed a 2 (third vs. first person) 3 2 (blood on/off) 3 2 (sex) design in order to examine the effects of two internal video game manipulations: the presence of blood and point of view on participants’ perceptions of the game. Overall, when the blood manipulation was on, participants perceived greater gore. Players were significantly more focused when they played in the third-person point of view than when they played in first person. Males were more involved in the game overall regardless of point of view, but females were more focused and involved when they played in third, not first, person. In addition, we wanted to see if game manipulations and perceptions of the game affected aggressive outcomes. Those who played the game in the blood-on condition had more physically aggressive intentions, and when players were more involved and immersed in the game, they reported greater hostility and physically aggressive intentions. Findings are discussed as they relate to mental models of media violence.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Schema)

Eyun-Jung Ki, Byeng-Hee Chang and Hyoungkoo Khang, “Exploring Influential Factors on Music Piracy Across Countries,” Journal of Communication 56.2 (2006) 406-426.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study explored various determinant variables influencing music piracy rates across countries. Seven variables, including income level, income inequality, individualism– collectivism, level of education, intellectual property protection, music CD price and music market size, were adopted for this study. This study found that income level, income inequality and market size directly impact music piracy, whereas income level, level of education, music CD price and market size influenced music piracy through intellectual property protection.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Policy

Matthew S. Eastin, Bradley S. Greenberg, and Linda Hofschire, “Parenting the Internet,” Journal of Communication 56.3 (2006): 486-504.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Telephone surveys of single and married mothers of teenagers in public schools, mothers of teenagers in religious schools, and mothers of homeschooled teenagers examined the influence that parenting styles and level of Internet access in the home have on parenting mediation of online content and time spent on the Internet (N = 520). Specifically, how authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting styles as well as home and bedroom Internet access influence the evaluative and restrictive mediation techniques used by parents was investigated. Results indicate that parenting style has a significant effect on almost all mediation techniques studied, whereas increased access only influences time online. Additionally, technological blocking as a restrictive mediation technique was found to be highest among authoritative parents, followed by authoritarian and neglectful.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Jochen Peter and Patti M. Valkenburg, “Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Online Material and Recreational Attitudes Toward Sex,” Journal of Communication 56.4 (2006): 639-660.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Previous research has largely ignored the implications of adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit online material for their sexual attitude formation. To study whether adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit material on the Internet is related to recreational attitudes toward sex, researchers conducted an online survey among 471 Dutch adolescents aged 13–18. In line with an orientation 1 – stimulus – orientation 2 – response (O1-S-O2- R) model, study found a pattern of multiple mediated relationships. Male adolescents (O1) used sexually explicit online material (S) more than female adolescents, which led to a greater perceived realism of such material (O2). Perceived realism (O2), in turn, mediated the relationship between exposure to sexually explicit online material (S) and recreational attitudes toward sex (R). Exposure to sexually explicit online material, then, is related to more recreational attitudes toward sex, but this relationship is influenced by adolescents’ gender and mediated by the extent to which they perceive online sexual material as realistic.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Faiza Hirji, “Common Concerns and Constructed Communities: Muslim Canadians, the Internet, and the War in Iraq,” Journal of Communication Inquiry 2006; 30; 125-141.
Keywords: Muslim diaspora; Internet news service; citizenship
Abstract: Media fulfill a number of different functions for members of diasporas, helping to maintain networks built around nationality, culture or religion. In times of international conflict, immigrants or minorities living in Canada may be particularly reliant on diasporic media if mainstream news networks do not supply the relevant information or desired perspective. This article focuses on the specific role that Internet news services might play in fostering a sense of identity or community for a uniquely placed group, Canadian Muslims, during the invasion of Iraq. In particular, the construction of a loosely knit community opposed to the Iraq War is examined in relation to a news service, Montreal Muslim News, which is based in Canada but addresses a variety of domestic and international affairs. The content on this Web site is analyzed to determine what discourses it may contain regarding citizenship, community, and political engagement.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

May O. Lwin and Jerome D. Williams, “Promises, Promises: How Consumers Respond to Warranties in Internet Retailing,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 40.2 (2006): 236-260.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Past studies have shown that perceived risk is a critical determinant of purchase intention in non–store retailing contexts, including Internet retailing. Extant literature in physical retailing suggests that warranties can be a significant variable in reducing consumers’ perceived risk. Researchers examine the role of Web site warranties in risk reduction and how warranty information interacts with retailer reputation and brand name as two other risk relievers in an online shopping environment. Results suggest that warranties can make a positive difference for online retailers with strong reputations with respect to perceived risk, perceived product quality, and purchase intentions. However, consumers are less influenced by warranty information when dealing with online retailers with weak reputations. For the other extrinsic cue, however, study finds that warranty information does not have an effect when dealing with brand names, suggesting that a brand name’s impact on online risk reduction remains regardless of the presence of warranty information.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Policy

Heejin Lim, Richard Widdows, and Jungkun Park, “M-loyalty: Winning Strategies for Mobile Carriers,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23.4 (2006): 208-218.
Keywords: Mobile communication systems, Customer services quality, Customer satisfaction, Customer loyalty
Abstract: Purpose – This study aims to investigate determinants of satisfaction and loyalty decisions in the use of mobile services.
Design/methodology/approach – A research model was designed to identify multi-dimensions of mobile service quality and perceived value, and investigate their influences on satisfaction and loyalty. Structural equation modeling was employed to test hypotheses.
Findings – Statistical analysis identified five distinct dimensions of mobile service quality, and their direct and indirect effects on economic value, emotional value on loyalty intention through satisfaction. Two dimensions of perceived value (i.e. economic value, emotional value) had significant influences on customer satisfaction, and then, on loyalty intention. Also, the results show interrelationship between economic and emotional value.
Originality/value – In particular, each dimension of mobile service quality appeared to have different effects on perceived economic value, emotional value and the level of satisfaction. Accordingly, mobile service managers are recommended to develop strategic promotion efforts based on targeted consumers’ needs and marketing goals.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Dennis Pitta, Frank Franzak and Danielle Fowler, “A Strategic Approach to Building Online Customer Loyalty: Integrating Customer Profitability Tiers,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23.7 (2006): 421-429.
Keywords: Customer loyalty, Customer relations, Internet shopping, Profit maximization, Electronic commerce
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a strategic framework to managing online loyalty.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper integrates concepts including a range of recently published (1993-2006) theoretical works in consumer loyalty and ongoing case developments in internet practice.
Findings – Provides information and action approaches to consumer marketers that may increase the success providing want satisfying market offerings. Outlines the costs and benefits of some online customer loyalty building practices. By integrating the literature supporting lifetime customer value with the literature concerned with generating online customer relationships, it provides a pathway to profitable relationships. It also exposes the unintended problems that some online customer loyalty initiatives may create.
Research limitations/implications – The theoretical concepts that form the foundation of the paper appear to have a significant application to consumer marketing but have not been tested empirically.
Practical implications – Uncovers a previously unreported strategy for generating profitable online customer loyalty.
Originality/value – This paper describes the nature and application of customer value tiers to an important marketing process. It offers the potential of increasing marketing success by allowing firms to maximize the value of their scarce service resources by serving profitable customers.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

James C. Ward and Amy L Ostrom, “Complaining to the Masses: The Role of Protest Framing in Customer-Created Complaint Web Sites,” Journal of Consumer Research, 33.2 (2006): 220-230.
Abstract: Consumers who once might have voiced their dissatisfaction with a firm to a few friends and acquaintances are now constructing Web sites to tell the world about their dissatisfaction. Protest-framing theory reveals the interlocking rhetorical tactics (injustice, identity, and agency framing) consumers use to mobilize mass audiences against a firm, contributing important insights to our understanding of negative word of mouth. Moreover, an analysis of protest sites reveals that consumers “frame” their corporate betrayal to the public to demonstrate their power to influence others and gain revenge. As a result, a community of discontent may arise in which both individual and social identities appear to be constructed and affirmed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Osei Appiah, “Rich Media, Poor Media: The Impact of Audio/Video vs. Text/Picture Testimonial Ads on Browsers’ Evaluations of Commercial Web Sites and Online Products,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 28.1 (Spring 2006): 73-87.
Key Words: vividness effects, modality, availability-valence, multimedia, online shopping
Abstract: There has been some debate among advertisers concerning the practicality, necessity, and effectiveness of using multimedia on Internet Web sites. Most companies have been slow to use multimedia features on their site, and it seemed worthwhile to test whether this behavior is warranted by testing the impact of multimedia ads on a commercial Web site. In particular, this study attempted to test whether browsers’ responses to multimedia like audio/video testimonial ads on a commercial Web site would significantly differ from their responses to either a commercial Web site with text/picture testimonials or a commercial Web site with no testimonials. The findings indicated that Internet browsers were more likely to believe a site was targeting them, rate a site more favorably, and rate the product more favorably when the site contained audio/video testimonials than they were when the site contained either text I picture testimonials or no testimonials. Vividness effects of media modality and the availability-valence theoretical framework are discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

W.M. Guohua, “Conceptualizing and Measuring the Perceived Interactivity of Websites,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 28. 1 (Spring 2006): 87-105.
Keywords: interactivity, interactive media, interactive advertising, interactive marketing, online consumer behavior.
Abstract: The perceived interactivity of websites by site-visitors (PI^^J is defined as a psychological state experienced by a site-visitor during the interaction process. It manifests in three dimensions: (1) perceived control over (a) the site navigation, (b) the pace or rhythm of the interaction, and (c) the content being accessed; (2) perceived responsiveness from (a) the site owner, (b) from the navigation cues and signs, (c) the persons online; and (3) perceived personalization of the site (a) as if it were a person, (b) as if it wants to know the site visitor, and (c) as if it understands the site visitor. Based on this conceptual definition, a scale for the perceived interactivity of zoebsites was developed and validated. A series of studies was conducted to assess its dimensionality, reliability, and validity. Empirical evidence indicates that the scale is reliable, valid, parsimonious and generalizable. Implications of our conceptual and operational definitions of the construct of perceived interactivity of websites are discussed for interactive advertising and marketing research and practice. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Eric J. Karson, Samuel D. McCloy and P. Greg Bonner, “An Examination of Consumers’ Attitudes and Beliefs Towards Web Site Advertising,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 28.2 (Fall 2006): 77-92.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article examines consumers’ attitudes towards Web site advertising (WSA), and the beliefs that help shape these attitudes, using an established model of consumers’ evaluation of advertising (Pollay and Mittal 1993). The authors apply these constructs to WSA, using three years of data gathered from consecutive student samples. Key findings indicate that while global attitudes towards WSA are relatively stable, consumers have become less positive about the “hedonic/pleasurable” aspects of WSA. In addition, this analysis suggests that consumers can be segmented based on their beliefs about Web site advertising in terms of the following: (1) Pro WSA; (2) Ambivalent towards WSA; and (3) Critics of WSA.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Hanjun Ko, Marilyn S. Roberts and Chang-Hoan Cho, “Cross-Cultural Differences in Motivations and Perceived Interactivity: A Comparative Study of American and Korean Internet Users,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 28.2 (Fall 2006): 93-105.
Keywords: Cultural Contexts, Interactivity and Motivations
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine cultural differences in motivations for using the Internet and consumers’ interactivity on a website. Cultural context was used to explain cultural differences in motivations and interactivity between South Korea and the United States. The results showed that subjects from the low context culture had a higher degree of information and convenience motivation and perceived a higher degree of human-message interaction, while subjects from the high context culture had a higher degree of social interaction motivation and human-human interaction. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Ronald E. Goldsmith and David Horowitz, “Measuring Motivations for Online Opinion Seeking,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.2 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Online interpersonal influence or electronic word-of-mouth (“eWOM”) is an important aspect of ecommerce. Consumers give and seek opinions online in much the same way as they do offline, thereby affecting the sales of many goods and services. To further the understanding of eWOM, the present study used data from a survey of 309 consumers to develop a 32-item self-report scale measuring consumer motivations for online opinion seeking. This study revealed eight distinct factors. Consumers seek the opinions of others online to reduce their risk, because others do it, to secure lower prices, to get information easily, by accident (unplanned), because it is cool, because they are stimulated by off-line inputs such as TV, and to get pre-purchase information. A second study using data from 109 consumers showed that: (1) the scales measuring these motivations are free from social desirability response bias and acquiescence, (2) other consumers’ information is more important than advertising, and (3) consumers are likely to continue to seek WOM online, thereby confirming its importance in ecommerce.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Ray L. Benedicktus and Melinda L. Andrews, “Building Trust with Consensus Information: The Effects of Valence and Sequence,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.2 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A Direction
Abstract: Sellers’ reputation, as conveyed by consensus information, influences consumers’ trust in the company. Two experiments were used to investigate the effects of consensus information on consumer trust. Consensus trends were manipulated over three reporting periods. The results indicated that trust varies positively with the valence of a firm’s reputation and is similarly dependent upon whether the trend decreases or increases over time. Effects of valence and sequence direction were further explored in conditions wherein variation between periods was attenuated. Results showed that valence continued to drive trust. However, effects of sequence direction ceased to be significant when the change in reputation between periods was reduced.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Lance Porter and Guy J. Golan, “From Subservient Chickens to Brawny Men: A Comparison of Viral Advertising to Television Advertising,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.2 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study sought to examine and define a division of Electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) known as viral advertising. Representing the first empirical effort to investigate the content of, and ultimately define, viral advertising, this exploratory study found important differences between viral and television advertising. The definition posited in this study was confirmed. Significantly more than traditional advertising, viral advertising relies on provocative content to motivate unpaid peer-to-peer communication of persuasive messages from identified sponsors. While emotive content has always been the key to capturing audiences’ attention in advertising, viral advertising relies on increasingly raw content for actual distribution. This added reliance on titillation for distribution has a number of implications both for advertisers and the ultimate consumers of advertising.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Kjerstin S. Thorson and Shelly Rodgers, “Relationships between Blogs as eWOM and Interactivity, Perceived Interactivity, and Parasocial Interaction,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.2 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of a political candidate’s blog-a form of eWOM (electronic Word-of-Mouth)-on attitudes toward the website, attitudes toward the political candidate, and intentions to vote. The results showed that interactivity in the form of a blog significantly influenced attitude toward the website, but not attitudes toward the candidate or voting intention. However, perceived interactivity influenced all three dependent variables, but did not interact with interactivity, suggesting that these are two separate constructs. The effects were mediated by parasocial interaction.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Alexandre Steyer, Renaud Garcia-Bardidia and Pascale Quester, “Online Discussion Groups as Social Networks: An Empirical Investigation of Word-of-Mouth on the Internet.” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.2 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: While consumer behavior researchers have long studied word-of-mouth and diffusion of information among reference groups, the emergence of the internet has recently provided the means to empirically establish just how this process takes place, as well as who contributes to it. In this study, the way information was shared among consumers in relation to two product categories was described as following a power law. Implications for marketing and research are provided.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

John Fong and Suzan Burton, “Electronic Word-of-Mouth: A Comparison of Stated and Revealed Behavior on Electronic Discussion Boards,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.2 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The important influence of peer recommendations on consumer purchases has been strongly established. However, recent growth in electronic discussion boards has increased the potential for electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) between people who have never met. This study examines and compares the extent of eWOM on electronic discussion boards within U.S. and China based websites. Using online surveys (N = 214) and observation of discussion postings (N = 3029), data were collected from the “Digital Photography” discussion boards on eBay, Yahoo, and Google (U.S. based websites) and EachNet, Sina, and Netease (China based websites). The findings indicated both similarities and differences in the information giving and seeking behaviors, with the U.S. participants more likely to provide information than Chinese participants, resulting in the U.S. based discussion boards containing a richer source of information relative to requests.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Antti Vilpponen, Susanna Winter and Sanna Sundqvist, “Electronic Word-of-Mouth in Online Environments: Exploring Referral Network Structure and Adoption Behavior,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6.2 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article presents a network analysis of electronic word-of-mouth referral communication in a real life online environment. The goal of the paper was to clarify the existing terminology of electronic word-of-mouth behavior, to examine the kind of network structure that will emerge in the electronic environment, and finally to explore the impact of the network structure on the acceptance of an innovation in such a communication environment. Results indicated that the structure of an electronic communication network is different from the traditional interpersonal communication network structure. This study also showed that the network structure affects innovation adoption timing in the electronic communication environment, as a centralized network structure leads towards early adoption and as tie strength and adoption timing are related.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Mariko Morimoto and Susan Chang, “Consumers’ Attitudes toward Unsolicited Commercial E-mail and Postal Direct Mail Marketing Methods: Intrusiveness, Perceived Loss of Control, and Irritation,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7.1 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Using Psychological Reactance as the framework, this study sought to understand consumer attitudes towards two major direct marketing techniques: unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail. In particular, audience perceptions of advertising intrusiveness, perceived loss of control (as conceptualized by Psychological Reactance), and irritation regarding the direct marketing techniques were investigated. The results of this survey study (N=119) indicated that recipients perceived unsolicited e-mails as more intrusive and irritating than postal direct mail. This study contributed to the theory of Psychological Reactance by indicating that recipients did not feel a loss of control regarding spam, thus Psychological Reactance was not fully supported in the context of these marketing communication techniques. Suggestions for direct marketing practitioners conclude the paper.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Psychological Reactance)

Verolien Cauberghe and Patrick De Pelsmacker, “Opportunities and Thresholds for Advertising on Interactive Digital TV: A View from Advertising Professionals,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7.1 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This exploratory study investigates the knowledge, perceptions and intentions of advertising professionals in Belgium toward the introduction and use of IDTV as a marketing communication tool. In the first wave, a total of 320 advertising professionals cooperated in a web-survey that was posted just before the commercial launch of IDTV. 437 advertising professionals participated in the second wave, just one year after the commercial launch. The results show that their knowledge about the possibilities of IDTV was still very limited one year after the launch, reflecting also a rather troublesome result in terms of intentions to adopt IDTV. The intention rates measured in the first wave were relatively promising, taking into account that IDTV was not available at that moment, and the lack of knowledge about its possibilities. These intentions did not appear to be increased one year after IDTV launch. The growing perception of the low effectiveness of advertising on IDTV in combination with technological concerns that are rising after the first real-life try-outs may be the reasons for this threshold to use IDTV.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Tina Winkler and Kathy Buckner, “Receptiveness of Gamers to Embedded Brand Messages in Advergames: Attitudes towards Product Placement,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7.1 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Advergames are increasingly being used as part of a marketing campaign to promote products and brands. Previous research investigating the extent to which game players absorb messages in interactive environments has focused on video and more general online gaming environments. Using a snowball sampling technique authors examined the level of recall of products, brands and companies in advergames and whether the acceptability of product placement in advergames is related to attitude towards advertising in general. Our investigation shows recall of products and companies is high and that being negative about advertising in general has a stronger influence on attitude towards product placement in advergames than being positive about advertising. Authors conclude that advergames might work more effectively for products and brands that are already known to the game players and that advergames may be more suited to enhancing and altering brand impression rather than building awareness of products that are new to the target audience.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Qimei Chen and Shelly Rodgers, “Development of an Instrument to Measure Web Site Personality,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7.1 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: A Website Personality Scale (WPS) was developed and validated through a multi-phase process. We investigated the presence of human and brand personality attributes as well as information characteristics in over one hundred websites. A strong presence of information characteristics was found, verified along dimensions of content quality, access, and time. A number of traditional human and brand personality attributes also were present. These attributes correlated with overall attitude and liking of the websites, which helped to validate the scale. There was little evidence to support the presence of interactivity, real time, and customization-characteristics believed to be central to the Internet and Web technology. The findings suggest that the WPS is both a reliable and valid measure of website personality.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Brant Barton, “Ratings, Reviews, and ROI: How Leading Retailers Use Customer Word of Mouth in Marketing and Merchandising,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7.1 (Spring 2006).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Online word of mouth takes many forms, from individual blog posts to threaded message board conversations, but one particular form is quickly emerging as the new consumer-generated media of choice for leading online retailers and e-commerce sites focused on extracting both immediate and long-term ROI from their marketing efforts: customer ratings and reviews. Highly successful retailers like CompUSA, PETCO, and Burpee are leveraging customer ratings and reviews to enhance their existing online marketing, merchandising, and brand building efforts, including search marketing, email marketing, online display advertising, data-driven merchandising, blogs and RSS. These retailers and others have discovered that customer ratings and reviews are a highly desirable and effective form of word of mouth for multiple reasons. Ratings and reviews are highly focused on the objects of the purchase task, frequently sought out by consumers, and highly measurable.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy Analysis

Lorna Chicksand and Marylyn Carrigan, “Segmenting Voters Online: The Youth Vote,” Journal of Public Affairs, 6 (2006): 269–282.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This paper will build on previous work that has examined the impact of the Internet on political processes, such as the work of Gibson and Ward (1998, 2003) and Dermody and Wring (2001). Most of this work has focused on developing frameworks with which to analyze the “effectiveness” of these websites. Our approach complements this earlier work by utilizing an interpretive methodology (Thompson, 1996) to gain a deeper insight into end-users perceptions of political parties’ websites. This paper discusses the activities of young people on the Net and outline some of the reasons why political parties’ websites are failing to attract a younger audience. A consideration of the technical factors that make a ‘good’ website was followed by in-depth interviews with young people to elicit their views and experiences of political parties’ websites. At a time when voter apathy is at an all time low, this study is especially relevant.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Bryan H. Reber, Karla K. Gower and Jennifer A. Robinson, “The Internet and Litigation Public Relations,” Journal of Public Relations Research, 18.1 (2006): 23-44.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The Internet is an emerging new tool in litigation public relations. This article explores this new phenomenon of personal litigation Web sites by content analyzing the Web sites of 3 celebrities who were involved in high-profile litigation at the time: Martha Stewart, Richard Scrushy, and Michael Jackson. The analysis revealed that traditional litigation public relations standards transfer well to the Internet and suggests that such Web sites are a promising means for disseminating and controlling a client’s message. Implications for public relations theory, particularly the role of asymmetrical communication in public relations, are discussed. Suggestions for litigation public relations Web sites are proposed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Bryan H. Reber and Jun Kyo Kim, “How Activist Groups Use Websites in Media Relations: Evaluating Online Press Rooms,” Journal of Public Relations Research, 18.4 (2006): 313-333.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Content analysis of activist organization Websites determined how activists use online resources in media relations. Seventy-four activist Websites were analyzed. About one-third (32.4%) included organized online press rooms. The most common media relations materials were organizational history (70.3%), organizational mission statement (54.1%), organizational publications (47.3%), press releases (33.8%), and policy papers (31.1%). Activist Websites did not provide strong dialogic features for journalists, but dialogic features were more available for the general public. Theoretical implications are examined and 6 recommendations are made for improving online activist press relations.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Edgar Huang, Karen Davison, Stephanie Shreve, Twila Davis, Elizabeth Bettendorf and Anita Nair, “Bridging Newsrooms and Classrooms: Preparing the Next Generation of Journalists for Converged Media,” Journalism and Communication Monographs, 8.3 (October 2006): 221-263.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study has provided empirical evidence that will help journalism educators make informed decisions about how to teach media convergence in their curricula and courses. A national survey was conducted among college professors, news professionals, and news editors. The study found strong support for training generalists and teaching new technology while continuing to emphasize critical thinking in journalism schools. It concludes that dealing with media convergence in college journalism education is an urgent necessity.   
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Lindsay H. Hoffman, “Is Internet Content Different After All? A Content Analysis of Mobilizing Information in Online and Print Newspapers,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83.1 (Spring 2006): 58-76.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The present study answers calls of previous research to analyze the content of online news, assessing differences between print and online newspapers in frequency of “mobilizing information” (MI)-information aiding people to act on pre-existing attitudes. Conceptual and operational definitions of locational, identificational, and tactical MI are included. Results revealed that online newspapers did not have significantly more MI than their print counterparts. This finding counters the assumption that online newspapers have more mobilizing content than print.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Dustin Harp and Mark Tremayne, “The Gendered Blogosphere: Examining Inequality Using Network and Feminist Theory,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83 (Summer 2006): 247-264.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examined gender inequity among the most-read political blogs on the Web. Sampling over one year from blog rankings, we found that 10% of the top bloggers were women. Discourse analysis of bloggers’ explanations for gender disparity revealed three dominant beliefs: women do not blog about politics, women’s blogs lack quality, and top bloggers do not link to women’s sites.  Authors used network and feminist theory to explore these claims and offer suggestions for increasing the representation of female voices in the political Blogosphere.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Jeongsub Lim, “A Cross-lagged Analysis of Agenda Setting Among Online News Media,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 83 (Summer 2006): 298–313.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examined the causal relationships among the issue agendas of three online news media in South Korea during two time periods. The issue agendas of the two online newspapers at Time 1 influenced the issue agendas of the online wire service at Time 2. The online wire service did not influence the issue agendas of the two newspapers during the same time periods. The leading online newspaper influenced the issue agendas of both the secondary online newspaper and the online wire service. The findings extend intermedia agenda-setting studies to the online environment.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Agenda Setting/Building

Shannon L Bichard, “Building blogs: A Multi-dimensional Analysis of the Distribution of Frames on the 2004 Presidential Candidate Websites,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83.2 (Summer 2006): 329-345.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study investigates frames used by candidate Web sites in the 2004 presidential election. The analysis focuses on official blog content posted by the George W. Bush and Senator John Kerry Web sites. Content analysis was used to record time, space, tone, and topic attributes used in the blog text during the 64 days prior to the election. A comprehensive analysis is offered for the distribution of framing content and mechanisms employed for a total of 1,309 blog postings. The findings indicate notable trends as well as significant differences between candidates and their use of frames.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Jane B. Singer, “Stepping Back from the Gate: Online Newspaper Editors and the Co-Production of Content in Campaign 2004,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83.2 (Summer 2006): 265-280.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In their coverage of the 2004 political campaign, editors of Web sites affiliated with major U.S. newspapers continued to emphasize their role as providers of credible information. But they moved toward seeing that information less as an end product than as a basis for user engagement, participation, and personalization. This study, which builds on a similar study conducted after the 2000 election, suggests journalists may be taking steps toward reshaping their gatekeeping role to accommodate the interactive nature of the Internet.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Adam J. Schiffer, “Blogswarms and Press Norms: News Coverage of the Downing Street Memo Controversy,” Journalism &  Mass Communication Quarterly, 83.3 (Fall 2006), 494-510.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Among well-documented factors that shape political news coverage are reliance on official sources, indexing of coverage to the range of opinion among officials, and privileging of “episodes” over “themes.” The Downing Street Memo controversy of 2005 embodies a clash among those media agenda-setting factors and the intense desire of Internet activists to bring coverage to an issue that most political and media elites initially ignored. This case study analyzes the brief burst of mainstream coverage of the controversy. While straight news and television coverage were pegged mostly to official words and action, activists apparently had an easier time penetrating the op-ed pages of major newspapers.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Agenda Setting/Building

Xiaoli Nan, George Anghelcev, Jun Rong Myers, Sela Sar and Ron Faber, “What If a Website Can Talk? Exploring the Persuasive Effects of Web-based Anthropomorphic Agents,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83.3 (Fall 2006): 615-631.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This research examines the impact of Web-based anthropomorphic agents on consumers’ attitudes toward the Web site and the brand, with particular focus on two mediating factors. An experiment found that the presence (versus absence) of an anthropomorphic agent led to significantly more favorable attitudes toward the Web site, but had minimum influence on attitudes toward the brand. In addition, the influence of the agent on attitudes toward the Web site was mediated by perceived credibility of the Web site and positive emotional responses.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Kaye D. Trammell, Andrew Paul Williams, Monica Postelnicu and Kristen D. Landreville, “Evolution of Online Campaigning: Increasing Interactivity in Candidate Web Sites and Blogs Through Text and Technical Features,” Mass Communication and Society, 9.1 (2006): 21-44.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Political candidates have responded to the public’s desire to use the Internet as an interactive information source by creating their own online presence. This study is a content analysis of the Web sites and blogs of the 10 Americans vying to be the Democratic candidate for the 2004 presidential election. Focusing on interactivity, data indicated front pages hyperlink to participation areas such as Donation or Volunteer sections and rarely linked to external content. Blogs used hyperlinks at a rate less than Web sites. Interactivity was encouraged through text, as 83.7% of Web sites asked voters to become more involved. Blog posts discussed issues and attacked the opponents, including President Bush. For the most part, blog posts were personal in nature and used direct address. The tactical use of advanced Web site features showed a technological progression of political campaigning and an overall increase in interactivity through technology and text.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

James D. Ivory, “Still a Man’s Game: Gender Representation in Online Reviews of Video Games,” Mass Communication and Society, 9.1 (2006): 103-114.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: Despite the rising popularity of video games, the majority of the medium’s audience continues to be male. One reason may be that character representations in video games are geared toward male players. This content analysis used video game reviews from a heavily trafficked Internet site to investigate the prevalence and portrayal of male and female video game characters. Consistent with the findings of previous studies, female characters were found to be underrepresented and proportionally more often sexualized in comparison to their male counterparts. In addition to these findings, the study’s innovative method—the use of online video game reviews as an indirect measure of video game content—shows promise as a tool for future content analyses of video games.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Nojin Kwak, Nathaniel Poor and Marko M. Skoric, “Honey, I Shrunk the World! The Relation Between Internet Use and International Engagement,” Mass Communication and Society, 9.2 (2006): 189-213.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Scholars have long been interested in the overlap between electronic communication systems and international affairs. New communication systems have brought an expectation for greater information flow and connection across geographical boundaries when compared to the systems that came before them. This study continued this longstanding scholarly interest by examining how the Internet facilitates a sense of connection to the international community at the individual level. Findings demonstrate that the Internet matters for international engagement. According to the results, the Internet connects individuals to the international community by helping them increase their knowledge of the world, facilitating their sense of belonging to the greater world, and motivating them to participate in international events and foreign volunteer opportunities. Further, findings suggest that younger users of the Internet tended to benefit more than older users from reading international news on the Internet with respect to international political knowledge and international participation.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Richard P. Bagozzi, Utpal M. Dholakia, and Amit Mookerjee, “Individual and Group Bases of Social Influence in Online Environments,” Media Psychology, 8 (2006): 95–126.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Online social interactions in the form of collaborative browsing and recreational chatting were studied. The theory of planned behavior and an augmented theory of planned behavior with the inclusion of group norms and social identity were used to explain decision making by Indian recreational chatters (n = 176) and decision making and behavior by American collaborative browsers (n = 160) and recreational chatters (n = 157). Consistent with predictions under the theory of planned behavior, attitudes and perceived behavioral control were significant determinants of intentions, and intentions influenced behavior. Subjective norms failed to affect intentions. Group norms also proved to be important determinants in all three samples, and social identity was salient for American and Indian recreational chatters but not for American collaborative browsers. In tests of hypotheses, intentions were reconceptualized as we- or shared-intentions, and all variables under test contained group action as the referent, in contrast to past research, which has focused on individual action.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Richard Collins, “Internet Governance in the UK,” Media Culture Society, 28.3 (2006):  337-359.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Three myths of internet governance prevail – none is well founded. First, the myth dominant in the public policy domain, that internet governance is best when the market decides. Second, the myth dominant in scholarly discussion of the internet, that network governance and self-regulation is both pervasive and effective. Third, the myth that internet governance is quite distinct from governance of ‘legacy media’ (notably broadcasting and telephony), which has led internet scholarship to focus on the DNS (Domain Name System) and ICANN (Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers) with, as Wilson (2004: 2) has observed, a consequential neglect of national governance of the internet. This article examines these myths through consideration of internet governance in the UK.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Tania Lewis, “Seeking Health Information on the Internet: Lifestyle Choice or Bad Attack of Cyberchondria?” Media Culture Society, 28.4 (2006): 521-539.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Browsing through a range of health websites recently, I encountered RealAge.com, a health website that has been given the thumbs up by no less a personage than Oprah Winfrey. On this site you can calculate the actual biological age of your body, based on how well you’ve maintained it. When you take the RealAge test you are then provided with a Personalized Age Reduction Plan, which is aimed at helping you reduce the ‘age’ of your body through various health-oriented and risk-prevention strategies. What marks out websites like RealAge.com is that they not only provide broad knowledge to ‘lay’ people about maintaining health and preventing disease, they also offer the ability to personalize and individualize such information, to address individuals as essentially reflexive self-managing health consumers.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Access

Peter A. Chow-White, “Race, Gender and Sex on the Net: Semantic Networks of Selling and Storytelling Sex Tourism,” Media Culture Society, 28.6 (2006): 883-905.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Debates about the impact of the Internet on society oscillate between utopian and dystopian poles, usually in regards to issues of the digital divide and community building (Burnett and Marshall, 2003). Boosters of the Internet predicted it to be a place where social inequalities would be democratized. Individuals and groups would find new spaces for expression and alternative methods of communication that could circumvent dominant forms of mainstream media, state-regulated telecommunications and the technological constraints of old media (Gates, 1996; Gilder, 1994; Rheingold, 1994). Proponents also argued that people could have more control over their own identities, free from the social structures of difference, such as race and gender. These types of debates about the Internet often offered prognostications about the solid implications of this emerging technology. Current Internet studies, however, have turned the focus of research to what is actually occurring online.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

William P. Cassidy, “Gatekeeping Similar For Online, Print Journalists, ” Newspaper Research Journal, 27.2 (Spring 2006): 6-23.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Data from a national survey found that routine gatekeeping forces exerted more influence on the professional role conceptions of print and online journalists than did individual level forces.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Gonz´alez-Herrero Alfonso and Ruiz de Valbuena Miguel, “Trends in Online Media Relations: Web-based Corporate Press Rooms in Leading International Companies,” Public Relations Review, 32.3 (2006): 267-275.
Keywords: Online; Media relations; Web; Press room; Internet 
Abstract: An analysis of 120 corporate websites from Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Singapore, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States reveals, for the first time, international results about the implementation and use of virtual press rooms. This article shows the importance that large international companies attribute to Web-based media centers to achieve organizational objectives and to meet journalists’ demands for information and audiovisual resources. The study also shows, however, that most press rooms are far from being complete, efficient, easy-to-use, reliable and updated on a daily basis. In fact, there is not a single country from those analyzed that consistently stands out from the rest. In most of them, good results in certain areas coexist with significant shortcomings in others, resulting in some cases in poor press rooms that may not achieve the desired public relations objectives.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Mihaela Vorvoreanu, “Online Organization–Public Relationships: An Experience-Centered Approach,” Public Relations Review, 32.4 (2006): 395-401.
Keywords: Online public relations; Usability; Experience analysis; Online relationships; Website experience
Abstract: This paper advocates an experience-centered approach to public relations websites. A conceptual framework of the public relations website experience is proposed. The framework is grounded in communication and reader-response theory, and integrates organization–public relationship research as well as website usability findings. A new research protocol, website experience analysis, is derived from the conceptual framework. Applications of website experience analysis in public relations scholarship and practice are discussed. 
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Use and Gratification

Kaye D. Trammell, “Blog Offensive: An Exploratory Analysis of Attacks Published on Campaign Blog Posts from a Political Public Relations Perspective,” Public Relations Review, 32.4 (2006): 402–406. 
Keywords: Blog; Weblog; Candidate; Campaign; Politics; Functional theory; Internet; Web; Election; Political public relations
Abstract: An advancement in online campaigning during the 2004 election cycle was the integration of blogs in candidate Web sites. This content analysis investigated the political public relations message strategy on campaign blogs during the 2004 election, focusing on attacks as a part of Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse. Results indicated frequent discussion of the opponent, reliance on attacks, and the dominance of logical appeals. Candidates focused on issue over image. The incumbent attacked more often than the challenger.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

2007

Charlene Simmons, “Protecting Children While Silencing Them: The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act and Children’s Free Speech Rights,” Communication Law and Policy, 12.2 (Spring 2007): 119-142.
Keywords: Internet, right of privacy, online chat groups, freedom of speech, Internet publishing and broadcasting, web search portals, computer network resources, law and legislation
Abstract: In 1998, Congress passed the first law protecting the privacy of individuals on the Internet. The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) restricts the online collection of personal information from children aged 12 or younger. Under the law, Web sites that maintain chat rooms directed at children must either condition a child’s participation on the consent of a parent or guardian or monitor the chat room and censor references to personal information. This article examines whether COPPA’s chat room restrictions infringe on the free speech rights of children. The examination finds that aspects of the chat room restrictions are constitutionally suspect because it is questionable whether the parental consent requirement is narrowly tailored.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis                     
Theory: Policy

Robert G. Magee and Tae Hee Lee, “Information Conduits or Content Developers? Determining Whether News Portals Should Enjoy Blanket Immunity from Defamation Suits,” Communication Law and Policy, 12.4 (Autumn 2007): 369-404.
Keywords: Libel and slander, freedom of the press, press law, Internet service providers, journalistic ethics, communication, publicity (law), journalism, mass media, Wired Telecommunications Carriers, accuracy in journalism, criminal law, Internet industry
Abstract: News portals should be held to the same standard of liability for defamation as other news media. Internet service providers (ISPs) enjoy blanket immunity from liability for defamation under Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, while information content providers (ICP) might not. Some courts have indicated, however, that a defendant who participates in developing third-party content should be classified as an ICP and thus be held liable. Confusion over the difference between an ISP and an ICP is applied to the case of news portals. This study investigates to what extent news portals should enjoy immunity from liability for defamation. To determine a news portal’s exposure to liability, a continuum of involvement is proposed as a standard in which liability is based on a defendant’s actions and not on the medium employed. A defendant’s involvement with third-party content can be classified under the four levels of the continuum, which can guide courts in deciding whether a defendant is liable. Congress should amend Section 230 to incorporate the continuum and allow courts discretion in determining whether a defendant is immune from liability.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis                     
Theory: Policy

Jeffrey T. Child, Judy C. Pearson and Najla G. Amundson, “Technology Talk: Public Speaking Textbooks’ Coverage of Information Retrieval Technology Systems,” Communication Quarterly, 55.4 (August 2007): 267-281.
Keywords: Diffusion of Innovation, higher education, public speaking textbooks, technology and information gathering
Abstract: College students use technology to gather information and conduct their daily lives. Textbooks increasingly relate course content to students through technology. An analysis of the top ten public speaking textbooks revealed the ways in which technology is addressed within information-gathering chapters. Seven areas of technology were identified: search engines/conducting searches, the Internet, general computing, non-computer technologies, technology applications, technology in general, and the provision of Website addresses. Chi-square tests showed significant differences in the coverage of the technology topics. Instructors can make more informed textbook selections as a result of this investigation. Technology is essential to the information gathering process, and this study suggests how its treatment may be more beneficial to both students and instructors.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis              
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Tony Docan-Morgan and Carol A. Docan, “Internet Infidelity: Double Standards and the Differing Views of Women and Men,” Communication Quarterly, 55.3 (August 2007): 317-342.
Keywords: Interdependence Theory, Internet infidelity, sex differences in infidelity
Abstract: This exploratory study analyzed which types of acts involving the Internet are considered most severe, sex differences in the perceptions of infidelity, and the evaluation of infidelity when one commits it versus one’s partner. Two-hundred and eight participants rated the severity of 44 specific acts (e.g., disclosing love to a person met in an Internet chat room) on either the self-infidelity or partner-infidelity questionnaire. The results indicated that involving/goal-directed acts were rated as more severe than superficial/informal acts, women viewed involving/goal-directed acts of Internet infidelity as more severe than did men, and partner-infidelity was perceived as more severe than self-infidelity. The severity of 44 specific acts is also provided, and this information advances our ability to describe infidelity on the Internet and predict if, and to what degree, others will consider particular actions as infidelity. The implications of these results, as well as future directions, are discussed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Stephen A. Banning and Kaye D. Sweetser, “How Much Do They Think It Affects Them and Whom Do They Believe?: Comparing the Third-Person Effect and Credibility of Blogs and Traditional Media,” Communication Quarterly, 55.4 (November 2007): 451-466.
Keywords: Attribution Theory, blogs, credibility, Internet, new media, Third-Person Effect
Abstract: Using an experimental design, this study investigated third-person effect and media credibility as a result of media attribution. Specifically, we compared third-person effect across four media sources: personal blogs, media blogs, online news and print newspaper. Overall, participants exhibited third-person effects equally across the mediums. Third-person effect regressed with credibility.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Young Mie Kim, ” How Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations Interact in Selectivity: Investigating the Moderating Effects of Situational Information,” Communication Research, 34.2 (2007): 185-211.
Keywords: Intrinsic motivation, issue publics, extrinsic motivation, selectivity, the Web
Abstract: By employing a unique methodological tool that combines individual-level Web behavior data with survey data, this study explored the effects of two levels of motivations on online information selection and candidate evaluation in an actual election campaign: the moderating effects of situational information processing goals (i.e., extrinsic motivation) on the selectivity and candidate evaluation of members of issue publics (i.e., intrinsic motivation). The results suggest that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and more importantly the interplay of the two, exert significant influences on online political information consumption and candidate evaluation. When the accuracy goal was promoted, issue publics extended their search beyond the issue domains of their personal concerns and considered diverse issues in candidate evaluation. However, an issue public’s extremity in candidate evaluation was heightened, in that issue publics paid little attention to the implications of the information when the preservation goal was introduced. Implications for the field of communication are discussed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jorge Peña, Joseph B. Walther and Jeffrey T. Hancock, “Effects of Geographic Distribution on Dominance Perceptions in Computer-Mediated Groups,” Communication Research, 34.3 (2007): 313-331.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, dominance, virtual groups, distributed work, impression formation, social information processing, hyperpersonal model, symmetry
Abstract: This study examined how the geographic distribution of group members affected dominance perceptions in a field experiment involving 65 computer-mediated groups communicating over a two-week period. Dominance perceptions were more extreme when group members did not share a geographic location (distributed groups) than when they did (collocated groups). Collocated groups showed greater convergence between self and partner dominance perceptions than distributed groups, suggesting more symmetrical perceptions. More symmetrical groups exhibited more attraction and cohesion than less symmetrical groups. These results lend some support to recent models of computer-mediated communication that take into consideration the social psychological processes involved in distributed work and run counter to studies suggesting status equalization in mediated group collaboration. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Stephen A. Rains and Craig R. Scott, “To Identify or Not to Identify: A Theoretical Model of Receiver Responses to Anonymous Communication,” Communication Theory, 17.1 (2007): 61–91.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Although anonymity has been studied for well over a century, scholarship on anonymous communication has been fragmented and the role of message receivers, in particular, warrants greater attention. A theoretical model is developed here explaining receiver responses to anonymous communication. The context of the communication, degree to which the source is perceived to be anonymous, receiver’s desire to identify the source, and potential ability to determine the source’s identity are posited to influence receiver attempts at identifying (or further anonymizing) the source as well as perceptions of the source, message, and medium. The study concludes by identifying instances where anonymity may be particularly beneficial or problematic for message receivers and offering directions for future research.
Method: Model Building        
Theory: Other (Anonymous Communication)

Keri K. Stephens, “The Successive Use of Information and Communication Technologies at Work,” Communication Theory, 17.4 (2007): 486–507.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Past research on information and communication technology (ICT) use has largely assumed that people use only one ICT per task. Yet completing a task often requires a mix of ICTs used over time. ICT succession theory argues that by examining the modalities—for example, auditory, visual and textual—found in ICTs today, we can predict how to use follow-up or successive ICTs to complete tasks efficiently and effectively. The six propositions that form the core of this theory make predictions linking tasks and types of successive ICT use. Using complementary modalities should help people best accomplish persuasion, status, information and problem-solving tasks. This strategy should also increase the likelihood that communicators will reach their audience. Using mass media as a precursor, should ICT help people best accomplish information, status and learning tasks. Using text-capable ICTs as a follow-up strategy is most helpful in persuasion, information and problem-solving tasks. 
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

John Shiga, “Copy-and-Persist: The Logic of Mash-Up Culture,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 24.2 (June 2007): 93-114.
Keywords: Mash-Up Culture, Audio-Editing Software, Unauthorized Reproduction
Abstract: This essay traces the logic of mash-up culture, an online music scene in which practitioners use audio-editing software to splice and combine pop songs encoded in MP3 format to produce hybrid or ‘‘mashed-up’’ recordings. The study focuses on the logic that guides the development of works, styles and reputations in mash-up culture. Several fields of practice shape this cultural logic, including ‘‘virtual studios,’’ online message boards, dance clubs, and the market for ‘‘underground’’ and ‘‘unofficial’’ remixes. This cultural logic generates a new kind of amateur musicianship based on pluralistic listening and the reorganization of the relations that constitute musical recordings.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Adrienne Russell, “Digital Communication Networks and the Journalistic Field: The 2005 French Riots,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 24.2 (October 2007): 285-302.
Keywords: Bourdieu, Field Theory, Networked Journalism, Transnational Media,
Online News, French Riots, Amateur News, Blogs
Abstract: Coverage of the 2005 riots in France underlined the multimedia and transnational nature of contemporary news. The controversies that spun out of the coverage even as it was being produced extended larger debate about emerging journalism practices and products. This case study, centered on the meta-discourse of the riots and the relationships among the diverse media covering the riots, underlines the relevance of Pierre Bourdieu’s influential field theory to studies of new media and suggests a critical update to Bourdieu’s conception of the field. Bourdieu placed the norms and values of the participants of a field at the center of his analysis, but his theory, as it has been applied to journalism, rests on a stark division between journalists and their audiences. The news story of the French riots was very much a new-media product in that it was created by professionals and non-professionals. In Bourdieu’s vocabulary, the amateurs at the middle of the riots and in nations around the world contributing news product constituted new ‘‘agents’’ whose influence on the field has yet to be fully considered. The rise of the audience-participant poses compelling new challenges to field study. This article points out some of the areas scholars across disciplines and methodological approaches might take up for research.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Other (Influential Field)

Andy Yinan Hu, “The Revival of Chinese Leftism Online,” Global Media and Communication, 3.2 (2007): 233–238
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: China’s epochal transformation has been a phenomenon in which nationalism has played a crucial formative role. This has been particularly evident in the past few years in the emerging cybersphere. Nonetheless, to say that “nationalism is central to China’s online discourse and the evolving political identity of Chinese Internet users” (Qiu, 2006: 125) would be both an analytical misjudgment and a rhetorical exaggeration. First, the complexity of China’s transformation extends beyond the explanation of the ultra-simplistic notion of (rightwing) Chinese nationalism, which assumes different meanings in different contexts for different social groups in different times. Second, because of the growing prevalence and intensity of online debates regarding the nature of Chinese reform, itself initiated as a nationalistic mission, what we are witnessing at present is not only the apparent tide of state-guided Chinese nationalism, but more importantly, the revival of Chinese leftism on- and offline as both a less cherished but firm undercurrent and a persistent challenge to that tide.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Joseph B. Walther and Natalya N. Bazarova, “Misattribution in Virtual Groups: The Effects of Member Distribution on Self-Serving Bias and Partner Blame,” Human Communication Research, 33.1 (2007): 1–26.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Interest in virtual groups has focused on attribution biases due to the collocation or distribution of partners. No previous research examines self-attributions in virtual groups, yet self-attributions—the acknowledgment of personal responsibility or its deflection— potentially determines learning and improvement. This study reviews research on attributions in virtual groups and the effects of distance on members’ proclivity to blame others or themselves. An experiment involved groups whose members were geographically collocated, distributed or mixed, working over two weeks exclusively using asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Attributions for participants’ own poor performance reflected a self-serving bias in completely distributed groups, whose members eschewed personal responsibility and blamed their partners more than in collocated groups. Mixed groups’ results help distinguish among competing theoretical perspectives. Moreover, an externally imposed observational goal mitigated attributional bias among distributed members by raising awareness of the socio-technical effects of communication medium among those for whom the goal was successfully induced.
Method: Experiment   
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Li Gong and Clifford Nass, “When a Talking-Face Computer Agent is Half-Human and Half-Humanoid: Human Identity and Consistency Preference,” Human Communication Research, 33.2 (2007): 163–193.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Computer-generated anthropomorphic characters are a growing type of communicator that is deployed in digital communication environments. An essential theoretical question is how people identify humanlike but clearly artificial, hence humanoid, entities in comparison to natural human ones. This identity categorization inquiry was approached under the framework of consistency and tested through examining inconsistency effects from mismatching categories. Study 1 (N = 80), incorporating a self-disclosure task, tested participants’ responses to a talking-face agent, which varied in four combinations of human versus humanoid faces and voices. In line with the literature on inconsistency, the pairing of a human face with a humanoid voice or a humanoid face with a human voice led to longer processing time in making judgment of the agent and less trust than the pairing of a face and a voice from either the human or the humanoid category. Female users particularly showed negative attitudes toward inconsistently paired talking faces. Study 2 (N = 80), using a task that stressed comprehension demand, replicated the inconsistency effects on judging time and females’ negative attitudes but not for comprehension- related outcomes. Voice clarity overshadowed the consistency concern for comprehension-related responses. The overall inconsistency effects suggest that people treat humanoid entities in a different category from natural human ones.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Identity Categorization)

Nick Yee and Jeremy Bailenson, “The Proteus Effect: The Effect of Transformed Self-Representation on Behavior,” Human Communication Research, 33.3 (2007): 271–290.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Virtual environments, such as online games and web-based chat rooms, increasingly allow us to alter our digital self-representations dramatically and easily. But as we change our self-representations, do our self-representations change our behavior in turn? In two experimental studies, we explore the hypothesis that an individual’s behavior conforms to their digital self-representation independent of how others perceive them— a process we term the Proteus Effect. In the first study, participants assigned to more attractive avatars in immersive virtual environments were more intimate with confederates in a self-disclosure and interpersonal distance task than participants assigned to less attractive avatars. In our second study, participants assigned taller avatars behaved more confidently in a negotiation task than participants assigned shorter avatars. We discuss the implications of the Proteus Effect with regards to social interactions in online environments.
Method: Experiment   
Theory: Other (Proteus Effect)

Donald G. Ellis and Ifat Maoz, “Online Argument Between Israeli Jews and Palestinians,” Human Communication Research, 33.3 (2007): 291–309.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Previous research with face-to-face groups found that majority–minority theory was a better predictor of argument patterns between Israelis and Palestinians than cultural codes theory (D. G. Ellis and I. Maoz, 2002, I. Maoz and D. G. Ellis, 2001). But, because of the difficulties of organizing face-to-face contacts between Israelis and Palestinians (e.g., security, transportation, check points), computer-mediated communication has taken on increased significance. This paper builds on previous research pertaining to argument between Israeli Jews and Palestinians and extends that work by investigating the effects of communication technologies on argument interactions between these two groups. The most notable finding was the absence of complex argumentative structures that are typically associated with conflict resolution.  
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Dmitri Williams, Scott Caplan and Li Xiong, “Can You Hear Me Now? The Impact of Voice in an Online Gaming Community,” Human Communication Research, 33.4 (2007): 427–449.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This paper reports the results of a controlled field experiment in which voice communication was introduced into an existing online community (online gaming guilds within the popular game ‘‘World of Warcraft’’), comparing a mix of voice and text with text only. Quantitative results suggest increases in liking and trust due to the addition of voice, as well as insulation from unexpected negative impacts of text-only play. The findings are discussed with respect to social capital, cyber-balkanization, and the general computer-mediated communication literature, with special attention paid to social information processing theory.
Method: Experiment   
Theory: Social Interaction

Matthew S. Eastin, “The Influence of Competitive and Cooperative Group Game Play on State Hostility,” Human Communication Research, 33.4 (2007): 450–466.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Most research on violent video game play suggests a positive relationship with aggression-related outcomes. Expanding this research, the current study examines the impact group size, game motivation, in-game behavior and verbal aggression have on post-game play hostility. Consistent with previous research, group size and verbal aggression both displayed a significant positive relationship with hostility. From these results, avenues for future research on anti- and pro-social outcomes from group gaming are offered.  
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Eun-Ju Lee, “Effects of Gendered Language on Gender Stereotyping in Computer-Mediated Communication: The Moderating Role of Depersonalization and Gender-Role
Orientation,” Human Communication Research, 33.4 (2007): 515–535.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This experiment examined what situational and dispositional features moderate the effects of linguistic gender cues on gender stereotyping in anonymous, text-based computer-mediated communication. Participants played a trivia game with an ostensible partner via computer, whose comments represented either prototypically masculine or feminine language styles. Consistent with the social identity model of de-individuation effects, those who did not exchange brief personal profiles with their partner (i.e., depersonalization) were more likely to infer their partner’s gender from the language cues than those who did. Depersonalization, however, facilitated stereotype-consistent conformity behaviors only among gender-typed individuals, that is, participants conformed more to their masculine- than feminine-comment partners, and men were less conforming than were women, only when they were both gender-typed and depersonalized.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Amy Carroll, Stuart J. Barnes, Eusebio Scornavacca and Keith Fletcher, “Consumer Perceptions and Attitudes Towards SMS Advertising: Recent Evidence from New Zealand,” International Journal of Advertising, 26.1 (2007): 79–98.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Mobile advertising is an area of mobile (m-) commerce expected to experience tremendous growth in the next five years. This paper explores consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards mobile advertising via SMS through a sequential, mixed-methods investigation. Four factors were identified and demonstrated a significant impact on mobile advertising acceptance: permission, content, wireless service provider (WSP) control and delivery of the message. This guided the development of a revised and empirically tested model of m-advertising consumer acceptance, using a scenario approach. The findings also suggest that marketers should be optimistic about choosing to deploy mobile advertising, but to exercise caution around the factors that will determine consumer acceptance. The paper concludes by presenting the revised model, and with further discussion and directions for future research.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Alexander Muk, “Consumers’ Intentions to Opt in to SMS Advertising: A Cross-national Study of Young Americans and Koreans,” International Journal of Advertising, 26.2 (2007): 177–198.
Abstract: This paper examines the differences between American young consumers and their Korean counterparts’ interests in accepting SMS advertising via their mobile phones. The appeal of using the mobile phone as an advertising medium is its accessibility because it can pinpoint the locations of mobile phone users. The results of the study provide preliminary evidence that consumers’ attitudes and beliefs do have significant positive relationships with intentions to opt in to the new medium. The theoretical model for the study is based on employing the theory of reasoned action as the underlying structure to operationalize the conceptual constructs proposed in the diffusion theory. The study identifies the potential of a new research domain in advertising, presents a conceptual framework for its examination and suggests the importance of constructs under study. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Ian Grant and Stephanie O’Donohoe, “Why Young Consumers Are not Open to Mobile Marketing Communication,” International Journal of Advertising, 26.2 (2007): 223–246.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This paper explores young people’s motivations for using mobile phones. Older adolescents’ everyday use of traditional and new forms of mediated communication were explored in the context of their everyday lives, with data generated from self-completion questionnaires, diaries and mini focus groups. The findings confirm the universal appeal of mobile phones to a youth audience. Social and entertainment-related motivations dominated, while information and commercially orientated contact were less appealing. While marketers are excited by the reach and possibilities for personalization offered by mobile phones, young people associated commercial appropriation of this medium with irritation, intrusion and mistrust. In other words, while marketers celebrated mobile phones as a ‘brand in the hand’ of youth markets, young people themselves valued their mobiles as a ‘friend in the hand’. This suggests that the way forward for mobile marketing communications is not seeking or pretending to be young consumers’ friend, but rather offering content that helps them maintain or develop the personal friendships that matter to them.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Daechun An, “Advertising Visuals in Global Brands’ Local Websites: a Six-country Comparison,” International Journal of Advertising, 26.3 (2007): 303–332.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The visual strategies employed in top global brands’ local advertising websites were compared between two groups of nations: the Western group, consisting of the US, UK and Germany, and the Eastern group, consisting of Japan, Korea and China. The results of a content analysis of 253 web ads show a clear pattern of differences in the role of visuals (literal vs. symbolic), the use and role of celebrity models, the use of photographs vs. illustrations, and the frequency of product portrayals between two groups. Ads from high-context nations tend to rely on symbolic visuals, celebrity models featured as characters, mixed use of photographs and illustrations, and indirect portrayals of advertised products. Ads from low-context nations are found to be the opposite, reaffirming the association between Hall’s information contextuality and advertising visual strategies. The findings imply that the idea of employing advertising visuals that reflect the communication styles of a particular national market appears to be a promising strategy to effectively reach consumers around the world. With this in mind, multinational advertisers might prefer to implement differentiated ad visual strategies in web advertising for Western and Eastern markets.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Visual)

George Balabanis, Vincent-Wayne Mitchell and Sarah Heinonen-Mavrovouniotis, “SMS-based Surveys: Strategies to Improve Participation,” International Journal of Advertising, 26.3 (2007): 369–385.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The advertising industry is increasingly using mobile technology to communicate and do research. This paper examines the use of the short messaging service (SMS) on mobile phones to recruit samples for probability web and telephone surveys. The influence of topic salience, sponsor identity and repeated contacts on decision to participate in the survey is tested through an experimental design. Results indicated that sponsor identity and repeated contacts have an effect on decision to participate, but topic salience did not. The majority of respondents preferred the web survey alternative over telephone survey mode, and the main advantage of using SMS is the high speed of response. However, the method appears to elicit higher levels of participation from male and younger members of the population.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Salience)

Shelly Rodgers, Ye Wang, Ruth Rettie and Frank Alpert, “The Web Motivation Inventory Replication, Extension and Application to Internet Advertising,”International Journal of Advertising, 26.4 (2007): 447–476.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The Web Motivation Inventory (WMI) is used in internet advertising research, and is frequently used and cited in advertising, marketing and communication literature. Investigations of the robustness of the WMI have been somewhat limited. Additionally, new uses of the internet are not accounted for by the WMI since its publication in 2002. This paper replicates and extends the original WMI using participants in the US, UK and Australia and includes internet motives not previously examined. The results show that the four-factor WMI remained reliable and valid for all three samples. Findings suggest the extended WMI may be broken into 12 sub-scales that represent the original four-factor measure.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Helen Robinson, Anna Wysocka and Chris Hand, “Internet Advertising Effectiveness: The Effect of Design on Click-through Rates for Banner Ads,” International Journal of Advertising, 26.4 (2007): 527–541.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Online advertising has experienced phenomenal growth since its inception in 1994. This empirical study investigates the impact of seven creative characteristics of banner ads on the effectiveness of online advertising using a multiple regression model. A random sample of 209 banner ads was drawn from a sampling frame of advertisers, provided by an advertising agency specializing in internet advertising for the gaming industry. The findings of this study are broadly consistent with past research into online advertising efficiency, indicating that the creative characteristics of effective banner ads in the online gaming arena include: a larger size, absence of promotional incentives and the presence of information about casino games. In contrast, banner features such as animation, action phrase and presence of company brand or logo were ineffective in generating click-throughs. Contrary to expectations, long messages on banners were associated with higher click-through rates.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Robert Loew, Katrin Kuemmel, Judith Ruprecht, Udo Bleimann and Paul Walsh, “Approaches for Personalised Knowledge Retrieval,” Internet Research, 49.1 (2007): 49-60.
Keywords: Knowledge management, Information retrieval, Information services, Semantics
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe new search methods based on semantic information structures to offer a personalized and interactive knowledge retrieval to the user.
Design/methodology/approach – A careful look on existing “knowledge management projects” leads to a proposed approach of a “knowledge broker network” where transfer of knowledge is based on communication between humans. To enhance the quality of search results a new search algorithm (“Search Assistance Algorithm (SAA)”) is described in a simplified manner.
Findings – The paper provides information on the knowledge broker network and shows the advantages of this concept especially of the automated part.
Research limitations/implications – The paper shows the proposed approach has not formally being tested yet. Some pilot studies have been made and a study especially for the SAA is planned.
Practical implications – This approach has the potential to change the way of transfer of knowledge using a knowledge broker network based on knowledge management systems, which could be improved by our SAA in practice.
Originality/value – Using knowledge management systems in a “standard way” by feeding in information and using retrieval methods is not optimal for sharing knowledge between humans. To provide and update information is very cost-intensive. Using “meta-information” about “who is expert in which area” and bring information-seeker and experts together could be the optimal method. This knowledge broker network helps to bring this idea into reality.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Other (Search)

Hsiu-Fen Lin, “The Role of Online and Offline Features in Sustaining Virtual Communities: an Empirical Study,” Internet Research, 49.2 (2007): 119-138.
Keywords: Internet, Communication technologies, Information exchange
Abstract: Purpose – By expanding the technology acceptance model, the purpose of this paper is to provide a research model to examine the impact of online (information quality, system quality and service quality) and offline (offline activities) features on the sustainability of virtual communities.
Design/methodology/approach – Based on a survey of 165 community members, the paper uses structural equation modeling approach to investigate the research model.
Findings – The findings indicate that perceived of usefulness, perceived ease of use and offline activities are determinants of sustainability of virtual communities. In addition, information quality affects perceived usefulness, while system-quality and service quality influence both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of virtual communities.
Research limitations/implications – Since this study only considered non-profit virtual communities, it is unclear whether these analytical results can be generalized to other virtual communities. Further research can apply this research model to examine profit-oriented virtual communities, such as eBay.com.tw or brand communities.
Practical implications – To sustain a successful virtual community, attention must be paid to enhance both online and offline interactions, including content management, specific sets of web site functions and offline communication. Virtual community providers can apply the findings of this study to focus on the determinants of success for their virtual communities.
Originality/value – Theoretically, while drawing upon the extended TAM, this paper provides a model that is capable of understanding the determinants of sustainability of virtual communities. From a managerial perspective, the findings should provide further insight into member behaviors, leading to more effective strategies for expanding the virtual community.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Ching-Wen Chu and Hsi-Peng Lu, “Factors Influencing Online Music Purchase Intention in Taiwan: An Empirical Study Based on the Value-intention Framework,” Internet Research, 49.2 (2007): 139-155.
Keywords: Music, Internet, Consumer behaviour, Taiwan
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation of factors influencing online music purchase intention of Taiwanese early adopter of online music, which can help the online music practitioners of Taiwan to develop better market strategies.
Design/methodology/approach – An empirical survey was used to test the hypotheses. Data were collected from a total of 302 online Taiwanese early adopters of online music. A structural equation modeling (SEM) is proposed to assess the relationships of the research model.
Finding – The findings in this paper show that the perceived value of online music is a significant factor in predicting the purchaser intention of buying online music in Taiwan. Also, the beneficial factor of the perceived usefulness and playfulness are identified in addition to the sacrificing factor of the perceived price for assessing the value. Moreover, purchasers and potential purchasers differ in the determinants underlying the perceptions of value, which customers hold towards online music.
Practical implications – The results in the paper facilitate to understand what encourages and impedes the purchase intention of early adopters of online music in Taiwan.
Originality/value – The value of this paper is to establish a theoretical model incorporating the value-intention framework into technology acceptance model to investigate the purchase behavior of early adopter of online music in Taiwan. The results of this study help online music practitioners of Taiwan and other Asian countries culture similar to Taiwan to create a success business model.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Sung Yong Chun and Minhi Hahn, “Network Externality and Future Usage of Internet Services,” Internet Research, 49.2 (2007): 156-168.
Keywords: Internet, Networking, South Korea
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate different effects of three network externality factors, i.e. local network size, network strength and total network size, on online messenger, online community, chat room and e-mail services.
Design/methodology/approach – In the paper hypotheses are tested with a regression model using a survey data collected from 107 MBA students at a business school in South Korea.
Findings – The paper finds that the three network externality factors have different effects on the users’ future usage intention for the four Internet services. Local network size is significant for online messenger services, local network size and network strength are significant for online community services, and total network size is significant for chat room services. For email services, none of the network externality factors are significant.
Research limitations/implications – The paper shows that a total network size is an important network externality factor affecting the success of a network. However, users’ satisfaction with network services and two additional network externality factors, local network size and network strength, are also important determinants. To generalize the finding, investigations into other network services in other environments and into some offline networks are necessary.
Originality/value – The paper shows that depending on types of networks, managers can focus on different important network externality factors in managing their networks. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Kathryn Waite and Tina Harrison, “Internet Archaeology: Uncovering Pension Sector Web Site Evolution,” Internet Research, 49.2 (2007): 180-195.
Keywords: Financial services, Pensions, Internet
Abstract: Purpose – The paper has two objectives. First, it seeks to present a procedure for exploring web site development using the Internet archive (www.archive.org). Second, it aims to test the assumption that over time a progression in web site numbers and interactivity is visible within an industry sector.
Design/methodology/approach – The Internet archive was used to view web site activity from 1998-2004 for 21 randomly selected organizations generating a final sample of 106 web sites. Content analysis was used to gather information on web site numbers and functionality. Web sites were evaluated using existing models of web site evolution adapted for the financial services sector.
Findings – This paper produces meaningful data on patterns of web site development. Results indicate that UK pension provider web sites have increased in sophistication but remain underdeveloped.
Research limitations/implications – In this paper there is no qualitative web site assessment and thus no information on web site quality. This method is recommended as a starting point for a wider enquiry due to the incompleteness of some archived records.
Practical implications – The paper shows that for practitioners, a methodology for mapping the configuration and evolution of sector web sites will assist in developing Internet marketing strategy.
For academics, awareness of web site evolution patterns will inform Internet research. For the pension sector this identification of unrealized cost-efficiencies from developing online payment and processing functionality highlights a competitive opportunity.
Originality/value – Considerable commentary exists on paths of Internet development but there is little longitudinal research into patterns of web site change; this research addresses this gap. This paper is a novel approach to web site metrics that allows both practitioners and academics to trace changes in the Internet landscape.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Evolution)

Thomas Mandl, “The Impact of Web Site Structure on Link Analysis,” Internet Research, 49.2 (2007): 196-206.
Keywords: Information retrieval, Internet, Worldwide web
Abstract: Purpose – This web mining paper aims at analyzing whether the number of links pointing to a web page is biased by the structure of web sites.
Design/methodology/approach – By web-design mining methods, two collections of web pages are extracted and the in-links counts are determined by querying web search engines.
Findings – The paper finds that the structure bias and pages on a higher hierarchical level are likely to receive more links than other pages.
Research limitations/implications – The links are set by web page authors whose behaviour is not yet fully understood and which requires further research.
Practical implications – The paper shows that the structure bias of in-links should be considered by link analysis measures used in search engines. Potential consequences are presented.
Originality/value – The number of links toward a web page are considered to be an indicator for the quality of that page. This measure is biased and cannot be solely trusted as a knowledge source for the quality of a page.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Search)

Nigel Jackson, “Political pParties, the Internet and the 2005 General Election: Third Time Lucky?” Internet Research, 49.3 (2007): 235-248.
Keywords: Political parties, Internet, Elections, Politics, United Kingdom
Abstract: Purpose – Existing literature has agreed that during elections party web sites are primarily an information tool. This study seeks to identify to what extent political parties have developed a distinctive role for the Internet as a communications channel.
Design/methodology/approach – Research data were based on content analysis of the web sites and e-newsletters of parties contesting the 2005 UK General Election, and interviews with party e-campaigners.
Findings – Party size determined whether they had an integrated online communication strategy or not. The Internet did provide a discrete role, that of recruiting new members, encouraging donations and mobilizing volunteers. Whereas previous research has focused on the web as an election campaign tool, this study found that it was e-mail, especially pass-protected e-newsletters to party members.
Originality/value – The traditional view was that parties used their web sites primarily to promote information. This study suggests that they only do so partially. Parties do not use their web sites as part of an integrated communication strategy supporting the messages carried by other channels. In 2005 UK parties began to develop a positive reason for having an online presence, namely as a resource generating tool, particularly in mobilizing volunteers. Previous literature had considered whether parties had entered into dialogue, this study further defined this into asymmetrical and symmetrical two-way communication. The results suggest that it is smaller parties who are more likely to use two-way symmetrical communication.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Genevieve Marie Johnson, “The Internet Vocabulary Test for Children: Preliminary Development,” Internet Research, 49.3 (2007): 249-271.
Keywords: Internet, Assessment, Children (age groups), Canada
Abstract: Purpose – Currently, the only mechanisms to determine children’s use of the Internet are interviews and questionnaires. To increase the validity of theory and research and ensure that practitioners and policy-makers are guided by accurate information, an improved method of determining children’s patterns of Internet use is required. The purpose of this study is to present the Internet Vocabulary Test for Children (IVTC) as a measure of Internet use in children.
Design/methodology/approach – The IVTC requires oral definition of 10 terms (Internet, gamer, e-mail, search engine, chat, online games, instant messaging, cheats, web site, browser). An elementary school in rural western Canada agreed to participate in trial administration of the IVTC. All children in first through sixth grade were invited to participate (n 1/4 149). Parents completed a consent form and a questionnaire. A total of 128 children (62 males and 66 females) were administered the IVTC.
Findings – Trial administration of the IVTC established the viability of determining children’s use of the Internet with a test of expressive vocabulary.
Originality/value – Given the rate of population penetration coupled with rapidly changing technology, measuring children’s Internet use presents challenges. Simple solutions such as the development of software and firmware to monitor children’s online behavior may provide misinformation. That is, surveillance influences behavior and children’s Internet activities often involve multiple users. The IVTC is not vulnerable to biased responding, is inexpensive, and easily administered.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Ilyoo B. Hong, “A Survey of Web Site Success Metrics Used by Internet-dependent Organizations in Korea,” Internet Research, 49.3 (2007): 272-290.
Keywords: Worldwide web, Internet, Measurement, Quality, South Korea
Abstract: Purpose – The key purpose of the present research is to learn whether businesses use web site metrics to support business strategies and how web site metrics used differ by web site categories. 
Design/methodology/approach – A combination of a preliminary telephone survey and an e-mail questionnaire survey was used to gather data. Potential respondents were contacted by phone to find firms measuring web site success. An e-mail survey was conducted to learn how metrics were used to measure the success of a corporate web site. 
Responses were examined to study not only purposes and net benefits of measurement but also metrics measured.
Findings – Findings of the study indicated that a majority of businesses which took part in this survey were using the metrics more for operational than for strategic purposes. This observation is to some extent consistent with the normative view highlighted by the literature that organizations should measure how successfully their web sites support business objectives and, therefore, the web metrics to measure web site success should differ by web site categories.
Research limitations/implications – This explorative research is not based on a large sample, thereby limiting its academic contribution. Since the data analysis is over eight web site categories, future research will need to employ a sample large enough to eliminate any potential bias.
Practical implications – A key managerial implication is that businesses need to measure the success of their web site using web metrics tied to their business objectives, if they want their web site to effectively support business strategies.
Originality/value – This paper is the first attempt to explore the way that Internet-dependent businesses measure the success of their web site via web metrics, for the purpose not only of observing some patterns between web metrics measured and site categories, but also of examining whether metrics were used for strategic or merely for operational purposes.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Marijke Coetzee and J.H.P. Eloff, “Web Services Access Control Architecture Incorporating Trust,” Internet Research, 49.3 (2007): 291-305.
Keywords: Worldwide web, Trust, Managers 
Abstract: Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate how the concept of a trust level is used in the access control policy of a web services provider in conjunction with the attributes of users.
Design/methodology/approach – A literature review is presented to provide background to the progressive role that trust plays in access control architectures. The web services access control architecture is defined.
Findings – The architecture of an access control service of a web service provider consists of three components, namely an authorization interface, an authorization manager, and a trust manager. Access control and trust policies are selectively published according to the trust levels of web services requestors. A prototype highlights the incorporation of a trust level in the access control policy as a viable solution to the problem of web services access control, where decisions of an autonomous nature need to be made, based on information and evidence.
Research limitations/implications – The WSACT architecture addresses the selective publication of policies. The implementation of sophisticated policy-processing points at each web service endpoint, to automatically negotiate about policies, is an important element needed to complement the architecture.
Practical implications – The WSACT access control architecture illustrates how access control decisions can be made autonomously by including a trust level of web services requestors in an access control policy.
Originality/value – The WSACT architecture incorporates the trust levels of web services requestors and the attributes of users into one model. This allows web services providers to grant advanced access to the users of trusted web services requestors, in contrast with the limited access that is given to users who make requests through web services requestors with whom a minimal level of trust has been established.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Access

Pooja Malhotra and Balwinder Singh, “Determinants of Internet Banking Adoption by Banks in India,” Internet Research, 49.3 (2007): 323-339.
Keywords: Banking, Internet, Financial services, Virtual banking, India
Abstract: Purpose – The current exploratory study is an attempt to discover the factors affecting a bank’s decision to adopt Internet banking in India. Particularly, it seeks to examine the relationship between the bank’s adoption decision and various bank and market characteristics.
Design/methodology/approach – The data for this study consist of panel data of 88 banks in India covering the financial years 1997-1998 to 2004-2005. Logistic regression technique is employed to study the relationship.
Findings – The results show that the larger banks, banks with younger age, private ownership, higher expenses for fixed assets, higher deposits and lower branch intensity evidence a higher probability of adoption of this new technology. Banks with lower market share also see the Internet banking technology as a means to increase the market share by attracting more and more customers through this new channel of delivery. Further, the adoption of Internet banking by other banks increases the probability that a decision to adopt will be made.
Research limitations/implications – The primary limitation of this study is the scope and size of its sample as well as other variables (e.g. market, environmental, regulatory etc.) which may have an effect on the decision of the banks to adopt Internet banking.
Originality/value – An understanding of the factors affecting this choice is essential both for economists studying the determinants of growth and for the creators and producers of such technologies. From this perspective, understanding the factors determining the adoption of technology becomes highly relevant from the policy point of view. Moreover, the studies on the adoption of financial innovations are related to developed markets, e.g. US or European banking markets. Hence, this paper contributes to the empirical literature on diffusion of financial innovations, particularly Internet banking, in a developing country, i.e. India.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Hsi-Peng Lu and Kuo-Lun Hsiao, “Understanding Intention to Continuously Share Information on Weblogs,” Internet Research, 49.4 (2007): 345-361.
Keywords: Worldwide web, Social theories, Information transfer, Expectation, Communication technologies
Abstract: Purpose – Weblogs, or blogs, have been a significant new development in recent years. Many businesses have begun using blogs to stimulate discussions, garner ideas, and provide further visibility. Thus, blog usage as well as individual motives behind continued usage is an important area of research. This research aims to examine behavioral motivations underlying individual intention to keep using blogs.
Design/methodology/approach – Based on social cognitive theory and related technology adoption literature, this study considered knowledge self-efficacy, subjective norms, feedback, and personal outcome expectations as the determinants of continuing to share information on blogs. The proposed model was empirically evaluated using randomized survey data collected from 155 users of a popular web site in Taiwan (WRETCH blog).
Findings – The results revealed that although both self-efficacy and personal outcome expectations affected directly the intention of sharing information on blogs; personal outcome expectations had stronger impacts on behavioral intention. In addition, social persuasion has no direct but indirect impact via self-efficacy and personal outcome expectations on the intention of sharing information.
Practical implications – This study contributes to a theoretical understanding of the factors that promote the usage of weblogs. For web log service providers, the results help them better develop tools to enhance people’s intention to share information.
Originality/value – The paper verifies the effect of knowledge self-efficacy, personal outcome expectations, and social persuasion on the behavior of blog users. Furthermore, it verifies the determinants of knowledge self-efficacy.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Social Interaction

Christos Halaris, Babis Magoutas, Xenia Papadomichelaki and Gregoris Mentzas, “Classification and Synthesis of Quality Approaches in e-Government Services,” Internet Research, 49.4 (2007): 378-401.
Keywords: E-commerce, Government, Public sector organizations, Quality management
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a multi-faceted summary and classification of the existing literature in the field of quality of service for e-government and outline the main components of a quality model for e-government services.
Design/methodology/approach – Starting with fundamental quality principles the paper examines and analyzes 36 different quality approaches concerning public sector services, e-services in general and more specifically e-government services. Based on the dimensions measured by each approach the paper classifies the approaches and concludes on the basic factors needed for the development of a complete quality model of e-government services.
Findings – Based on the classification of literature approaches, the paper provides information about the main components of a quality model that may be used for the continuous monitoring and measuring of public e-services’ quality. The classification forms the basis for answering questions that must be addressed by the quality model, such as: What to assess? Who will perform the assessment? And How the assessment will be done?
Practical implications – This model can be used by the management of public organizations in order to measure and monitor the quality of e-services delivered to citizens.
Originality/value – The results of the work presented in this paper form the basis for the development of a quality model for e-government services.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

J. Alberto Castaneda, Dolores M. Frıas and Miguel A. Rodrıguez, “The Influence of the Internet on Destination Satisfaction,” Internet Research, 49.4 (2007): 402-420.
Keywords: Tourism, Internet shopping, Customer satisfaction, Leisure activities, Travel
Abstract: Purpose – The aim of the present study is to provide an insight into the effect that the satisfaction with the information obtained through the Internet may have on the satisfaction with the selected destination. In particular, assuming that the Internet functions as an effective source of information for the tourist, one would expect the above relationship to be positive and significant.
Design/methodology/approach – In order to test the proposed hypotheses, a structured questionnaire was administered to tourists of different nationalities. The total number of valid cases was 279. The field work was done between June 2004 and June 2005.
Findings – The results seem to show that the greater the tourist’s satisfaction with the Internet, the fuller is his or her enjoyment of the holiday. This relationship, however, is moderated by two variables – the tourist’s previous experience of the destination and the tourist’s experience of the Internet. These conclusions may well prove crucial for the future use of the Internet in the promotion of tourism destinations.
Practical implications – The results of the study lend support to the importance of the Internet as an information source in the promotion of tourism destinations, which contributes in particular to attracting new visitors. However, its development will depend heavily on improvements in the ease of use of the information highway and will progress with the passage of time and the concomitant increase in the Internet experience of its users.
Originality/value – The study focuses on empirically testing the advantages that, from a merely conceptual perspective, are becoming evident in the use of the Internet in the tourist sector. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Harriet Stranahan and Dorota Kosiel, “E-tail Spending Patterns and the Importance of Online Store Familiarity,” Internet Research, 49.4 (2007): 421-434.
Keywords: Electronic commerce, Buying behaviour, Internet shopping, Shops, United States of America
Abstract: Purpose – This study aims to explore patterns in e-tail spending across different demographic groups and to predict which households are the most frequent shoppers and highest spenders. Further, it aims to investigate which households are least likely to purchase from unfamiliar online stores.
Design/methodology/approach – Using a random sample of Florida households, the study is the first to use probit and ordered probit models to study Internet purchasing behavior.
Findings – Younger, college educated, higher income households living in suburban, rural and small towns spend and shop the most online. Caucasians purchase online more often than African Americans and Hispanics but spend about the same amount. The study also finds that male, Hispanic, college educated and younger consumers are more willing to purchase from unfamiliar online stores.
Originality/value – This study provides new evidence on factors affecting household online spending and buying decisions. Previous studies have not used an ordered probit to model different levels of spending and this new specification provides information about which demographic groups are the most (or the least) frequent buyers as well as which demographic groups are the highest (or the lowest) e-tail spenders. This study also investigates which demographic groups are most likely to shop only at stores with whom they are already familiar. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Other (Consumer Behavior)

Karl-Heinz Rau, “Transformation from Internet Portal to the World’s Largest Internet Communications Enterprise,” Internet Research, 49.4 (2007): 435-456.
Keywords: Internet, Portals, Entrepreneurialism, Strategic management, Germany
Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to give the reader an insight into the evolution of a fast-growing and innovative Internet company by helping to understand the web portal business in Germany and to identify and assess strategies to transform an Internet portal to an Internet communications enterprise.
Design/methodology/approach – The case is based on field research accomplished together with executives of the company.
Findings – The case shows that implementing a professional management structure and a continuous strategic analysis of the competitive environment are crucial for being successful in a dynamic Internet business.
Practical implications – Teachers can use this case study in advanced management courses for applying methodologies of strategic analysis, e.g. M. Porter’s five-forces-model, value-chain analysis, concept of key success factors, SWOT-analysis. Students are expected to know basics about financial analysis, and information technologies. Managers can take the case as a best practice example for successful entrepreneurship in the Internet world.
Originality/value – The paper provides insights into the strategies of an innovative Internet company.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study        
Theory: Other (Evolution)

Otthein Herzog, Michael Boronowsky, Ingrid Rugge, Ulrich Glotzbach and Michael Lawo, “The Future of Mobile Computing: R&D Activities in the State of Bremen,” Internet Research, 49.5 (2007): 495-504.
Keywords: Mobile communications systems, Research and development, Laboratories, Sciences, Germany
Abstract: Purpose – The paper aims to report on the future of mobile computing and R&D activities in the state of Bremen.
Design/methodology/approach – The Mobile Research Center in Bremen, Germany, provides results from interdisciplinary scientific research for the creation of economic value by partners from industry.
Findings – The paper finds that, through the MRC and its partners, a national and international brand is being developed with respect to excellent research and to the transfer of research in the area of mobile solutions.
Originality/value – This paper outlines technology and research activities in Bremen, which promotes itself as the mobile city, a trademark standing for innovation and supporting in innovative ways the necessary structural changes in the economy. It will be of interest to those in the field of R&D.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study        
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Dongyoung Sohn, Cunhyeong Ci and Byung-Kwan Lee, “The Moderating Effects of Expectation on the Patterns of the Interactivity-Attitude Relationship,” Journal of Advertising, 36.3 (Fall 2011): 109-119.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Is interactivity always beneficial? Not always. Rather, the effects of interactivity on consumers’ attitudes toward the site may not be a context-free outcome, but instead may change across the product categories to which consumers have different “expected interactivity” (EI). This study attempts to show how the interactivity–attitude relationship is moderated by consumers’ varying EI levels. By employing a 3 (high/medium/low Web site interactivity)  2 (high/low product category expectation) between-subjects factorial experiment, two competing hypotheses of how EI works were tested: (1) whether EI could reverse the direction of the interactivity–attitude relationship (direction-effects hypothesis), or (2) whether EI would change only the magnitude of the effects of interactivity on attitude toward site without changing its direction (magnitude-effects hypothesis). The experimental results supported the direction-effects hypothesis rather than the magnitude-effects hypothesis. Implications for further research and advertising practice are discussed. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Expected Interactivity)

Kim Bartel Sheehan, “Direct-to-consumer (DTC) Branded Drug Web Sites,” Journal of Advertising, 36.3 (Fall 2011): 123-135.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article focuses on research that has been conducted on direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for prescription drugs. The issues examined include how pharmaceutical websites influence consumer’s expectations and their doctor-patient relationship, how print, television, and the Internet can positively and negatively affect health care decisions, and how effectively product information and disclosure is made available.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Sejung Marina Choi and Wei-Na Lee, “Understanding the Impact of Direct-to-consumer (DTC) Pharmaceutical Advertising on Patient-Physician Interactions,” Journal of Advertising, 36.3 (Fall 2011): 137-149.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: As a growing number of people go on-line for health- and drug-related information, pharmaceutical companies devote significant resources to direct-to-consumer (DTC) promotions on the Web. Little is known about how advertising, and age on consumers’ inquiries and requests for prescription drugs advertised on the Web. Findings of this study suggest that Web credibility and attitudes toward DTC advertising in general exert significant influence on consumer response to DTC advertising DTC advertising of prescription drugs on the Web impacts patient–physician interactions, however. This study identified and investigated the influence of credibility perception of the Web for information related to prescription drugs, overall attitudes toward DTC on the Web in the form of patient-physician interactions.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Mira Lee and Ronald J Faber, “Effects of Product Placement in On-line Games on Brand Memory: a Perspective of the Limited-capacity Model of Attention,” Journal of Advertising, 36.4 (Winter 2007): 75-90.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study explores the conditions under which product placement in an on-line game will get noticed and be remembered from a perspective of the limited-capacity model of attention. Results show that the location of brand messages in the game (referred to here as proximity), game involvement, and prior game-playing experience interact to influence brand memory. Although experienced players in the moderate-involvement condition recognize focal brands better than the peripheral brands, the recognition superiority of the focal brands over the peripheral brands disappears when experienced players’ involvement is high. The interaction between proximity and game involvement does not emerge for inexperienced players, however. Findings also demonstrate that the degree of congruity between the product category of a brand and game content influences brand memory such that highly incongruent brands are better recalled than either moderately incongruent brands or highly congruent brands. Implications for researchers are also discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Branding)

Cara Peters, Christie H Amato and Candice R Hollenbeck, “An Exploratory Investigation of Consumers’ Perceptions of Wireless Advertising,” Journal of Advertising, 36.4 (Winter 2007): 129-145.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The ubiquitous nature of cell phones makes them an ideal advertising vehicle. While the popular press touts the benefits of wireless advertising messages (WAM), few marketing researchers have addressed this advertising innovation. Media uses and gratifications theory is used to study consumers’ perceptions of WAM. Data from in-depth interviews indicate that usage is motivated by process, socialization, and content needs. Informants perceived WAM as a way to stay “in the know,” build relationships with companies, and feel part of an “in-group.” Few would pay for WAM, however, and most would discontinue usage if companies sent unsolicited messages. We theorize about two potential barriers to adoption: social costs and monetary costs. Our interpretations of these behaviors are enfolded with theoretical and managerial implications.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study        
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Mark Ferris, “Insights on Mobile Advertising, Promotion, and Research,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.1 (March 2007): 28-37.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Wide usage of the mobile phone provides opportunities for marketers and researchers. Consumers are more accessible through these devices, and communication through the mobile internet can more easily be interactive. Case studies from Japan indicate that marketers can conduct mobile campaigns aimed at building a large database of potential customers, better understanding customers through data mining, crafting outbound campaigns targeted at specific consumer segments, and easily measuring the effectiveness of campaigns. The ability to market to consumers according to their location and certain handset features (such as using the phone as a means of effecting payment) also have interesting applications for marketers.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study        
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Stephen D. Rappaport, “Lessons from Online Practice: New Advertising Models,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.2 (June 2007): 135-142.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The advertising industry is crossing an inflection point, passing from the conventional mass media interrupt and repeat model for advertising to a family of advertising models centered on relevance. This article reviews the developments and events that have brought us to this point, and then outlines three new models rising in importance—On Demand, Engagement, and Advertising as a Service. Although they differ, the models share similarities: a focus on dynamic relationships among brands and consumers, penetrating insights into consumers through data on behavior and preferences, and support from technology. These new models provide marketers with flexibility and a range of options they can apply as consumers and situations warrant. Now is the time for brands to experiment with a model, or combinations of models, that suit the brand best. One conclusion is certain: we will never see another 75-year period of advertising centered on one model and four dominant media.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

William E. Lipper, “The Future of Online Market Research,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.2 (June 2007): 142-147.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: As new online technologies open doors to new opportunities in market research, the research industry must take care to uphold the integrity of its work in the online and mobile media space. This article takes a look ahead to the future of online market research and suggests three key areas on which the industry should focus to ensure that the research opportunities associated with the online advertising are maximized. 
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Huei-Chen Hsu, Cho Shiun Lai and Cheng Hsui Chen, “Extrinsic Cue of Warranty by Selling through a Reputable Website,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.2 (June 2007): 158-165.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This research aims to investigate the interactive effects of website reputation, manufacturer brand, on electronic commerce. We surveyed 543 internet users to investigate the effects of high-reputation and low-reputation websites on two digital camera brands—Nikon and Snap. A major finding of this study is that a reputable website seems to have a significant effect on a well-known manufacturer’s brand. It is also apparent that a lesser-known manufacturer can use a reputable website as a quality endorser.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Other (Branding)

Shintaro Pkazaki, Akihiro Katsukura, and Mamori Nishiyama, “How Mobile Advertising Works: The Role of Trust in Improving Attitudes and Recall,” Journal of 
Advertising Research, 47.2 (June 2007): 165-179.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: How does trust affect consumer attitudes and recall in mobile advertising? This study explores this question by conducting a large-scale “pseudo” mobile advertising campaign in Japan. Two “real” brands (one durable and one nondurable good) of major Japanese manufacturers were used as study stimuli. Using a push messaging service, both a campaign message and a subsequent questionnaire for each brand were sent to 40,000 opt-in mobile users. Five primary constructs were examined: brand trust, mobile advertising trust, attitude toward brand, attitude toward mobile advertising, and mobile campaign recall. Findings suggest that a mobile campaign’s recall largely depends on perceptions of both the medium and the advertised content, and that the effects of mobile advertising trust on attitude toward mobile advertising were stronger than those of other relationships. The path from attitude toward brand to mobile campaign recall was notably and statistically stronger for the durable good sample than for the nondurable good sample. Only in the durable good sample is attitude toward brand a mediating variable in linking attitude toward mobile advertising and mobile campaign recall. This study offers a basic but useful research framework for a mobile-based online survey.
Method: Experiment   
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Nick Sparrow, “Quality Issues in Online Research,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.2 (June 2007): 179-183.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Online polls and surveys using volunteer panels have grabbed a large slice of the research data collection market largely because they offer fast and cost-effective research solutions. Concerns over the level of internet penetration and the use of volunteer panels have in many cases been set aside, as has research evidence showing sharp differences between the results of online and conventional telephone and face-to-face surveys. This study set out to find effective weighting systems that would bring the results of online surveys into line with telephone and other large-scale random surveys. Disappointingly, the differences could not be removed by weighting demographics, newspaper readership, or by using attitudinal weighting variables. Instead, the study found evidence of significant and disturbing mode effects that seem to arise largely because panel members are primarily motivated to participate in surveys by the money they hope to earn, and in some cases seem to expend little time and energy doing so. The article suggests treating panel members as valued employees, appropriately paid for carefully considered answers and aware they are subject to rigorous quality control procedures. These procedures are designed to weed out panel members who do not play fair, and in this regard the article sets out some alternative strategies that might be employed.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Marie-Pierre Fourquet-Courbet, Didier Courbet and Marc VanHuele, “How Web Banner Designers Work: The Role of Internal Dialogues, Self-Evaluations, and Implicit Communication Theories,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.2 (June 2007): 183-193.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In-depth interviews with web banner designers, combined with retrospective protocols, reveal implicit theories of the communication process that they apply during their creation process. These theories take the form of reactions of imaginary audiences with whom web banner designers engage in imaginary dialogues. The dialogues reveal the evaluation standards held by internet users, advertisers, and different colleagues. 
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Wenyu Doandeep and S. Krisnamurthyu, “Using Brand Websites to Build Brands Online: A Product versus Service Brand Comparison,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.2 (June 2007): 193-207.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study analyzes important content, function, and design elements of brand sites along six dimensions: text information, multimedia information, interface design, loyalist support, promotion synergy and interactivity. A total of 219 brand websites for a product category (i.e., drinks and candies) and a service category (i.e., accounting firms) are examined. Results indicate that accounting firms treat their brand sites as corporate-image building vehicles and virtual information sources while drinks and candies firms use entertaining design elements to build customer relationships through greater interaction. Companies may be underutilizing elements related to interactivity, cultivating loyal customers, and supporting cross-channel promotions. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Branding)

William Havlena, Robert Cardarelli and Michelle de Montigny, “Quantifying the Isolated and Synergistic Effects of Exposure Frequency for TV, Print, and Internet Advertising,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.3 (September 2007): 215-222.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article describes an approach to measuring frequency of exposure to all media at the individual level and presents a case study illustration based on a cross-platform TV, print and online campaign for a consumer packaged good for which advertising had begun several weeks prior to data collection. Using the respondent-level frequency approach, we address the contribution of different media to marketing objectives in circumstances where the campaign has already started and for very well-established brands with high levels of awareness. Knowing respondent-level frequencies also allows us to understand if media synergy effects are truly synergistic or the result of achieving higher frequency levels among people who have been exposed to multiple media.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Synergy)

Gillian Sullivan Mort and Judy Drennan, “Mobile Communications: A Study of Factors Influencing Consumer Use of m-Services,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.3 (September 2007): 302-313.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article examines the new medium of mobile communications and the factors influencing consumers’ use of m-services in that medium. M-services are defined as enhanced information services accessed while mobile. Marketing communications, specifically advertising, can be delivered as an m-service. This research models a system of relationships of the factors affecting use of m-services, finding that involvement and innovativeness, but not self-efficacy, are significant. The article concludes with implications for advertising delivered as an m-service, the identification of the potential for m-services advertising as part of m-commerce, and directions for future research.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Ted Smith, James R. Coyle, Elizabeth Lightfoot and Amy Scott, “Reconsidering Models of Influence: The Relationship between Consumer Social Networks and Word-of-Mouth Effectiveness,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.4 (December 2007): 387-398.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In today’s fragmented media landscape, generating positive word of mouth (WOM) among consumers has become an important tool for marketers. Marketers are challenged with identifying influential individuals in social networks and connecting with them in ways that encourage WOM message movement.  This article explores the nature of social networks, their role in influence, and the characteristics of the most influential individuals. It also examines the characteristics of viral marketing messages. Our findings contradict the commonly accepted notion that WOM influence comes from an elite, highly connected few. This research suggests that most people are moderately connected and are as willing as the highly connected to share marketing messages with others. Also, we find that influence is motivated by our basic human need to be helpful by giving advice, and that people share a common enjoyment in seeking out valuable information. The implications of these findings for marketers are discussed. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Flow)

Kate Niederhoffer, Rob Mooth, David Wiesenfeld and Jonathan Gordon, “The Origin and Impact of CPG New-Product Buzz: Emerging Trends and Implications,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.4 (December 2007): 420-427.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Marketers are interested in the phenomenon of “consumer-generated media”, or “buzz,” given its potential to affect the commercial prospects for their products. Within the consumer packaged goods (CPG) sector, advertisers experiment with a variety of tactics to generate buzz in their marketing communications strategies, including stimulating it. An in-depth analysis of this rapidly evolving domain—considering blog buzz, marketing spending, pre-market purchase intentions, and in-market sales revealed five key themes: (1) a minority of new CPG brands generate the majority of buzz, (2) new CPG product buzz usually precedes sales, (3) strong new CPG product buzz usually occurs in combination with a strong traditional media presence, (4) category ubiquity and brand distinctiveness are predictive of buzz, and (5) high buzz levels drive sales and can be anticipated to help improve forecasting models.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Branding)

Jeffrey Graham and William Havlena, “Finding the ‘Missing Link’: Advertising’s Impact on Word of Mouth, Web Searches, and Site Visits,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.4 (December 2007): 427-436.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: For decades, marketers have trumpeted the importance of word of mouth in influencing purchase choice, but have still spent billions on brand advertising—without any proof of the link between the two. Using newly available data, this study sought to resolve this contradiction by searching for the “missing link” between positive word of mouth about brands and brand advertising. It also tested the relationship between advertising and measurable behaviors of brand interest—namely, brand searches and website visits. The analysis involved 35 brands over a 26-week period using six sources of data. The results indicate that brands should redouble their efforts in using advertising to grow brand advocacy through the integration of online and offline branded consumer contact points.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Branding)

Cate Riegner, “Word of Mouth on the Web: The Impact of Web 2.0 on Consumer Purchase Decisions,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.4 (December 2007): 436-448.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The Internet stands apart from other media in enabling its “users” to interact. From this perspective, the internet will always be, at its core, a tool for interpersonal communication. While consumers find emotional and practical benefits in participating in online discussions, these conversations have profound commercial implications as well. Everyday consumers are wielding greater control over their media habits and their role in the commercial marketplace. Moreover, with the growth of online participation, consumers exert greater influence over the products and brands considered for purchase. Based on a study of over 4,000 broadband users in the United States, this article examines consumer adoption of Web 2.0 and the impact those rants, raves, comments, and reviews are having on purchase decisions today.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Flow)

Chun-Yao Huang, Yong-Zheng Shen, Hong-Xiang Lin and Shin-Shin Chang, “Bloggers’ Motivations and Behaviors: A Model,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.4 (December 2007): 472-485.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: During the past few years, there has been an exponential growth of blogs, and behind these blogs are numerous bloggers who create and manage them, it is widely expected that bloggers armed with their own blogs will make a tremendous impact on both mass communication media and marketers who rely on such media. However, given the widespread use of blogs, there has been little systematic analysis of the factors behind blogging activities. To serve as a stepping-stone, this article presents a model that addresses the relationships among blogging motivations and behaviors, and reports the empirical validation of the model.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Kineta H. Huang and Stella Yiyan Li, “The Influence of eWOM on Virtual Consumer Communities: Social Capital, Consumer Learning, and Behavioral Outcomes,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.4 (December 2007): 485-496.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Word of mouth (WOM) is a highly credible form of marketing information. However, because it is difficult to study WOM in the face-to-face context, researchers have limited understanding of its sources of effectiveness or its effects beyond product and brand communications. This study analyzed computer-mediated data and conducted face-to-face interviews with beauty product enthusiasts in China to understand electronic WOM (eWOM) in a consumption-interest virtual community.  Findings reveal four categories of responses: (1) sources of social capital, (2) brand choice facilitation, (3) persuasion knowledge development, and (4) consumer reflexivity. We then propose a model and offer a set of postulates to outline future research directions.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Flow)

Peyton R. Mason and Boyd H. David, “More than the Words: Using Stance-Shift Analysis to identify Crucial Opinions and Attitudes in Online Focus Groups,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.4 (December 2007): 496-507.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Advertisers, marketers and researchers all wrestle with finding the personal human presence in text-based online communication. Social features are present, if subtle. Users of online research must work to identify when and how unseen writers are or are not strongly committed to what they have just written, and must work even harder to keep from reading themselves and their own biases into the text being analyzed. Our discussion illustrates how stance-shift analysis, as a type of quantitative content analysis, maximizes understanding of online communication through its identification of key language patterns that highlight consumer evaluation, attitudes, and attribution of behaviors or opinions.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Stance Shift)

Daniel M. Haygood, “A Status Report on Podcast Advertising,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.4 (December 2007): 518-522.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Podcasting has begun to capture the public’s imagination. Content creators are now providing a growing stream of intriguing and diverse content for downloading on iVIP3 players or personal computers, allowing consumers to control the time and place of their viewing or listening. And even advertising is emerging as a presence in podcasts. This article examines the landscape of podcast advertising, providing an overview of podcasting’s development and current usage. New research explores current podcast advertising practices, such as quantity, type, placement, and just which companies are putting commercial messages on podcasts. Finally, the future direction of podcast advertising is anticipated.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Hung-Chang Chiu, Yi-Ching Hsieh, Ya-Hui Kao and Monte Lee, “The Determinants of Email Receivers’ Disseminating Behaviors on the Internet,” Journal of Advertising Research, 47.4 (December 2007): 524-535.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: To investigate the determinants of the effects of a viral campaign, this study employs the classical framework of a persuasive communication model, designated as “Who says what to whom in which channel and with what effect?” This study also considers theories of consumer value, personality, word-of-mouth communication and source credibility. On the basis of an experiment conducted in Taiwan, we find four main results. First, message recipients who receive emails from close interpersonal sources are more willing to forward them than messages from unfamiliar interpersonal or commercial sources. Second, those who receive more utilitarian or more hedonic messages are more willing to forward them. Third, those who score high on extraversion and openness and low on conscientiousness traits are more willing to forward a marketing message to others. Fourth, those who access the internet via a broadband connection are more willing to forward the message than are those who use dial-up modems. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Rajiv C. Shah and Jay P. Kesan, “The Privatization of the Internet’s Backbone Network,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 51.1 (March 2007): 93-109
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Scholars have neglected the privatization of the Internet’s backbone network, despite the obvious significance of the U.S. government turning control of a powerful new communication technology over to the private sector. This article analyzes the transition from a government-sponsored backbone network to multiple commercially owned backbone networks. The authors also analyze the implications of the privatization on the Internet’s governance, competition and performance.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Social Interaction

Yuqiong Zhou and Patricia Moy, “Parsing Framing Processes: The Interplay Between Online Public Opinion and Media Coverage,” Journal of Communication, 57.1 (2007): 79–98.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: To what extent do frame-building and frame-setting processes manifest themselves in the interplay between online public discourse and traditional (offline) media discourse? Employing a content analysis of 206 online posts and 114 news reports regarding a sociopolitical incident in China, this study tests the associations and causal relationships between the salience of opinion frames and media frames. Online public opinion plays an important role in transforming the original local event into a nationally prominent issue. It also exerts a significant frame-building impact on subsequent media reports but only in the early stage of coverage. However, the media are not passive in this two-way process and adapt online frames as necessary. Although media coverage is the primary source of information for netizens, it does not set frames for online discourse. Noticeably, significant associations between concurrent opinion frames and media frames lend strong support to frame-interacting effects. Discussion focuses on governmental influences in the frame-building process and the potential of netizen autonomy to attenuate frame-setting effects. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Eun-Ju Lee, “De-individuation Effects on Group Polarization in Computer-Mediated Communication: The Role of Group Identification, Public-Self-Awareness, and Perceived Argument Quality,” Journal of Communication, 57.2 (2007): 385-403.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The present experiment investigated how de-individuation affects group polarization in computer-mediated communication. Before exchanging their opinions about social dilemmas with three ostensible partners via computer, participants either shared some personal information (individuated) or not (de-individuated). Consistent with the social identity model of de-individuation effects (SIDE), de-individuation fostered group identification with the partners and induced greater opinion polarization, partly by heightening concerns about public evaluations. Although participants rated the partners’ arguments more positively when they identified with the partners, perceived argument quality did not significantly affect post-discussion opinion shift. De-individuation did not lower private-self-awareness, nor did private-self-awareness significantly influence opinion polarization. Implications are discussed in light of SIDE and the referent informational influence theory.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Seungyoon Lee, Peter Monge, Francxois Bar and Sorin Adam Matei, “The Emergence of Clusters in the Global Telecommunications Network,” Journal of Communication, 57.3 (2007): 415-434.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Studies of international telecommunication networks in past years have found increases in density, centralization, and integration. More recent studies, however, have identified trends of decentralization and regionalization. The present research examines these structural changes in international telephone traffic among 110 countries between 1989 and 1999. It examines the competing theoretical models of core–periphery and cluster structures. The initial results show lowered centralization and inequality in the network of international telecommunications traffic. Statistical p* procedures demonstrate significant interactions within countries in blocks of similar economic development status, geographic region and telecommunications infrastructure development status. Specifically, countries with less developed economic and telecommunications status showed significant increases in tendencies to connect to each other and to reciprocate ties. Altogether, the result supports the idea that the global telecommunications network is moving toward a more diversified structure with the emergence of cohesive and interconnected subgroups. The findings have implications for global digital divide and developmental gap issues.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Other (Core–periphery and Cluster Structures)

Dongyoung Sohn and John D. Leckenby, “A Structural Solution to Communication Dilemmas in a Virtual Community,” Journal of Communication, 57.3 (2007): 435-449.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In a many-to-many communication setting like a virtual community, individuals may be strongly tempted to free-ride on others’ contributions, which would eventually lead to the collapse of the community. To find a structural solution to the ‘‘communication dilemma,’’ this study compared the performances of 2 communication structures—one based on the interpersonal networks (network-generalized exchange: NEX, e.g., blogs) and the other based on a public electronic bulletin board (group-generalized exchange: GEX). In a 2 3 2 3 2 longitudinal between-subject experiment, it was found that changing GEX to NEX could increase the contributions made by individuals. Furthermore, NEX was found to be an effective structure for N-person communication particularly when a large number of individuals were involved. The findings imply that an individual’s cooperative motivation is a function of the incentive structure of a particular form of information exchange, which means that altering the exchange form may be a possible solution to the communication dilemmas in virtual communities.
Method: Experiment   
Theory: Social Interaction

Dhavan V. Shah, Jaeho Cho, Seungahn Nah, Melissa R. Gotlieb, Hyunseo Hwang, Nam-Jin Lee1, Rosanne M. Scholl and Douglas M. McLeod, “Campaign Ads, Online Messaging, and Participation: Extending the Communication Mediation Model,” Journal of Communication, 57.3 (2007): 676-703.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Political communication researchers have devoted a great deal of attention to the role of political advertising, the Internet and political discussion in civic and political life. In this article, we integrate and extend this research by developing a campaign communication mediation model of civic and campaign participation. Two data sets are merged for this inquiry: (a) content-coded ad-buy data on the placement of campaign messages on a market-by-market and program-by-program basis and (b) a national panel study concerning patterns of traditional and digital media consumption and levels of civic and campaign participation. Exposure to televised campaign advertising is estimated by developing an algorithm based on the market and program placement of specific ads and geo-coded survey respondents’ viewing of certain categories of television content in which these ads were concentrated. Structural equation models reveal that advertising exposure drives online news use in ways that complement conventional news influences on political discussion and political messaging. However, campaign exposure emphasizing ‘‘attack’’ messages appears to diminish information seeking motivations via broadcast and print media, yet only indirectly and weakly suppresses participation in civic and political life. Further, alternative specifications reveal that our original model produces the best fit, empirically and theoretically. We use these insights to propose an O-S-R-O-R (orientations-stimuli-reasoning-orientations-responses) framework as an alternative to the longstanding O-S-O-R model in communication and social psychology.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Michael Xenos and Patricia Moy, “Direct and Differential Effects of the Internet on Political and Civic Engagement,” Journal of Communication, 57.3 (2007): 704-718.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Given the significant rise in the number of Americans who turn to the Internet for political information, we examine the effects of these behaviors on political and civic engagement in an evolving media landscape. Specifically, this study tests hypotheses derived from competing models—the instrumental approach, which posits direct effects of Internet use and a psychological approach, which predicts contingent effects. Analyses of the 2004 American National Election Studies (N = 1,212) reveal a pattern of direct effects of Internet use on basic information acquisition and use but contingent effects for concrete acts of civic or political engagement. These results provide an important window on the political impacts of contemporary Internet use and suggest that future reassessments of the Internet’s role in public life should continue to probe for direct as well as differential effects.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Policy

Silvia Knobloch-Westerwick and Scott Alter, “The Gender News Use Divide: Americans’ Sex-Typed Selective Exposure to Online News Topics,” Journal of Communication, 57.3 (2007): 739-758.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: To examine psychological origins of sex-typed news preferences, an online newsmagazine was presented to 196 American participants in an experimental setting. The presented articles featured the same portions of social/interpersonal and achievement/ performance topics. Newsreaders’ selective news exposure was unobtrusively logged. Results show that, in line with gender stereotypes, women favor social/interpersonal topics and men prefer achievement/performance issues. Newsreaders’ affiliation motive, self-esteem, and, to a small extent, gender schemata influenced what news content was preferred.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

James Gillett, “Internet Web Logs as Cultural Resistance: A Study of the SARS Arts Project,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 31.1 (2007): 28-33.
Keywords: Web logs, cultural resistance, SARS
Abstract: This article examines an Internet project — sarsart.org — that features digital artworks created in response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in spring 2003. Qualitative methods including archival research, semiotic analysis and interviews are used to examine the emergence and substance of this Internet project. The analysis identifies ways in which contributions by artists and bloggers (i.e., individuals with their own Internet site or Web log) contest institutional representations of SARS. The site challenges the representation of the outbreak on three levels: portrayals of citizens affected by SARS, portrayals of health professionals, and portrayals of the risk and panic associated with the outbreak. The argument is made that Internet projects such as sarsart.org can increase the capacity for cultural resistance by creating greater opportunities for the expression of political opposition to institutional authority.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Victor Pickard, “Neo-liberal Visions and Revisions in Global Communications Policy From NWICO to WSIS,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 31.2 (2007): 118-139.
Keywords: New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO), World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), Internet governance, neo-liberalism, global communication, international communication, media history, Internet policy 
Abstract: The author proposes that any account seeking to contextualize crucial policy debates connected to the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) must engage with two necessary projects. First, it must historicize WSIS in relation to an earlier international forum similarly focused on global communications policy, the New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO). Second, it must theorize WSIS in terms related to neo-liberalism, the dominant political economic system defining global relations today. This analysis brings into focus both continuities and changes in global communications policy during the formative period of the past three decades. 
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Lucas Graves, “The Affordances of Blogging: A Case Study in Culture and Technological Effects,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 31.4 (2007): 331-346.
Keywords: technological determinism, social construction, affordance, news, blogging 
Abstract: Informed by Carey’s cultural approach to communication, this article revisits the debate about the historical impact of new communication technologies. Several studies have pointed to technology “affordances” as offering a useful middle ground between determinist and social constructivist perspectives. This article explores how the concept of affordance might be tweaked to emphasize what an emerging technology suggests in time to the cultures using and developing it. The second half of the article illustrates the discussion with a close examination of the affordances of blogging technology and especially of a novel communications genre: news-related blogs.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Social Interaction

Robert Larose and Nora J. Rifon, “Promoting i-Safety: Effects of Privacy Warnings and Privacy Seals on Risk Assessment and Online Privacy Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 41.1 (Fall 2007): 127-149.
Keywords: N/A/
Abstract: Using social cognitive theory, this study experimentally examines the effects of explicit privacy warnings, a clear, conspicuous and concise presentation of the benefits and risks associated with database information practices stated in a Web site’s privacy policy. Warnings increased perceptions of the risks associated with information practices and decreased disclosures, but not in the presence of a privacy seal. The effects were also moderated by consumer privacy self-efficacy and involvement with privacy. The results support the development of privacy warnings as a part of consumer privacy self-regulatory efforts and the use of a social cognitive paradigm for understanding consumer privacy behaviors.
Method: Experiment   
Theory: Social Interaction

Mariea G. Hoy and May O. Lwin, “Disclosures Exposed: Banner Ad Disclosure Adherence to FTC Guidance in the Top 100 U.S. Web Sites,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 41.2 (Winter 2007): 185-198.
Keywords: N/A/
Abstract: With banner ads accounting for one-fifth of the $16.4 billion spent on Internet advertising in 2006, this advertising format has become an integral marketing communications tool. Inclusion of required disclosure language and presenting those disclosures in a clear and conspicuous manner are important areas of regulatory interest and in recent years have extended to the online environment. This study examines the extent to which disclosures in banner ads in the top 100 U.S. Web sites adhere to Federal Trade Commission guidance in these two areas. Additionally, this study compares the banner ad results for clear and conspicuous presentation to those of a prior study that examined television advertising. All the banner ads in the study contained at least one disclosure, yet, adherence was mixed in terms of providing all the required information clearly and conspicuously. Implications of these results are discussed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Jenni Niemela-Nyrhinen, “Baby Boom Consumers and Technology: Shooting Down Stereotypes,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 24.5 (2007): 305–312.
Keywords: Communication technologies, Experience, Baby boomer generation 
Abstract: Purpose – Current stereotypes of aging consumers paint a picture of them as technology anxious and reluctant to adopt new technologies. This paper aims to show that the present 50-to-60 age group does not fit these stereotypes. 
Design/methodology/approach – A total of 620 Finnish baby boomers (aged between 50 and 60) responded to a mail survey. Findings – Baby boom consumers are shown, in contrast to the stereotypes, to have low levels of technology anxiety and high levels of experience of internet and SMS usage. It is also shown that technology anxiety and experience have an inverse relationship in the age group. 
Research limitations/implications – To some extent, the results provide evidence of the distortedness of current stereotypes that are used to describe 50-plus consumers. However, data was gathered only in one country. Replications of this study in different countries would allow drawing broader conclusions. 
Practical implications – Marketers of technological products and services are advised to let go of the outdated stereotypes, familiarize themselves with today’s 50-plus consumers and when applicable, invest effort in serving this market. 
Originality/value – While there exists some research on aging consumers as Internet users, this study offers a more general view on aging consumers and their use of technological services by examining technology anxiety within this specific market. The results should be of value to both academicians and practitioners in realizing the potential of the mature market.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Lars P. Andersen, Birgitte Tufte, Jeanette Rasmussen and Kara Chan, “Tweens and New Media in Denmark and Hong Kong,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 24.6 (2007): 340-350.
Keywords Youth, Socialization, Information media, Cross-cultural studies, Denmark, Hong Kong
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a study that compares ownership and usage of new media among young “tween” consumers in Denmark and Hong Kong. Further, it shows the ways of finding new interesting web sites.
Design/methodology/approach – In 2004-2005 a survey was conducted in Denmark and Hong Kong of 434 fourth, fifth and sixth class students. Questionnaires were distributed in six elementary schools. Hypotheses about new media ownership and usage in the two societies are formulated based on the economic development and individualistic/collective cultural dimensions of the societies.
Findings – Household ownership of new media, ownership of mobile phone and heavy use of the internet were found to be more prevalent among Danish tweens than among Hong Kong tweens. Danish tweens were more likely to use mobile phones and Hong Kong tweens used the internet more for educational purposes than Danish tweens. the internet for interpersonal communication and for enjoyment than Hong Kong tweens. The results seem to support that adoption and consumption of new media are motivated differently in cultures of individualism and collectivism, and consequently that the tween consumer segment is not as globally homogeneous as it is claimed to be.
Research limitations/implications – The study was based on a convenience sample, thus it may be problematic to generalize from the findings.
Practical implications – The study can serve as a guideline for marketing communication targeting tweens. The emphasis on the hedonic use and social function of new media may be suitable for a highly developed, individualistic society. In collective societies, marketers may need to put emphasis on the instrumental values of new media, such as improving academic performance.
Originality/value – This paper offers insights into designing communication strategies for Danish and Hong Kong tweens, particularly when incorporating new media. Findings are compared with existing preconceptions of the tween segment in the marketing literature.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Tim Reisenwitz, Rajesh Iyer, David B. Kuhlmeier and Jacqueline K. Eastman, “The Elderly’s Internet Usage: an Updated Look,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 24.6 (2007): 406-418.
Keywords Elderly people, Internet, Nostalgia, Risk management, Consumer behaviour
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend earlier research on mature consumers and their Internet use by examining how mature consumers’ use of the internet is impacted by their nostalgia proneness, innovativeness, and risk aversion.
Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected using a convenience sample (n 1/4 374) of respondents who were 65 years of age or older. Several scales were used to measure the constructs of interest to the research, all of which have been used in earlier research.
Findings – Results revealed that those seniors with higher levels of nostalgia proneness used and accessed the Internet less, purchased less online, had less online experience and felt less comfortable using the internet. There is also support for the impact of innovativeness on mature consumers’ internet use, frequency, online purchases, experience, comfort level with the internet, and satisfaction with the internet. In terms of risk aversion, seniors with more online experience report a lower level of risk aversion to the internet than other mature consumers.
Research limitations/implications – Future research needs to determine if these results can be replicated with a national random sample.
Additionally, research is needed to determine what factors increase seniors’ experience with the internet.
Originality/value – This study demonstrates that seniors are becoming an increasingly more viable segment for internet marketers. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Tommi Laukkanen, Suvi Sinkkonen, Marke Kivijarvi,and Pekka Laukkanen, “Innovation Resistance Among Mature Consumers,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 24.6 (2007): 419-427.
Keywords Innovation, Older consumers, Banks, Mobile communication systems, Consumer behaviour
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate innovation resistance among mature consumers in the mobile banking context. The reasons inhibiting mature consumers’ mobile banking adoption were compared to those of younger consumers.
Design/methodology/approach – Following Ram and Sheth, resistance was measured with five barriers namely Usage, Value, Risk, Tradition and Image barriers. An extensive internet survey was implemented and 1,525 usable responses were collected, of which 370 respondents (24.3 percent) represented the mature consumer segment (age over 55) and 1,155 respondents (75.7 percent) represented the younger consumers.
Findings – The empirical findings indicate that the value barrier is the most intense barrier to mobile banking adoption among both mature and younger consumers. However, aging appears to be related especially to the risk and image barriers, the most significant differences between mature and younger consumers’ perceptions of mobile banking were related to input and output mechanisms of information, the battery life of a mobile phone, a fear that the list of PIN codes would be lost and end up in the wrong hands and the usefulness of new technology in general.
Practical implications – The study has practical implications to marketers in different fields in that strategies to overcome resistance to innovations like mobile banking are discussed.
Originality/value – Innovation resistance can be seen as a less developed concept in adoption research. While the majority of studies have focused on the success of innovations and reasons to adopt, this study empirically investigates the reasons preventing innovation adoption. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Brian T. Ratchford, Debabrata Talukdar, and Myung-Soo Lee, “The Impact of the Internet on Consumers’ Use of Information Sources for Automobiles: A Re-Inquiry,” Journal of Consumer Research, 34.1 (June 2007): 111-118.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Using three cohorts of data from field surveys of new car buyers in 1990, 2000, and 2002, this study seeks to determine how the Internet fits into patterns of information search for recent car buyers. We believe that our study provides the most complete analysis to date of how the Internet is being integrated with other product information sources. Specifically, we find that the Internet substitutes for time spent at the dealer and time spent in negotiating prices. We also find that it substitutes for print third-party sources. Manufacturer/dealer Internet sources are the most widely used and appear to substitute the most for traditional sources.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Gordon C. Bruner II and Anand Kumar, “Attitude toward Location-Based Advertising,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7.2 (Spring 2007).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Location-based advertising (LBA) is not new but being able to access it through one’s mobile communication device is. Description of this revolutionary advertising medium is provided as well as some opportunities and challenges that come with it. Desperately needed is more research since in-depth examination of the topic has barely begun. To assist researchers in their investigations, a scale is provided here that is likely to become central to many studies: attitude toward location-based advertising (Alba). Support for the scale’s psychometric quality comes from a preliminary study and a two-stage analysis of a large, national sample.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Dimitris Drossos, George M. Giaglis, George Lekakos, Flora Kokkinaki and Maria G. Stavraki, “Determinants of Effective SMS Advertising: An Experimental Study,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7.2 (Spring 2007).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Mobile advertising has become one of the most popular applications in mobile commerce, particularly in the form of text advertising through SMS (Short Messaging Service). However, in the study of mobile advertising little is known regarding the effectiveness of SMS advertising and the factors contributing to its success. This research investigates the significance of a number of factors associated with SMS advertising effectiveness through an experimental study. The findings indicate that incentive, interactivity, appeal, product involvement and attitude toward SMS advertising in general directly influence attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. The results of the study suggest that a stronger focus on these factors is necessary to improve the effectiveness of SMS advertising campaigns.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Ramaprasad Unni and Robert Harmon, “Perceived Effectiveness of Push vs. Pull Mobile Location-Based Advertising,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7.2 (Spring 2007).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The emergence of mobile phones as the leading personal communications device portends their attractiveness as a potentially lucrative media platform for marketers. This article presents initial consumer evaluations of mobile location-based advertising (LBA). LBA is a new form of marketing communication that uses location-tracking technology in mobile networks to target consumers with location-specific advertising on their cell phones. We use an experimental setting to test the effects of LBA characteristics on privacy concerns about location tracking, perceived benefits, value, and intentions to try LBA. LBA was described as a free, opt-in service from cell phone service providers. Results indicate that privacy concerns are high, and perceived benefits and value of LBA are low. LBA was relatively more effective when it becomes available upon explicit request by the consumer than when consumers are alerted to location-specific advertising or promotions for preferred product categories relevant to a specific location. Implications for marketers are discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Marko Merisavo, Sami Kajalo, Heikki Karjaluoto, Ville Virtanen, Sami Salmenkivi, Mika Raulas, and Matti Leppäniemi, “An Empirical Study of the Drivers of Consumer Acceptance of Mobile Advertising,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7.2 (Spring 2007).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The ubiquity of text messaging (SMS) based mobile communication creates new opportunities for marketers. However, the factors that induce consumers to accept mobile devices as an advertising medium are not yet fully understood. This paper examines the drivers of consumer acceptance of SMS-based mobile advertising. A conceptual model and hypotheses are tested with a sample of 4,062 Finnish mobile phone users. Structural equation modeling is used to test five drivers of mobile advertising acceptance: (1) utility, (2) context, (3) control, (4) sacrifice, and (5) trust. The results show that utility and context are the strongest positive drivers, while sacrifice is negatively related to the acceptance of mobile advertising. Despite the concerns about privacy, our results indicate that control and trust are not that important to consumers in mobile advertising.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Suzanne Altobello Nasco and Gordon C. Bruner II, “Perceptions and Recall of Advertising Content Presented on Mobile Handled Devices,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7.2 (Spring 2007).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: With the advancements in mobile phone technology and the increase in consumer use of wireless devices to access the internet, there is a need to explore the inevitable effect of these factors on mobile advertising.  This project presented commercial content on wireless devices, designed to represent various modality combinations (text, audio, and pictures) to test hypotheses based on cognitive load theory. Results showed that modality significantly affected subjects’ perceptions toward and recall of the commercial content. However, modality did not affect perceptions of the mobile device itself, or influence behavioral intentions and attitudes toward mobile advertising on wireless devices. Behavioral intentions to use mobile devices were significantly predicted by consumer perceptions of content and of the device. Marketers can use these results to design more effective ads to be presented on mobile devices.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

2008

Bill D. Herman, “Breaking and Entering My Own Computer: The Contest of Copyright Metaphors,” Communication Law and Policy, 13.1 (Spring 2008): 231-274.
Keywords: Copyright, Discourse analysis, figures of speech, digital media, possession (Law), digital technology
Abstract: In the current debate over copyright law, those who support maximum copyright protections have advanced their agenda largely via the metaphor of ownership in physical property. As part of this metaphorical system, they have successfully argued that digital rights management (DRM) systems deserve legal protections befitting locked doors. This article is a discourse analysis of this related system of metaphors and of opponents’ metaphorical and non-metaphorical responses. Scholars who oppose the maximalist vision of copyright have devoted considerable thought to the problem of metaphors, including especially the search for metaphors that can challenge the metaphor of property. The article concludes there is work yet to be done on this count. As an incremental contribution to this conversation, the article suggests additional arguments, including additional metaphors in search of a new means to conceptualize copyright law.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Jasmine E. McNealy, “Angling for Phishers: Legislative Responses to Deceptive E-Mail,” Communication Law and Policy, 13.2 (Spring 2008): 275-300.
Keywords: Spam (Electronic mail), electronic mail systems, web site development, Internet — law and legislation, phishing, Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals, Internet fraud, computer crimes, identity theft, state laws
Abstract: Unsolicited e-mail, called spam, is more than just an annoyance for recipients; some of these e-mails are designed to lure recipients into providing confidential personal and financial data. The sender creates e-mails, resembling those from a well-known companies, requesting that the recipient click on a URL provided, which links to a dummy company Web site where the recipient is asked to input personal information. The e-mail sender may then use the information for illegal purposes. This activity, called “phishing,” is on the rise and is expensive for both individuals and industry. While most states have provisions in their anti-spam statutes prohibiting the sending of fraudulent unsolicited e-mails, more states are enacting laws aimed specifically at phishing. This article examines the state laws aimed at stopping phishing as well as proposed federal legislation. The article also considers the sufficiency of Internet crime control measures. It concludes with possible solutions to the phishing problem.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Anthony J. Roberto, Kellie E. Carlyle, Rick S. Zimmerman, Erin L. Abner, Pamela K. Cupp and Gary L. Hansen, ” The Short-Term Effects of a Computer-Based Pregnancy, STD, and HIV Prevention Program,” Communication Quarterly, 56.1 (February 2008): 29-48.
Keywords: HIV prevention, Internet-based program, pregnancy, rural adolescents, STD
Abstract: A computer- and Internet-based intervention was designed to influence several variables related to the prevention of pregnancy, STDs, and HIV in rural adolescents. Three-hundred and thirty-eight tenth-graders enrolled in two rural public high schools participated in this field experiment. Results indicate that students in the experimental school had greater knowledge, greater condom negotiation efficacy, greater situational efficacy, and more favorable attitudes toward waiting to have sex than students in the control school. In tandem, the results suggest that computer-based programs may be a cost-effective and easily replicable means of providing teens with basic information and skills necessary to prevent pregnancy, STDs, and HIV.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Brian T. Kaylor, “A Burkean Poetic Frames Analysis of the 2004 Presidential Ads,” Communication Quarterly, 56.2 (May 2008): 168-183.
Keywords: Attack ads, Burke, Internet, poetic frames, presidential ads
Abstract: While numerous studies have examined the frequency of attack ads in presidential elections, this study measures the level of severity of the attacks. Using Burke’s poetic frames as a foundation, this content analytical study examines the 2004 presidential ads. The negativity level of the ads is explored with comparisons made between those by the candidates and the organizations, differences in ads by medium (television, radio, and Internet), and differences in three time periods of the election (pre-conventions, between conventions, and post-conventions). Finally, implications are addressed concerning Burkean frames, 527 groups, and the Internet.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Political)

Ringo Ma, “Spread of SARS and War-Related Rumors through New Media in China,” Communication Quarterly, 56.4 (November 2008): 376-391.
Keywords: Chinese culture, Internet, New media, SARS, SMS
Abstract: Current literature suggests that, as a form of communication, rumor is a story or statement circulated without confirmation. Rumors emerge under conditions marked by a combination of uncertainty, involvement, anxiety, and credulity, and may circulate by word-of-mouth or various media. The SARS- and war-related rumors in China in 2003 have stimulated new thoughts to the existing theories of rumor. The spread of the rumors was due to a unique combination of Chinese culture and society, the media environment in China, and conditions conducive to generating rumors. New media played a significant role in disseminating information with high efficiency and facilitating free flow of information.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Social Interaction

Debra Burns Melican and Travis L. Dixon, “News on the Net: Credibility, Selective Exposure, and Racial Prejudice,” Communication Research, 35.2 (April 2008): 151-168.
Keywords: credibility; Internet; news; race; racism
Abstract: An online survey was conducted to assess the perception of credibility of various forms of news media, including Internet news sites associated with traditional forms of media and nontraditional Internet news sites. The survey also explored a possible link between news media credibility and scores on a modern racism scale. This study found that people held differential perceptions of Internet news credibility. Specifically, nontraditional Internet sources were perceived as far less credible than all other news sources. After controlling for a number of factors, the results suggest that those who view nontraditional Internet news sources as more credible than traditional media also score higher on a modern racism scale. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed, with a focus on the Internet as a safe haven for divergent, even racist, beliefs.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Shirley S. Ho and Douglas M. McLeod, “Social-Psychological Influences on Opinion Expression in Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Communication,” Communication Research, 35.2 (April 2008): 190-207.
Keywords: opinion expression; spiral of silence; computer-mediated communication; fear of isolation; communication apprehension; news media use; opinion congruency; public deliberation; same-sex marriage
Abstract: This study used an experiment embedded within a Web-based survey to examine the influence of contextual (i.e., face-to-face vs. online chat room discussion) and social-psychological factors on individuals’ willingness to express opinions. In this experiment, respondents were asked whether they would be willing to express an opinion if they were placed in a face-to-face discussion group in one condition and in an online chat room discussion group in the other condition. Results indicate that print news use, fear of isolation, communication apprehension, future opinion congruency, and communication setting significantly predict willingness to speak out. In addition, not only did fear of isolation have a negative main effect on opinion expression, but this effect was significantly attenuated by computer-mediated discussion. Findings suggest that computer-mediated communication may avoid some of the dysfunctional social-psychological influences found in face-to-face interactions and create a forum conducive for public deliberation.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Patti M. Valkenburg and Jochen Peter, “Adolescents’ Identity Experiments on the Internet: Consequences for Social Competence and Self-Concept Unity,” Communication Research, 35.2 (April 2008): 208-231.
Keywords: Internet; instant messaging; chat; identity; social competence; social skills; loneliness; social anxiety; self-concept unity; self-concept clarity
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adolescents’ online identity experiments on their social competence and self-concept unity. An online survey was conducted among 1,158 Dutch adolescents between 10 and 17 years of age. Using structural equation modeling, the authors investigated the validity of four opposing effects hypotheses in an integrative antecedents-and-effects model. Adolescents who more often experimented with their identity on the Internet more often communicated online with people of different ages and cultural backgrounds. This communication, in turn, had a positive effect on adolescents’ social competence but did not affect their self-concept unity. In particular, lonely adolescents used the Internet to experiment with their identity. The social competence of lonely adolescents benefited significantly from these online identity experiments.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Stephen A. Rains, “Health at High Speed: Broadband Internet Access, Health Communication, and the Digital Divide,” Communication Research, 35.3 (June 2008): 283-297.
Keywords: information seeking; health; Internet; e-health; digital divide; broadband
Abstract: The study reported here explored the broadband digital divide in the context of Internet-based health communication. Inequities in the adoption of broadband technology were examined and the comprehensive model of health information seeking (CMIS) was used to make predictions about the implications of broadband Internet for personal health. Data from a population-based survey conducted by the National Cancer Institute in 2005 (N = 5,586) were analyzed. Results showed that those who were younger, more educated, and lived in an urban area were more likely to have a broadband Internet connection in their home. Furthermore, consistent with the CMIS, those with a broadband connection were more likely to use the Internet for health-related information seeking and communication than those with a dial-up connection.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Artemio Ramirez, Jr., John Dimmick, John Feaster and Shu-Fang Lin, “Revisiting Interpersonal Media Competition: The Gratification Niches of Instant Messaging, E-Mail, and the Telephone,” Communication Research, 35.4 (August 2008): 529-547.
Keywords: media competition; niche theory; social information processing theory; electronic propinquity; computer-mediated communication; gratifications 
Abstract: The theory of niche proposes that a new medium competes with older, more established media to fulfill users’ needs. This study uses niche theory, a macrolevel theory, as well as social information processing theory and the theory of electronic propinquity, both micro-level theories, to examine the niche of instant messaging (IM) in providing general gratifications. Results indicate that IM is characterized by a broad niche, surpassed only by that of the cell phone. IM had substantial niche overlap with e-mail and the cell phone, indicating a degree of substitutability between them; the least overlap was with the landline telephone (LLP). The hierarchy that emerged indicated that the cell phone was superior to IM, which was superior to e-mail, followed by the LLP for providing general gratifications. Finally, displacement tests indicated that IM use displaced e-mail and LLP but not cell phone use. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jochen Peter and Patti M. Valkenburg, “Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material, Sexual Uncertainty, and Attitudes Toward Uncommitted Sexual Exploration: Is There a Link?” Communication Research, 35.4 (October 2008): 579-601.
Keywords: pornography; youth; sexual socialization; teenagers 
Abstract: The link between adolescents’ exposure to sexual media content and their sexual socialization has hardly been approached from an identity development framework. Moreover, existing research has largely ignored the role of adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material in that association. This study introduces two characteristics of adolescents’ sexual self—sexual uncertainty and attitudes toward sexual exploration—and investigates these characteristics as potential correlates of adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material. Drawing from a sample of 2,343 Dutch adolescents aged 13 to 20, the authors find that more frequent exposure to sexually explicit Internet material is associated with greater sexual uncertainty and more positive attitudes toward uncommitted sexual exploration (i.e., sexual relations with casual partners/friends or with sexual partners in one-night stands). The findings call for more attention to adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit material on the Internet and identity-related issues.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Eszter Hargitta and Amanda Hinnant, “Digital Inequality: Differences in Young Adults’ Use of the Internet,” Communication Research, 35.5 (October 2008): 602-621.
Keywords: skill; self-perceived knowledge; Internet; Web use; online behavior; young adults; digital divide 
Abstract: This article expands understanding of the digital divide to more nuanced measures of use by examining differences in young adults’ online activities. Young adults are the most highly connected age group, but that does not mean that their Internet uses are homogenous. Analyzing data about the Web uses of 270 adults from across the United States, the article explores the differences in 18- to 26-year-olds’ online activities and what social factors explain the variation. Findings suggest that those with higher levels of education and of a more resource-rich background use the Web for more “capital enhancing” activities. Detailed analyses of user attributes also reveal that online skill is an important mediating factor in the types of activities people pursue online. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for a “second-level digital divide,” that is, differences among the population of young adult Internet users.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Joseph B. Walther and Natalya N. Bazarova,  “Validation and Application of Electronic Propinquity Theory to Computer-Mediated Communication in Groups,” Communication Research, 35.5 (October 2008): 622-645.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication; interactive communication technology; electronic propinquity; group communication; teleconferencing 
Abstract: This research presents an experiment based on the theory of electronic propinquity, testing how the presence of alternate communication media, media bandwidth, information complexity, and users’ communication skills affect propinquity (the psychological feeling of nearness) and satisfaction that communicators experience using different communication channels. Groups communicated using one or two of several different channels, including face-to-face, desktop video, audio and text-based chat, with channel differences between members in some groups. Predicted effects of bandwidth, information complexity, communication skills, and comparative media availability on propinquity and satisfaction were observed. These findings demonstrate a confound in previous research on propinquity theory, suggest newfound validity and extend the model to interactive computer-mediated communication channels unanticipated by the original theory. Implications include the potential of electronic propinquity to account for discrepancies in the research on computer-mediated communication that have been generated by other theories.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Eun-Ju Lee, “When Are Strong Arguments Stronger Than Weak Arguments? Deindividuation Effects on Message Elaboration in Computer-Mediated Communication,” Communication Research, 35.5 (October 2008): 646-665.
Keywords: argument strength; computer-mediated communication (CMC); multiple-source effect; social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE)
Abstract: The present experiment examined how the lack of individuating information affects message elaboration and conformity to group norms in text-based computer-mediated communication. Participants made decisions about choice dilemma scenarios and exchanged their arguments with three ostensible partners via computer. Consistent with the social identity model of deindividuation effects, those who had exchanged personal profiles with their partners prior to the discussion were better able to differentiate between strong and weak arguments and were more likely to make conformity decisions based on the message content than those who had not. On the other hand, those who had no identity cues were more likely to factor in group identification for their conformity decisions. Results suggest that less systematic message processing and greater reliance on normative considerations account for how deindividuation moderates the effects of argument strength on group conformity.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Peter Monge, Bettina M. Heiss and Drew B. Margolin, “Communication Network Evolution in Organizational Communities,” Communication Theory, 18 (2008): 449–477.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Organizational communities are typically defined as populations of organizations that are tied together by networks of communication and other relations in overlapping resource niches. Traditionally, evolutionary theorists and researchers have examined organizational populations that comprise organizational communities by focusing on their properties rather than on the networks that link them. However, a full understanding of the evolution of organizational communities requires insight into both organizations and their networks. Consequently, this article presents a variety of conceptual tools for applying evolutionary theory to organizations, organizational communities, and their networks, including the notions of relational carrying capacity and linkage fitness. It illustrates evolutionary principles, such as variation, selection, and retention, that lead to the formation, growth, maintenance and eventual demise of communication and other network linkages. This perspective allows us to understand the ways in which community survival and success are as dependent on their communication linkages as they are on the organizations they connect. The article concludes with suggestions for potential applications of evolutionary theory to other areas of human communication.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Other (Evolution)

Sue Tait, “Pornographies of Violence? Internet Spectatorship on Body Horror,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 25.1 (March 2008): 91-111.
Keywords: Body Horror; War; Internet; Spectatorship; Witnessing 
Abstract: Technological innovations have meant that the way images of the victims of war and other categories of body horror are procured and disseminated has changed. Soldiers in theatre may record what they witness, and upload this material online. Terrorist groups have staged the executions of hostages for the camera and distributed this imagery via the internet. Thus, the circulation of body horror is enabled in ways that evade the prerogatives of the mainstream press to produce news which accords with notions of ‘‘taste and decency’’, using practices which protect publics from imagery which may cause harm yet also often map with a propagandist function to conceal the carnage of war from public view. The essay explores online spectatorship which takes place outside that which is deemed appropriate for the publics of news, arguing that we must move beyond the reductive ways in which looking at body horror has been conceptualized. Neither witnessing, as the posited correct form of spectatorship, nor the pervasive pornographic analogy used to render moral judgment on such looking account for the diversity of spectatorial positions taken up by those who choose to look at online imagery of the dead and suffering.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Adriana de Souza e Silva and Daniel M. Sutko, “Playing Life and Living Play: How Hybrid Reality Games Reframe Space, Play, and the Ordinary’,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 25.5 (December 2008): 447-465.
Keywords: Game Studies; Play; Urban Space; Hybrid Space; Hybrid Reality Games; Mobile Media; Mobile Games; Mobile Technologies; Sociability; Critical Analysis; Surveillance 
Abstract: Hybrid reality games (HRGs) employ mobile technologies equipped with Internet access and location awareness to create a multi-user game space that occurs simultaneously in physical, digital and represented spaces as denoted by the player’s mobility. This essay analyzes and compares two HRGs: I Like Frank and Day of the Figurines. The goal is to understand games and play as activities intrinsically and inseparably connected to our physical spaces and to our daily lives by focusing on the interconnection between play and ordinary life, game community and player identity. The essay also interrogates how these games reconfigure and reflect current concepts of surveillance, community and anonymity in city spaces. The development of these concepts expands current research about how new Internet-connected mobile communication technologies change our experience of physical spaces by adding to them imaginary playful layers that influence player mobility through the city and promote singular types of interactions among physical, digital and represented spaces. Our analysis considers the intertwined and complex consequences of HRGs and other locative media, illustrating how such media can both normalize and provide modes of resistance to certain power relationships.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Social Interaction

Robert Glenn Howard, “The Vernacular Web of Participatory Media,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 25.5 (December 2008): 490-513.
Keywords: Vernacular; Worldwide Web; Participatory Media; Internet 
Abstract: From wikis to blogs, new participatory forms of web-based communication are increasingly common ways for institutions and individuals to communicate. The content these forms produce incorporates elements of both institutional and non-institutional discourse. More than a syncretic pastiche, this content is the product of hybrid agencies made possible by these new forms. Terming this content ‘‘vernacular’’ acknowledges that this hybridity frustrates any reified conception of pure or authentic non-institutional discourse. At the same time, the theory of a ‘‘vernacular web’’ attends to the complex new transformational possibilities of participatory media seem to offer individuals.’’
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Paul Booth, “Rereading Fandom: MySpace Character Personas and Narrative Identification,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 25.5 (December 2008): 514-536.
Keywords: Fandom; Narrative; Identity; Social Software; Internet; Textual Poaching 
Abstract: In an age of media convergence, researchers can no longer solely study a single media text. As Henry Jenkins (2006) points out, the transmediation of a textual narrative across media technologies is becoming a more common practice. In this paper, I examine how fans are participating in this transmediation by creating personal profiles, or personas, for extant media characters. This paper shows that the fans’ creative and resourceful practice of textual creation in social networking sites finds meaning through the creative assemblage of members of the fan community. Using their own fan-created texts as material with which to create this community, fans shakeup the traditional de Certeauan binary of strategic and tactical readings (and poachings) of texts. By creating a ‘‘space of their own,’’ fans not only rewrite the media text, but also rewrite traditional notions of fandom itself.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Serena Hashimoto and Scott Campbell, “The Occupation of Ethereal Locations: Indications of Mobile Data,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 25.5 (December 2008): 537-558.
Keywords: Mobile Telephony; Mobile Data; Subject; Thing; Self; Other 
Abstract: This theoretical investigation explores how ethereal locations have become increasingly inhabitable through mobile telephony. Residue of the occupation of these ethereal places is found in the form of mobile data, traces of the mobile user’s fantasy of connection with the other. Drawing from an interdisciplinary body of theory and research, we demonstrate how new forms of access to ethereal locations have emerged which allow for modifications to the positioning of self, other, subject and thing. Central to this phenomenon is the shifting away from optical discernment to an alternate employment of vision. This paper demonstrates how the process of mediation afforded by mobile communication blurs these divisions and encourages the extension of self into new contexts. The utilization of mobile data facilitates these alterations which allows for the user to occupy ethereal places and to enact subjectivity differently.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Social Interaction

Joseph B. Waltherl, Brandon Van Der Heide, Sang-Yeon Kim, David Westerman and Stephanie Tom Tong, “The Role of Friends’ Appearance and Behavior on Evaluations of Individuals on Facebook: Are We Known by the Company We Keep?” Human Communication Research,  34.1 (2008): 28-49.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This research explores how cues deposited by social partners onto one’s online networking profile affect observers’ impressions of the profile owner. An experiment tested the relationships between both (a) what one’s associates say about a person on a social network site via ‘‘wall postings,’’ where friends leave public messages, and (b) the physical attractiveness of one’s associates reflected in the photos that accompany their wall postings on the attractiveness and credibility observers attribute to the target profile owner. Results indicated that profile owners’ friends’ attractiveness affected their own in an assimilative pattern. Favorable or unfavorable statements about the targets interacted with target gender: Negatively valenced messages about certain moral behaviors increased male profile owners’ perceived physical attractiveness, although they caused females to be viewed as less attractive.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Gary Bente, Sabine Ruggenberg, Nicole C. Kramer and Felix Eschenburg, “Avatar-Mediated Networking: Increasing Social Presence and Interpersonal Trust in Net-Based Collaborations,” Human Communication Research, 34.2 (2008): 287-318.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study analyzes the influence of avatars on social presence, interpersonal trust, perceived communication quality, nonverbal behavior, and visual attention in Net-based collaborations using a comparative approach. A real-time communication window including a special avatar interface was integrated into a shared collaborative workspace. Communication modes under investigation were text chat, audio, audio–video, and avatar. Significant differences were found between text chat and all other communication modalities in perceived intimateness, co-presence, and emotionally-based trust. Microanalyses of nonverbal activity and visual attention point to similarities between video and avatar modes, both showing higher levels of exposure to the virtual other and visual attention, in particular in the initial phase of interaction as compared to text and audio. 
Method: Experiment

Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Louisa Ha and Kim McCann, “An Integrated Model of Advertising Clutter in Offline and Online Media,” International Journal of Advertising, 27.4 (2008): 569–592.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The rapid growth of online advertising raises concerns about advertising clutter in the online media environment. This paper proposes an integrated model of advertising clutter that addresses the unique characteristics of the online media environment. We review the structural, information processing and functional approaches to advertising clutter, and integrate these approaches into a new comprehensive framework that explains consumer response to advertising clutter by differentiating consumer-centered analysis from media-centred analysis. The differences between online media and offline media are compared in terms of audience control and advertiser control. Attitudes towards advertising in general and in specific media contexts, and task orientations are introduced as mediating factors that affect the perception of and the subsequent response to advertising clutter. This paper offers a set of propositions on the factors affecting perception of advertising clutter, the relationship between physical characteristics and perception of advertising clutter, and how perception of clutter creates negative advertising effects. Managerial and theoretical implications of this framework are discussed.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Slavka Antonova, “Deconstructing an Experiment in Global Internet Governance: the ICANN Case,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 12 (2008): 1-19.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The model of a global multi-stakeholder collaboration in Internet domain-name system management, as developed by U.S. government in 1998 and embedded in the Internet Corporation for Assigned  Names and  Numbers (ICA  ), held all the promises of a paradigm shift in global governance. Seven years later, the UN  World Summit on the Information Society in Tunisia ( November 2005) adopted some of the vocabulary of the ICA   experiment and recognized the multi-stakeholder collaboration as a key organizational principle in global Internet governance. Yet, it reestablished the leading role of national governments and intergovernmental organizations, such as the ITU, in the regulation of the global Internet. This paper examines what was lost during the four years of experimenting with “multi-stakeholderism” in ICA   and what the stakes of the parties that influenced the policymaking process the most were. Building on Governmentality Studies’ understanding of the neo-liberal project of self-governance and Organization Studies’ collaboration theory, the document and discourse analysis of ICA  ’s practices deconstructs the original model of a collaborative policymaking process conducted by a private multistakeholder corporation and formulates the expectations, stakes and strategies of the participating parties. Thus, it is suggested in the paper that, because the Internet technical elite was granted the managerial role in ICA  , the experts were able to influence the agenda of the policymaking process and its pace, and ultimately to take over the policy-proposal accumulation task and eliminate the working groups, which were open to all participants.  The paper concludes that, with the globalization of Internet, a cluster of new players entered the field, such as the developing countries governments, and, in the U  WSIS setting, the concerns of “protecting the public interest” reconnected with the familiar international arrangements.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Chris Armbruster, “Cyberscience and the Knowledge-Based Economy, Open Access and Trade Publishing: From Contradiction to Compatibility with Nonexclusive Copyright Licensing,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 12 (2008): 20-38.
Keywords: Cyberscience, cyberinfrastructure, open source, scientific publishing, guild publishing, trade publishing, peer review, open access, copyright, knowledge-based economy, Creative Commons, Science Commons
Abstract: Open source, open content and open access are set to fundamentally alter the conditions of knowledge production and distribution. Open source, open content and open access are also the most tangible result of the shift towards e-Science and digital networking. Yet, widespread misperceptions exist about the impact of this shift on knowledge distribution and scientific publishing. It is argued, on the one hand, that for the academy there principally is no digital dilemma surrounding copyright and there is no contradiction between open science and the knowledge-based economy if profits are made from nonexclusive rights. On the other hand, pressure for the `digital doubling’ of research articles in Open Access repositories (the `green road’) is misguided and the current model of Open Access publishing (the `gold road’) has not much future outside biomedicine. Commercial publishers must understand that business models based on the transfer of copyright have not much future either. Digital technology and its economics favour the severance of distribution from certification. What is required of universities and governments, scholars and publishers, is to clear the way for digital innovations in knowledge distribution and scholarly publishing by enabling the emergence of a competitive market that is based on nonexclusive rights. This requires no change in the law but merely an end to the praxis of copyright transfer and exclusive licensing. The best way forward for research organizations, universities and scientists is the adoption of standard copyright licenses that reserve some rights, namely Attribution and No Derivative Works, but otherwise will allow for the unlimited reproduction, dissemination and re-use of the research article, commercial uses included.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Ian Gillies, “Real World Toys and Currency turn the Legal World Upside Down: A Cross-sectional Update on Virtual World Legalities,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 12 (2008): 120-139.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: With 40 million members on the leading virtual world and overall user growth at 22%,1 some experts are saying virtual worlds are to the new millennium what websites were to the 90s.2 Just as the technological and economic growth of the internet drove numerous moral and legal issues to the forefront of society, so also will virtual world growth expand the overlapping moral and legal boundaries between virtual and real world experience. This paper provides a technology and market overview of virtual worlds and explores the intersection of some social and legal issues arising from the financial opportunity and virtual sexuality emerging from this growing online society and economy.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Gerard Goggin, “Regulating Mobile Content: Convergences and Citizenship,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 12 (2008): 140-160. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Internet and media convergence has been for sometime concentrated on mobile technologies. Most notable, perhaps, has been the emergence of a cluster of online, mobile data and content services and technologies that have been precursors of fully-fledged mobile media themselves. With these important, lucrative, and potentially far-reaching developments in mind, this paper focuses on international approaches to regulation of mobile content with case studies of the US, Canada, Britain and Australia. As well as reflecting on the trends across these countries, I also consider the implications of such regulation, and the new models of governance they represent, for questions of cultural citizenship. To what extent are questions of cultural citizenship being posed in regulatory and policy models and discussions of mobile content? At stake here is the convergence, or rather clash, of the quite distinct models of cultural citizenship and exchange, that come respectively from the histories and traditions of telecommunications and the Internet. Thus in conclusion the author raises the question of why the commons debate with respect to mobiles be so belated? Is the commons a useful notion to draw upon in thinking about the future of mobiles, or are there new concepts required to register what is at stake in these velocitous transformations?
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Sara M. Grimes, “Kids’ Ad Play: Regulating Children’s Advergames in the Converging Media Context,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 12 (2008): 161-178.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article explores possibilities for regulating emerging forms of advertising within children’s online culture, focusing specifically on the rising phenomenon of advergames. An immensely popular form of entertainment among children and teens, advergames integrate advertising and market research strategies directly into the fabric of online games and environments. I begin by situating advergames within broader traditions of advertising to children. I then present and discuss four potential “points of entry” for the regulation of these new media advertising practices, which include media regulation, consumer protection law, industry self-regulation and contract law. As media regulation in Canada and the US share many similarities, and because children’s digital media is most often transnational with a large proportion of content originating from the US, the discussion draws upon both Canadian and US legislation, providing comparisons where relevant. I discuss different courses of action that could potentially establish clearer restrictions on marketers’ interactions with children online, as well as enforce regulation of the role of advertising in children’s online games. The aim of this paper is to explore the Canadian government’s position that existing regulatory frameworks can be effectively extended to digital media, as well as demonstrate the necessity of enhanced coordination and integration if these regulatory regimes are to remain relevant within the converging media context.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Hannelore Dekeyser and Tomas A. Lipinski, “Digital Archiving and Copyright Law: a Comparative Analysis,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 12 (2008): 179-224.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Existing precedent and commentator opinion reiterates that the purpose of copyright law is not to benefit authors or owners but to benefit the public. The limited monopoly right of copyright granted to authors or owners is a predicate to achieve that goal. The limited monopoly is a necessary and prerequisite incentive. Preservation of and access to the body of knowledge created through the limited monopoly incentive is the ultimate goal of the copyright system. Archives by nature and design play a critical role in the collation and preservation of the creative societal record; its cultural heritage. Applying present copyright law principles to digital collation and preservation processes often thwarts rather than forwards these efforts. Exceptions provided by the copyright law go may alleviate the problem, but do not solve it. Furthermore, the recent adoption of legislative protection for copyright management information and technical measures controlling access to and in some instances use of protected works exacerbates rather than ameliorates the problem. In the digital age, the copyright law becomes an inadequate tool for the preservation of the cultural record or access to that record. Present copyright exceptions may no longer be of any consequence. In the current article two approaches of copyright towards digital archiving and dissemination are examined and compared, namely that of U.S. law and of Belgian law, the latter being an example of implementation of the recent EU directives harmonizing copyright law. The authors demonstrate that copyright systems originating in the same basic policy proposition may result in different outcomes. Recent and pending changes in both U.S. and EU systems offer opportunity for policy-makers to enrich their own processes by understanding the success as well as shortcomings of these comparative outcomes.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Sascha D. Meinrath and Victor W. Pickard, “The New Network Neutrality: Criteria for Internet Freedom,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 12 (2008): 225-243.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The meteoric rise of network neutrality’s prominence as a crucial Internet policy debate has led to current events far outpacing theoretical and historical analyses. This paper addresses this lag in scholarship by contextualizing recent events in relation to historical telecommunications antecedents. In doing so, we critically evaluate the current network neutrality debate and offer a set of technical and policy guidelines for a new, more broadly defined network neutrality. Specifically, we submit that beyond redefining network neutrality, we must connect issues usually dealt with separately – issues that are actually a subset of one overarching concern: Internet freedom. We conclude with an exploration of the social and political impacts of this broader conception of network neutrality and suggest that this “new network neutrality” provides a proactive foundation for supporting the goal of creating a more open and participatory Internet. 
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Siddharta Menon, “Policy Impediments to Media Convergence: An Exploration of Case Studies from South Africa and India,” International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 12 (2008): 313-344.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article focuses on regulatory aspects of the media convergence issue in two country cases: South Africa and India. The discussion addresses the central motivating research question of whether and why countries set an agenda to respond to the phenomenon of media convergence which is an inquiry of paramount importance not only to the specific field of international telecommunications policy, but also to the broader discourse of information and new media studies. Consequently this paper examines four dimensions of convergence policy in the two countries including: cross-sector entry; technological neutrality; competitive neutrality; and the role of the regulator.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Chia-Hui Yen and Hsi-Peng Lu, “Factors Influencing Online Auction Repurchase Intention,” Internet Research, 18.1 (2008): 7-25.
Keywords: Auctions, Internet, Customer satisfaction 
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this study is to integrate expectancy disconfirmation theory (EDT) to explore cognitive beliefs and affect influencing an individual’s intention to repurchase in online marketplaces. 
Design/methodology/approach – The paper used EDT to conduct an empirical study and data were collected from a total of 303 bidders of online auctions. A structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the relationships of the research model. 
Findings – The findings show that bidders’ disconfirmation of online auctions is positively associated with their satisfaction, which in turn is positively associated with their repurchase intentions.
Practical implications – Both bidders’ expectation of policy and auctioneers’ performance of policy are important determinants of disconfirmation. Auctioneers need to recognize the distinctive roles of information policy in selling and bidding rules. Besides, neither bidders’ expectation of sellers’ reputation nor their expectation of service quality has a significant relationship with disconfirmation. This finding implies that in a mature e-commerce environment bidders pay more attention to the sellers’ performance than their prior expectation.
Originality/value – This study, which aims to shed light on bidder behavior in online auctions, is the first study that has applied an EDT-based model to investigate the determinants of repurchase intention in online auctions.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Carlos Flavia´n and Raquel Gurrea, “Reading Newspapers on the Internet: the Influence of Web Sites’ Attributes,” Internet Research, 18.1 (2008): 26-45.
Keywords: Newspapers, Internet, Readers 
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze key factors that could influence the choice of digital newspapers: usability of newspaper web sites, reputation, trust, privacy and familiarity.
Design/methodology/approach – A survey on the Internet was applied. The scales were validated and refined, after which the hypotheses were tested by way of a structural equation model.
Findings – The results support an intense effect of usability and familiarity with web sites on the choice of electronic newspaper. However, reputation, privacy and trust in the web sites do not influence significantly the final choice of digital dailies. This is due to the readers who do not perceive risk and costs derived by choosing mistakes or giving data, because the change of news supplier is really fast and easy.
Research limitations/implications – The main aspects which justify digital newspaper reading should be considered by the management in order to develop its use. Also, newspaper firms should make efforts to improve the levels of usability of their web sites. Moreover, digital dailies should develop strategies in order to ensure the loyalty of readers who could be familiarized with the new medium.
Originality/value – This is one of the first studies that analyze online press reader behavior on the Internet. The paper identifies the main factors related to web sites that affect reading newspapers on the Internet.  
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Fons Wijnhoven and Jeroen Kraaijenbrink, “Product-oriented Design Theory for Digital Information Services,” Internet Research, 18.1 (2008): 93-120.
Keywords: Electronic publishing, Information services, Internet 
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give a structured literature review, design concepts, and research propositions related to a product-oriented design theory for information services. Information services facilitate the exchange of information goods with or without transforming these goods. Exemplar information services are e-publishing, electronic communities-of-practice and management reporting. The importance of information services in the current economy merits the development of an explicit product- and process-oriented design theory.
Design/methodology/approach – This article focuses on the product-oriented design theory by applying Walls et al.’s framework. A product-oriented design theory of information services identifies relevant descriptive and explanatory insights (i.e. content, use, value, and revenue), meta-requirements, and meta-designs. The paper describes design problems for information services, and gives key requirements for information services. Next, it describes the information, organizational and information technological components of an information service, and identifies at least four information service architectures. Finally, it gives research hypotheses, research ideas and discusses practical implications.
Findings – The results form a product-oriented design theory for information services. The paper gives a structured way for practitioners to analyze information service design challenges, and suggestions are given for requirements and design decisions on three aspects (content, use feature, and revenue).
Originality/value – Given the previously fragmented nature of the literature, this paper gives new opportunities for research and practice.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Henry M. Kim and Saggi Nevo, “Development and Application of a Framework for Evaluating Multi-mode Voting Risks,” Internet Research, 18.1 (2008): 121-135
Keywords: Elections, Internet, Canada
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the risks associated with online voting and to compare them with more traditional voting modes.
Design/methodology/approach – A modified version of the Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation (OCTAVE) approach from the CERT Coordination Center at
Carnegie-Mellon University is used for developing a framework for comparing threats for different stakeholders. In addition, these risks and threats are quantified, offering an opportunity to conduct a multi-mode risk analysis in a manner independent of the underlying voting modes. The framework is exemplified using data from officials who had been involved in an actual municipal election, in which registered voters were given the option of voting through the Internet.
Findings – What is instructive in the context of this study is that the “low-tech” threats such as large-scale mail theft of election notifications and family member coercion may in fact be significant for Internet voting, and the sensationalized threats mentioned by the media may pale in comparison in terms of vulnerabilities.
Research limitations/implications – Conclusions drawn from applying the methods may be very sensitive to parameters chosen for quantification, especially since estimates of probabilities of threats may vary in order of magnitude.
Originality/value – This paper demonstrates a quantitative and comparative analysis for Internet voting, something which does not seem to be adequately addressed in the literature.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Yayoi Hirose and Noboru Sonehara, “Management of Information-credibility Risk in an ICT Society: A Social Implementation,” Internet Research, 18.2 (2008): 142-154.  
Keywords: Risk management, Society, Knowledge management, Knowledge transfer 
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a new direction for managing information-credibility risk in the current information and communications technology (ICT) era, where ICT has had both positive and negative effects on contemporary society.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a practical and inductive approach to study the Kyoto avian influenza panic and countermeasures taken in 2004.
Findings – The paper identifies factors which led to enormous damage through harmful rumors and proposes new perspectives for devising countermeasures, such as increasing consumer confidence in an agency as a source of information and effective management of knowledge transfer from experts to non-experts.
Practical implications – The study gains a better understanding of both technological and social factors that enable or detract from effective nationwide management of information-credibility risk. Many related ICT projects have been based on either human resource systems or advanced technology. It considers the integration of both factors from three perspectives.
Originality/value – This is a new perspective for examining the transfer of knowledge from experts to consumers in terms of practical solutions, in contrast to the many existing knowledge-related articles that have mainly focused on knowledge management among experts.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Social Interaction

Robert Malouf and Tony Mullen, “Taking Sides: User Classification for Informal Online Political Discourse,” Internet Research, 18.2 (2008): 177-190.
Keywords: Politics, Databases, Online operations, United States of America
Abstract: Purpose – To evaluate and extend, existing natural language processing techniques into the domain of informal online political discussions.
Design/methodology/approach – A database of postings from a US political discussion site was collected, along with self-reported political orientation data for the users. A variety of sentiment analysis, text classification, and social network analysis methods were applied to the postings and evaluated against the users’ self-descriptions.
Findings – Purely text-based methods performed poorly, but could be improved using techniques which took into account the users’ position in the online community.
Research limitations/implications – The techniques we applied here are fairly simple, and more sophisticated learning algorithms may yield better results for text-based classification.
Practical implications – This work suggests that social network analysis is an important tool for performing natural language processing tasks with informal web texts.
Originality/value – This research extends sentiment analysis to a new subject domain (US politics) and a new text genre (informal online discussions).
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Yoshikiyo Kato, Sadao Kurohashi and Kentaro Inui, “Classifying Information Sender of Web Documents,” Internet Research, 18.2 (2008): 191-203.
Keywords: Information management, Project management, Worldwide web, Data analysis 
Abstract: Purpose – To develop a method for classifying information sender of web documents, which constitutes an important part of information credibility analysis. 
Design/methodology/approach – Machine learning approach was employed. About 2,000 human-annotated web documents were prepared for training and evaluation. The classification model was based on support vector machine, and the features used for the classification included the title and URL of documents, as well as information of the top page.
Findings – With relatively small set of features, the proposed method achieved over 50 per cent accuracy.
Research limitations/implications – Some of the information sender categories were found to be more difficult to classify. This is due to the subjective nature of the categories, and further refinement of the categories is needed.
Practical implications – When combined with opinion/sentiment analysis techniques, information sender classification allows more profound analysis based on interactions between opinions and senders. Such analysis forms a basis of information credibility analysis.
Originality/value – This study formulated the problem of information sender classification. It proposed a method which achieves moderate performance. It also identified some of the issues related to information sender classification.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Christy M.K. Cheung, Matthew K.O. Lee and Neil Rabjohn, “The Impact of Electronic Word-of-mouth: The Adoption of Online Opinions in Online Customer Communities,” Internet Research, 18.3 (2008): 229-247.
Keywords: Internet, Electronic commerce, Consumer behaviour
Abstract: Purpose – Web-based technologies have created numerous opportunities for electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) communication. This phenomenon impacts online retailers as this easily accessible information could greatly affect the online consumption decision. The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which opinion seekers are willing to accept and adopt online consumer reviews and which factors encourage adoption. Design/methodology/approach – Using dual-process theories, an information adoption model was developed to examine the factors affecting information adoption of online opinion seekers in online customer communities. The model was tested empirically using a sample of 154 users who had experience within the online customer community, Openrice.com. Users were required to complete a survey regarding the online consumer reviews received from the virtual sharing platform.
Findings – The paper found comprehensiveness and relevance to be the most effective components of the argument quality construct of the research model, making them key influencers of information adoption.
Research limitations/implications – Only 46 per cent of the variance is explained by the constructs due to its intentional simplicity. This would indicate that there are more actors in motivating information adoption than solely information usefulness. A closer look should be taken at the effectiveness of some of the other motivational factors suggested in the previous research on this topic.
Practical implications – The paper outlines ways to effectively promote one’s business or cause through online customer communities, as well as general tips for web site and forum moderators for facilitating such presentation in a manner useful to the members of their online communities.
Originality/value – This paper is one of the first to develop and empirically test a theory-driven information adoption model for opinion seekers in online customer communities. It also uniquely breaks down and tests the components of argument quality to discern the important motivating factors. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Blanca Hernandez-Ortega, Julio Jimenez-Martınez and M. Jose Martın-DeHoyos, “Differences Between Potential, New and Experienced e-Customers: Analysis of e-Purchasing Behaviour,” Internet Research, 18.3 (2008): 248-265.
Keywords: Electronic commerce, Consumer behaviour 
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to analyze  the evolution of e-customer purchasing behaviour. Certain perceptions of electronic commerce (EC) may differ according to the purchasing experience of customers. Three groups of e-customers are differentiated: potential, new and experienced.
Design/methodology/approach – First of all, the socio-demographic characteristics of each group were analyzed using the Chi-squared test. Then, using ANOVA and post hoc analysis (Scheffe’s test), the differences that exist in their perceptions were analysed.
Findings – Data analyses show that level of experience with Internet and the perceptions about EC differ according to the e-customer. Some variables, like perceived usefulness or attitude, increase significantly as the number of interchanges grows, while others, such as perceived ease of use, tend to stabilize. It can be affirmed that there is an evolving cycle of purchasing that will continue to develop as the individual acquires experience.
Practical implications – This research enables the companies that want to compete in the e-market to know the type of customer they are addressing. Moreover, the results obtained show what perceptions must be concentrated on if these companies want to capture new customers (potential e-customers) or if they want to maintain existing customers (new and experienced). The evolution of this behaviour means that the strategies oriented to fomenting EC should stress one or another aspect depending on the target customer.
Originality/value – While most research indistinctly analyses the behaviour of any e-customer, this study has considered it necessary to differentiate at least three types of e-customers in function of their purchasing experience. Thus, this is one of the few studies that allows us to know the evolution of the perceptions related to e-commerce.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Paweena Srisuwan and Stuart J. Barnes, “Predicting Online Channel Use for an Online and Print Magazine: a Case Study,” Internet Research, 18.3 (2008): 266-285.
Keywords: Consumer behaviour, Magazine, Online operations
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically test a conceptual model to predict the determinants of online channel use in a multi-channel environment.
Design/methodology/approach – A case study of a free, multi-channel entertainment magazine is used to statistically analyze a proposed model of customers’ channel use (n 1/4 224) using an online survey of real consumers.
Findings – The findings in the paper confirm a number of determinants of consumer attitudes. Subjective norms and consumer attitudes positively affect behavioral intention to use and intentions directly relate to actual use. The results also indicate that three constructs (i.e. enjoyment, marketing efforts and age), one from each three main determinant groups (i.e. marketing variables, individual difference variables and channel attributes), are likely to be an accurate predictor of consumer attitudes.
Practical implications – The paper shows that enjoyment was an important factor among the younger, socially aware and somewhat hedonistically-oriented consumers of the magazine. Firms should track consumer preferences from registration and then should try to create activities that give consumers enjoyment. Linking together of marketing efforts is very important. Advertising can be a great opportunity to grow online operations. Search engines and the use of incentives (prizes) can be useful in this regard. Firms should also advertise their web site through the offline channel or any places that can reach target consumers. A good mix of offline and online advertising can present a message and reinforce it for consumers in different channels.
Originality/value – This paper contributes towards understanding consumer behaviour in the online channel use context in a multi-channel environment.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification
Howard Chen Yen Hao and David Corkindale, “Towards an Understanding of the Behavioral Intention to Use Online News Services: An Exploratory Study,” InterneResearch, 18.3 (2008): 286-312.
Keywords: Information media, Consumer behaviour, Internet, Taiwan
Abstract: Purpose – Research into the use/adoption of online news services (ONSs) is still in its infancy, Scholars have indicated that there is no comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding or predicting consumers’ online adoption behavior. The purpose of the paper is to propose a theoretical framework as a foundation for better understanding and further analyzing the adoption of ONSs.
Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted together with a series of in-depth interviews with selected key industry experts. Three paradigms (i.e. the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the Technology Acceptance Model, the Uses and Gratifications Theory) were examined and included findings from research into some aspects of online behaviour and these are discussed in relation to the objectives of this paper.
Findings – Six factors are identified as potential key drivers in the adoption of ONSs These are based on the findings from the literature review and the in-depth interviews with the industry experts. The six factors are: Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Core Service Quality (PCSQ), Perceived Supplementary Service Quality (PSSQ), Trust, Networking, Interface and Subjective Norm. A theoretical framework for better understanding and analyzing the adoption of ONSs is built that shows the relationship among these factors and adoption of ONSs.
Originality/value – For researchers, this paper provides a framework to identify and understand the way the potential key factors contribute to the adoption of online news services. For practitioners, this framework lists the features that specifically attract online news users. Understanding users’ preferences is of major importance in e-businesses for making strategic decisions to increase user satisfaction, as well as improving the performance of the business. 
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Jeewon Choi, Hyeonjoo Seol, Sungjoo Lee, Hyunmyung Cho and Yongtae Park, “Customer Satisfaction Factors of Mobile Commerce in Korea,” Internet Research, 18.3 (2008): 313-335.
Keywords: Customer satisfaction, Customer loyalty, Communication technologies, Korea, Electronic commerce
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to distinguish features of m-commerce from those of e-commerce and identify factors to influence customer satisfaction (m-satisfaction) and loyalty (m-loyalty) in m-commerce by empirically-based case study.
Design/methodology/approach – First, based on previous literature, the paper builds sets of customer satisfaction factors for both e-commerce and m-commerce. Second, features of m-commerce are identified by comparing it with current e-commerce through decision tree (DT). Third, with the derived factors from DT, significant factors and relationships among the factors, m-satisfaction and m-loyalty are examined by m-satisfaction model employing structural equation model.
Findings – The paper finds that m-commerce is partially similar in factors like “transaction process” and “customization” which lead customer satisfaction after connecting an m-commerce site, but it has unique aspects of “content reliability”, “availability”, and “perceived price level of mobile Internet (m-Internet)” which build customer’s intention to the m-commerce site. Through the m-satisfaction model, “content reliability”, and “transaction process” are proven to be significantly influential factors to m-satisfaction and m-loyalty.
Research implications/limitations – The paper can be a meaningful step to provide empirical analysis and evaluation based on questionnaire survey targeting actual users. The research is based on a case study on digital music transaction, which is indicative, rather than general.
Practical implications – The paper meets the needs to focus on customer under the fiercer competition in Korean m-commerce market. It can guide those who want to initiate, move or broaden their business to m-commerce from e-commerce.
Originality/value – The paper develops a revised ACSI model to identify individual critical factors and the degree of effect.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Genevieve Marie Johnson, “Verbal and Visual Reasoning in Relation to Patterns of Internet Use,” Internet Research, 18.4 (2008): 382-392.
Keywords: Internet, Working patterns, Reasoning 
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine cognitive differences between frequent and infrequent Internet users. Theoretically, culturally-valued use of the Internet is related to cognitive (i.e. intellectual) ability.
Design/methodology/approach – A total of 406 college students completed measures of verbal reasoning, visual reasoning, and patterns of Internet use.
Findings – Significant group differences in visual reasoning consistently favored frequent Internet users (e.g. in terms of use of search engines and playing games online). With respect to visiting chat rooms and downloading music, however, infrequent users demonstrated better verbal reasoning than frequent users. Findings support the conclusion that extensive and appropriate use of the Internet is associated with increased human capacity to reason. Research limitations/implications – Generalization of findings is limited because college students may not necessarily reflect the general population. Results require confirmation with other measures of cognitive ability.
Practical implications – Internet use is not simply the ability to manipulate a set of physical tools (i.e. devices and applications); it is the ability to execute a set of cognitive tools (e.g. verbal and visual reasoning). Apprehension regarding the potential hazards of Internet use may legitimately be narrowed to individuals with limitations, relative to peers, in cognitive ability.
Originality/value – This is the first empirical investigation that links verbal and visual reasoning with patterns of Internet use. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Rebeca San Jose-Cabezudo, Jesus Gutierrez-Cillan and Ana M. Gutierrez-Arranz, “The Moderating Role of User Motivation in Internet Access and Individuals’ Responses to a Website,” Internet Research, 18.4 (2008): 393-404.
Keywords: Internet, Worldwide web
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a proposal for the Hierarchy of Effects – a model that has been widely applied in the study of persuasion in traditional communications media – to evaluate Website effectiveness. In particular, this contribution seeks to consider a more complete model in order to evaluate the responses of the individuals to the Websites, incorporating new variables to the traditional sequence; and to study the moderating effect of the specific characteristics of the audience – the individual user’s motivations in terms of Internet access in the basic structure of this model.
Design/methodology/approach – The multi-equations methodology is used to test the sequence of responses that produce the visit to an experimental Website: the perceived informative value and the perceived entertainment value of a Website, the attitude toward the Website, the attitude toward the brand and the intention to buy the brand for two different individual groups: the “information seekers” and “entertainment seekers”.
Findings – The results reveal two well differentiated positive models of behavior in the online context.
Practical implications – In their Website strategies, the organizations should not neglect those aspects which may arouse emotional reactions in the Internet users, but they should pay more attention to generated informative value to obtain more favorable users’ responses.
Originality/value – Previous studies had not tested empirically the moderating effects of the users’ motivations in terms of Internet access (search for information versus entertainment) over this original and more complete structure of individuals’ responses to the Website.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Echo Huang, “Use and Gratification in e-Consumers,” Internet Research, 18.4 (2008): 405-426.
Keywords: Consumer behavior, Taiwan
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual model based on technology acceptance with extended antecedent variables (entertainment and irritation) to examine the impact of use and gratification on e-consumers’ acceptance of Business to Consumer (B2C) Websites.
Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from a total of 238 EMBA and undergraduate students from three different Taiwan universities. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate the conceptual model in terms of overall fit, explanatory powers and causal links.
Findings – The analytical results showed that entertainment gratification, irritation surfing experience (mass medium), perceived usefulness and ease of Web use (information systems) are important predictors of e-consumers’ use intention. The integrated model was then assessed for variance in explanatory power regarding consumer attitude and intention toward B2C Websites.
Practical implications – Intention to use the Web is the predictor of actual use, purchase and information-seeking behaviors in e-consumers. Creating entertaining content and reducing distracting processes can enhance acceptance of B2C Websites.
Originality/value – A theoretical model incorporating Uses and Gratification (U&G) constructs into a technology acceptance model was used to investigate e-consumer behavior in Taiwan. Although ease of use and usefulness are perceived as important issues in traditional IS environments, U&G provides managers with a different perspective. 
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Shu-Hsun Ho and Ying-Yin Ko, “Effects of Self-service Technology on Customer Value and Customer Readiness: The Case of Internet Banking,” Internet Research, 18.4 (2008): 427-446.
Keywords: Self-service, Customer relations, Virtual banking
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether self-service technology (SST) can enhance customer value (CV) and customer readiness (CR). In addition, it is proposed to inspect the effects of CV and CR in customers’ continued use of Internet banking.
Design/methodology/approach – An online survey was used with a sample of 771 respondents. Structural equation models (SEM) were used to examine 11 hypotheses in the theoretical framework.
Findings – SST characteristics (i.e. ease of use, usefulness, costs saved, and self-control) demonstrated positive effects on CV and CR. CR is positively related to CV. Furthermore, customers are willing to use Internet banking when CV and CR are high.
Research limitations/implications – The study examines the factors contributing to positive effects on customers’ continued use of Internet banking. Further research is recommended to investigate the effects of negative factors, such as risk and complexity. In addition, the same methods should be used to reproduce the survey in other industries to support generalizability.
Practical implications – Managers should reinforce SST in order to increase CV and CR, which would influence customers’ willingness to continue using Internet banking.
Originality/value – Unlike previous research, the study focuses on consumers’ continued use of Internet banking as opposed to initial use. It concentrates on customer retention rather than customer acquisition. It is the first study to conclude that CV and CR significantly affect continued use of SST.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Julie Fisher, Frada Burstein, Kathy Lynch, and Kate Lazarenko, “Usability + Usefulness = Trust: an Exploratory Study of Australian Health Web Sites,” Internet Research, 18.5 (2008): 477-498.
Keywords: Health services, Information retrieval, Trust, Australia, Online operations
Abstract: Purpose – The aim is to explore users’ reactions to health information web sites from the perspective of trust, retrieval of relevant information and ease-of-use, and to establish the link between perceived quality, trust, and usability.
Design/methodology/approach – An analysis of three Australian health web sites was undertaken. A usability test was conducted on those three web sites resulting in 207 completed user evaluations. The evaluations included both quantitative and qualitative data.
Findings – The three investigated health information web sites do not meet the needs of health consumers. More details such as how information is selected to engender greater trust need to be provided. The retrieval of relevant information could be improved through the implementation of functionality such as spell checking and information differentiation. Finally, ensuring web sites are easy to use contributes to the level of trust users have in a web site.
Research limitations/implications – This was a relatively small study investigating only three generic Australian health web sites; the results however suggest that a larger study looking at other health web sites is needed.
Practical implications – For government agencies developing health information web sites more attention needs to be paid to the design of these web sites if users are to be encouraged to use the web site and return. The research suggests that effective health information web sites must be perceived to be of reliable quality, be trustworthy, have some level of intelligence to assist in the retrieval of relevant information, and be easy to use.
Originality/value – Although there is much research relating to the relationship between web site design and trust for e-commerce transactional web sites, this work has not been undertaken for web sites designed for information retrieval, in particular little work has been done of health information web sites. This paper fills in some of the gaps.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Social Interaction

Hsi-Peng Lu and Shu-ming Wang, “The Role of Internet Addiction in Online Game Loyalty: an Exploratory Study,” Internet Research, 18.5 (2008): 520-540.
Keywords: Indoor games, Internet, Addiction, Customer satisfaction, Customer loyalty
Abstract: Purpose – The paper’s aim is to explore the factors that affect the online game addiction and the role that online game addiction plays in the relationship between online satisfaction and loyalty.
Design/methodology/approach – A web survey of online game players was conducted, with 1,186 valid responses collected. Structure equation modeling – specifically partial least squares – was used to assess the relationships in the proposed research framework.
Findings – The results indicate that perceived playfulness and descriptive norms influence online game addiction. Furthermore, descriptive norms indirectly affect online game addiction through perceived playfulness. Addiction also directly contributes to loyalty and attenuates the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty. This finding partially explains why people remain loyal to an online game despite being dissatisfied.
Practical implications – Online gaming vendors should strive to create amusing game content and to maintain their online game communities in order to enhance players’ perceptions of playfulness and the effects of social influences. Also, because satisfaction is the most significant indicator of loyalty, vendors can enhance loyalty by providing better services, such as fraud prevention and the detection of cheating behaviors.
Originality/value – The value of this study is that it reveals the moderating influences of addiction on the satisfaction-loyalty relationship and factors that contribute to the online game addiction. Moreover, while many past studies focused on addiction’s negative effects and on groups considered particularly vulnerable to Internet addiction, this paper extends previous work by investigating the relationship of addiction to other marketing variables and by using a more general population, mostly young adults, as research subjects.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Rudy Prabowo, Mike Thelwall, Iina Hellsten and Andrea Scharnhorst, “Evolving Debates in Online Communication: a Graph Analytical Approach,” Internet Research, 18.5 (2008): 520-540.
Keywords: Group discussion, Internet, Communication, Social dynamics
Abstract: Purpose – The aim of this paper is to analyze the structure of evolving debates in online discussion forums to see how science-related debates evolve over time.
Design/methodology/approach – A graph-based approach is applied to analyze the structure of graphs of connected terms in online debates. A number of different graph properties, such as the Densification Power Law (DPL), diameter (g) and effective diameter (d), are used to observe the properties of the graphs over time.
Findings – The graphs of connected terms obey the DPL and the effective diameters (d) of the graphs tend to shrink as the debates progress. Slight fluctuations can occur, however, when new terms are integrated into the graphs. These two properties suggest that a graph of connected terms can be modeled through a number of blocks of terms, each of which becomes densely connected over time as indicated by d and DPL plots.
Originality/value – This paper proposes observing the dynamic changes of evolving debates by using graphs of connected terms. The structures and properties of these graphs may be useful for understanding the evolution of public debates about controversial science-related topics, such as embryonic stem cell research, and to track debates that can potentially explode into major issues.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study

Theory: Social Interaction

Hsiu-Chia Ko, Chun-Po Yin and Feng-Yang Kuo, “Exploring Individual Communication Power in the Blogosphere,” Internet Research, 18.5 (2008): 541-561.
Keywords: Worldwide web, Communication, Social networks 
Abstract: Purpose – Viewing the blog technology as an integral part of the current social-technical environment, this research aims to investigate whether the main influences on message diffusion within a blog community originate from external mass media channels or internal interpersonal communication channels.
Design/methodology/approach – The authors employed the innovation-diffusion model and the OLS estimating method to study message diffusion of two documentary films on the Wretch, the largest blog community in Taiwan.
Findings – The results indicate that the mass media are the main sources of message diffusion and that the internal communication power may increase as the opinion leader promotes these messages.
Research limitations/implications – Other factors that may influence message diffusion such as topic, design characteristics, and the existing social network have not been included. 
Practical implications – For practice, the result indicates that the mass media and the blog might complement each other. 
Originality/value – This research is one of the first that attempts to apply the innovation-diffusion model to analyze message diffusion within the blog community.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Richard Boateng, Richard Heeks, Alemayehu Molla and Robert Hinson, “E-Commerce and Socio-economic Development: Conceptualizing the Link,” Internet Research, 18.5 (2008): 562-594.
Keywords: Electronic commerce, Economic development, Developing countries
Abstract: Purpose – E-commerce is diffusing into developing countries (DCs), and is assumed to help deliver the international development agenda. But how can the connection between e-commerce and socio-economic development be conceptualised? The aim of this paper is to analyze that connection by drawing from the development studies discipline to take a broader perspective on e-commerce than that so far provided by firm-level research.
Design/methodology/approach – The authors adopt a literature survey approach, drawing their conceptual foundations from development studies, and supplementing this from the e-commerce literature.
Findings – The paper develops a new, integrated model that explains the way in which e-commerce can contribute to socio-economic development.
Research limitations/implications – This new model can help provide a foundation for future research on e-commerce in DCs; research on e-commerce policy as well as impact assessment research. 
Practical implications – The discussion and model provide development agencies, governments, consultants and business people working in DCs with a clearer sense of the contribution e-commerce can make; assisting them in prioritization, planning, and evaluation of e-commerce projects.
Originality/value – The paper provides the first integrated perspective on the broader contribution of e-commerce to the growth and development of DCs.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Social Interaction

Juran Kim and Sally J. McMillan, “Evaluation of Internet Advertising: A Bibliometric Analysis of Citations from Key Sources,” Journal of Advertising, 37. 1 (Spring 2008): 99–112.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: How has scholarly research shaped the Internet advertising field since the mid 1990s? This study addresses that broad question with a bibliometric analysis of academic literature on Internet advertising. By examining most-cited authors and papers, as well as co-citation patterns, a general picture of the field can be drawn. This analysis sets a baseline that will enable future scholars to see where the field of Internet advertising research began and trace its shift over time.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Idil Yaveroglu and Naveen Donthu, “Advertising Repetition and Placement in On-Line Environments,” Journal of Advertising, 37.2 (Summer 2008): 31-43. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study investigates the ways of improving banner advertising effectiveness by suggesting alternative advertising repetition strategies in varying on-line environments. Specifically, we investigate the effectiveness of repeating varied executions versus repeating single executions of a banner ad on brand recall and intention to click in different competitive and content-relevant on-line environments. The results of our experiment show that (1) banner advertising repetition leads to greater brand name memory and intention to click in on-line environments; (2) in a noncompetitive Internet environment, an ad variation strategy leads to higher brand name recall and intention to click than an ad repetition strategy; (3) in a competitive Internet environment, a single ad repetition strategy leads to higher brand name recall than a varied ad repetition strategy; (4) brand name recall is higher when the ad is presented in a content-relevant Web site; (5) a single ad repetition strategy generates marginally greater recall in a content-relevant Web site; and (6) a varied ad repetition strategy generates marginally greater recall in a content nonrelevant Web site. The effects of repeating varied versus same executions of an ad on intention to click in content-relevant Web sites did not generate any significant findings.
Method: Experiment   
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Nitish Singh, Daniel W. Baack, Arun Pereira and Donald Baack, “Culturally Customizing Websites for U.S. Hispanic Online Consumers,” Journal of Advertising Research, 48.2 (June 2008): 224-235.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The U.S. Hispanic online market consists of the most affluent and educated members of the U.S. Hispanic population. The segment is large, increasing in size, and its members prefer culturally-adapted marketing messages. Currently, no frameworks are available to help marketers culturally customize websites for U.S. Hispanics. The objective of this study is to address this gap. The goals are to identify the ways in which Hispanic preferences for web design elements differ, and to explore how these preferences vary based on acculturation. The results indicate that Hispanics have culturally-rooted preferences for web content and that acculturation levels are important segmentation variables.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Felicitas Morhart, Sven Henkel and Walter Herzog, “Collecting Hidden Consumer Data Online: Research on Homosexuals,” Journal of Advertising Research, 48.2 (June 2008): 249-256.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Collecting highly private data from consumers with nonapparent or even hidden characteristics, such as homosexuals, is difficult for two reasons: First, the resulting data sets are rather small and nonrepresentative due to reachability and nonresponse problems. Second, data quality is often unsatisfying, for example, due to social desirability problems. To handle these problems, the author recommend an online research strategy. The author makes the case by reporting on a Germany-wide online study on homosexuals by using a three-step procedure for recruiting participants. We were successful in generating a sample of considerable size (n = 6,274) and heterogeneity, and in obtaining high-quality responses. Implications for marketing researchers and advertising professionals are provided.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Scott McDonald, “The Long Tail and Its Implications for Media Audience Measurement,” Journal of Advertising Research, 48.3 (September 2008): 313-320.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Chris Anderson caused something of a sensation with the 2006 publication of his book, The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More. An expansion of his influential October 2004 article in Wired, the Anderson book provoked controversy throughout the media business. After all, media companies have always worshipped hits. Media executives and researchers bend every effort to find the next breakout television series, the next platinum album, the next blockbuster movie. What sense could one possibly make of Anderson’s claim that the future of the media business was likely to be dominated, not by blockbuster hits, but by increasingly microscopic niches? This article considers the questions raised by Anderson in relation to media and its increasingly complicated measurement.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Mark Loughney, Martin Eichholtz and Michelle Hagger, “Exploring the Effectiveness of Advertising in the ABC.com Full Episode Player,” Journal of Advertising Research, 48.3 (September 2008): 320-329.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The ABC Television Network has undertaken a series of research projects to understand the effectiveness of advertising in online streaming of TV episodes on ABC.com. The results of the current study suggested that the single sponsorship model of the ABC Full Episode Player yielded a level of advertising effectiveness that exceeded historical benchmarks for TV. Average unaided sponsorship recall was nearly two and a half times that of typical advertising recall on TV. In addition, pretest and posttest comparisons showed substantial increases in top of mind brand awareness and positive effects on brand attributes. The results of the study will be discussed with regard to implications for online video advertising generally, with suggestions for future research to clarify issues not specifically addressed in this study.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Verolien Cauberghe and Patrick De Pelsmacker, “The Advertising Impact of an Interactive TV Program on the Recall of an Embedded Commercial,” Journal of Advertising Research, 48.3 (September 2008): 352-363.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The impact of two dimensions of television program induced interactivity on advertisement and brand recall of an embedded commercial was examined with 246 respondents. Program-induced two-way communication (playing along with a quiz) had a strong negative impact on advertisement and brand recall. The negative effect of user control (amount of available clicks in the program) was also noticeable, but less prominent. There also appeared to be an interaction effect of two-way communication and user control on advertisement and brand recall. A moderate level of user control results in better recall when the respondent had no play along possibilities, but leads to less recall when he/she could play along with the quiz. Managerial implications and future research options are suggested.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification
 
Robert Davis and Laszlo Sajtos, “Measuring Consumer Interactivity in Response to Campaigns Coupling Mobile and Television Media,” Journal of Advertising Research, 48.3 (September 2008): 375-392. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Consumers are increasingly using the mobile channel to be interactive with television programming and advertisements. To understand this emerging phenomena, we develop a model (the LOOP), conceptualizing the consumers interactivity when using their mobile phone to interact with television content. This model proposes new thinking regarding the role of the mobile channel in the consumer’s experience of the interactive television content. We define the consumer’s interactivity in terms of four characteristics: synchronicity, two-way dialogue, contingency and user control. Based upon these characteristics, we use New Zealand and U.S. interactive television content related campaign data to develop five measures of campaign response effectiveness—Potential Audience Dialogue {PAD), Active Audience Dialogue (AAD), Interactive Audience Dialogue (IAD), Contingent Audience Loyalty (CAL) and Contingent Audience Wearout (CAW) We found similar response patterns across the tested New Zealand and U.S, campaigns, with more significant relationships emerging from interactive consumers who are loyal across campaigns.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Brigitte Muller, Laurent Flores, Meriem Agrebi and Jean Louis Chandon, “The Branding Impact of Brand Websites: Do Newsletters and Consumer Magazines Have a Moderating Role?” Journal of Advertising Research, 48.3 (September 2008): 465-473.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The internet offers both growth and loyalty opportunities for brands. To this end, in recent years, companies have accelerated the development of their websites, including richer and more interactive content as we;; as relationship tools such as email newsletter and consumer magazines. Using the example of a leading French manufacturer’s website, the present research demonstrates that visitors satisfied with their overall website experience are more inclined to revisit and recommend the site and in turn develop more positive attitudes toward the brand as well as higher purchase intent. These relations are stronger for consumers that are members of the website email newsletter program and those that receive the brand consumer magazine.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Other (Branding)

Cate Riegner, “Wired China: The Power of the World’s Largest Internet Population” Journal of Advertising Research, 48.4 (December 2008): 496-506.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: China has the largest internet population in the world—76 percent with high-speed broadband connection. Based on online research of more than 8,000 U.S. and Chinese broadband users age 13 and older, this report summarizes key features for global marketers to consider by comparing the similarities and differences between the Chinese and American online populations. The impact of user generated content among those under 35 in both countries is a major focus.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jacob Groshek, “Homogenous Agendas, Disparate Frames: CNN and CNN International Coverage Online,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52.1 (March 2008): 52-68.
Keywords: Content analysis, agenda setting theory, information resources, broadcast journalism, audiences, Internet users, news audiences, press, Cable News Network, news syndicates
Abstract: Although CNN and CNN International represent just a fraction of global news coverage, the networks are widely viewed, crucial agenda-setting agents the world over. This study found that the online versions of these 2 networks were remarkably consistent in telling audiences in America and abroad what to think about. However, American and non-American online audiences received disparate amounts of coverage and were cued how to think about issues in unique ways. These findings and the high level of news homogenization in this content analysis are evidence of the influence that American news values have in global media culture.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Agenda Building/Setting

Kevin Wise, Paul D. Bolls and Samantha R. Schaefer, “Choosing and Reading Online News: How Available Choice Affects Cognitive Processing,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52.1 (March 2008): 69-85.
Keywords: News Web sites, electronic newspapers hypertext systems, web sites, information processing, web site development, Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals, online information service, hyperlinks, heart beat
Abstract: Giving people the ability to choose from a wide variety of content when they want to see it is a hallmark of today’s interactive media landscape. News/information portals, blogs, video-on-demand, and file-sharing galleries all give computer users the freedom to choose content from vast arrays of options, then acquire and view that content with the click of a mouse. To date, researchers have not thoroughly examined the mental processes that occur when people choose and receive information from Web sites that offer varying amounts of options. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Joseph Graf and Sean Aday, “Selective Attention to Online Political Information,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52.1 (March 2008): 86-100.
Keywords: Communication, content analysis, discourse analysis, selective exposure
Abstract: Selective attention is a key concept in communication research despite equivocal supporting evidence. This study focuses on methodological concerns in the study of selective attention. Using unobtrusive measures of selective attention to online political content this study found consistent support for the selective attention hypothesis. Three within-subjects quasi experiments were conducted (n = 29, n = 36, and n = 75) that measured subjects’ attention to information consistent with and counter to their beliefs. Two other measures of selective attention were also used: (1) whether subjects turned first to consistent or counter information, and (2) how deeply into the material they read.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Shaojing Sun, Alan M. Rubin and Paul M. Haridakis, “The Role of Motivation and Media Involvement in Explaining Internet Dependency,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52.3 (September 2008): 408-431.
Keywords: Internet users, psychology, computer users. dependency, motivation, demographic research
Abstract: Links among demographics, motivation for using the Internet, cognitive and affective involvement, and Internet dependency were investigated. By integrating uses and gratifications theory and media dependency research, motivation was found to play a more important antecedent role in explaining Internet dependency than demographics, and cognitive and affective involvement mediated the relationship between motivation and Internet dependency. This finding supported the uses and gratifications argument that certain factors intervene in the media uses and effects process between motivation to communicate and outcomes of communication behavior such as media use.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Sonia Livingston and Ellen Helsper, “Parental Mediation of Children’s Internet Use,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52.4 (December 2008): 581-599.
Keywords: Internet and children, Internet law and legislation, online chat groups, virtual communities. Security measures, filtering software, Internet censorship
Abstract: This article examines parental regulation of children and teenagers’ online activities. A national survey of 1511 children and 906 parents found that 12-17-year-olds encounter a range of online risks. Parents implement a range of strategies, favoring active co-use and interaction rules over technical restrictions using filters or monitoring software, but these were not necessarily effective in reducing risk. Parental restriction of online peer-to-peer interactions was associated with reduced risk but other mediation strategies, including the widely practiced active co-use, were not. These findings challenge researchers to identify effective strategies without impeding teenagers’ freedom to interact with their peers online.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Artemio Ramirez, Jr., and Zuoming Wang, “When Online Meets Offline: An Expectancy Violations Theory Perspective on Modality Switching,” Journal of Communication, 58.1 (2008): 20–39. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The present study examines the occurrence and timing of modality switching (MS) from the perspective of expectancy violations theory. The results indicate that, relative to continuing to interact through computer-mediated communication, participants rated the social information (partner behavior and physical appearance/attractiveness) acquired by MS as an expectancy violation, although their evaluations varied as a function of the timing of the switch. Participants evaluated the social information more positively and uncertainty-reducing following short-term online associations but more negatively and uncertainty-provoking following long-term ones compared to remaining online. Moreover, social information acquired through MS, irrespective of the timing, was rated as more relationally important. Implications and limitations of the results as well as directions for future research are discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

David H. Gustafson, Robert Hawkins, Fiona McTavish, Suzanne Pingree, Wei Chih Chen, Kanittha Volrathongchai, William Stengle, James A. Stewart and Ronald C. Serlin, “Internet-Based Interactive Support for Cancer Patients: Are Integrated Systems Better?” Journal of Communication, 58.2 (2008): 238-257.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: To compare the benefits of the Internet generally versus a focused system of services, 257 breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to a control group, access to the Internet with links to high-quality breast cancer sites, or access to an eHealth system (Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System, CHESS) that integrated information, support, and decision and analysis tools. The intervention lasted five months, and self-report data on quality of life, health-care competence, and social support were collected at pretest and at two-, four-, and nine-month posttests. CHESS subjects logged on more overall than Internet subjects and accessed more health resources, but the latter used non health-related sites more. Subjects with access to the Internet alone experienced no better outcomes than controls at any of the three time points, compared to pretest levels. Subjects with CHESS experienced greater social support during the intervention period and had higher scores on all 3 outcomes at 9 months, 4 months after the intervention ended. CHESS subjects also scored higher than those with Internet access during the intervention period but not significantly after the intervention ended. Thus, CHESS (with one simple interface and integrated information, communication, and skills services) helped newly diagnosed breast cancer patients even after computers were removed. In contrast, patients received little benefit from Internet access, despite having links to a variety of high-quality sites.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Xigen Li, “Third-Person Effect, Optimistic Bias, and Sufficiency Resource in Internet Use,” Journal of Communication, 58.3 (2008): 268-287.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examined the third-person effect and the optimistic bias in Internet communication and to what degree sufficiency resource affected the third-person effect and the optimistic bias. Findings demonstrated the third-person effect and the optimistic bias prevalent in traditional media use were also apparent in Internet communication, but vary in their relationships with sufficiency resources and other predicting factors. There was a positive relationship between the third-person effect and the optimistic bias involving others. Two indicators of sufficiency resource, computer skill and computer knowledge, and perceived protection ability were significant predictors of the optimistic bias but not that of the third-person effect. Activeness in Internet use was positively predicted by computer knowledge and perceived benefit.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Rahul Mitra and Radhika Gajjala, “Queer Blogging in Indian Digital Diasporas: A Dialogic Encounter,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 32.4 (2008): 400-424.
Keywords: queer blogs; GLBT; gay Indian movement; queer new media 
Abstract: Queering and transgendering practices have been visible across the Internet since the time of multi-user domains (MUDs), MUD object oriented domains (MOOs), e-mail lists, and Web bulletins. This article maps some themes of queering in the Indian digital diaspora through an intergenerational lens, produced in the acts of online and offline coauthoring, weblogging, and reading of instances of such online queering relationally. By way of a dialogic encounter on their own blogs and employing performative writing that simulates the blogsphere, the authors look at the interplay of codes of identity through the employment of themes, language, symbols and cultural influences in their writing. Examining the themes emerging from the specific blogs they study, the authors ask how power is shifted and re-layered in these articulations and what the inviting interactional features of their writer-audience communities are that allow for certain kinds of self-expression while also shaping their performance of sexuality in these spaces.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Lisa J. Servon and Robert Kaestner, “Consumer financial literacy and the impact of online banking on the financial behavior of lower-income bank customers,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 42.2 (Summer 2008): 271- 305.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article analyzes a demonstration program mounted by a major bank to understand whether access to information and communications technologies, combined with financial literacy training and training on how to use the Internet, can help low- and moderate-income individuals in inner-city neighborhoods be more effective financial actors. While quantitative analysis turns up few significant program effects, qualitative work implies that implementation issues likely compromised the effectiveness of the program. There was evidence of a potential link between information and communications technologies and financial literacy. Overall, urban low- and moderate-income individuals are interested in becoming technologically and financially literate and an intensive intervention may enable these goals.
Method: Survey – Interviews/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Seounmi Youn, “Parental Influence and Teens’ Attitude Toward Online Privacy Protection,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 42.3 (Fall 2008): 362- 88.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examines the impact of parental influence on teens’ attitude toward privacy protection. Survey data show that teens high in concept-oriented family communication tend to engage in discussion mediation, which, in turn, affects their level of privacy concern. In contrast, teens high in socio-oriented communication tend to have more family rules and surf the Internet with parents. Rulemaking mediation is not directly related to teens’ level of privacy concern, while co-surfing mediation is related to their level of concern. This study also finds that parental mediation and teens’ concern level explain their attitude toward privacy protection measures. Implications for policymakers and educators are discussed. With teens increasingly becoming an influential online retail demographic (Business Wire 2006; Greenspan 2004), e-marketers are targeting them through new interactive marketing platforms such as gamevertising, viral video and social networking site (Chester and Montgomery 2007; Howard 2006). These marketing practices may open opportunities for communication, product learning, and e-commerce to teens; however, they also raise public concerns about online risks resulting from teen privacy loss (Donnerstein 2002; Lenhart 2005; Willard 2006).
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Kiseol Yang and Laura D. Jolly, “Age Cohort Analysis in Adoption of Mobile Data Services: Gen Xers Versus Baby Boomers,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25.5 (2008): 272–280.
Keywords: Mobile communication systems, Data communication systems, Consumer behaviour, Age groups
Abstract: Purpose – This study aims to examine the differences in adoption of mobile data services between two age cohorts (gen Xers and baby boomers). Three elements in the extended Technology Acceptance Model – perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived fun – were used to identify the differences in adoption of mobile data services for the two age cohorts. Design/methodology/approach – A sample of 200 mobile services users drawn from a purchased consumer panel participated in an online survey. Of this sample, 67 gen Xers and 86 baby boomers were used for the analysis (n 1/4 153). Multigroup structural equation modeling analysis was used to examine the differences in adoption of mobile data services between the two age cohorts. 
Findings – This study found that baby boomers perceived mobile data services as more difficult to use than gen Xers. However, the perception of usefulness of mobile data services was stronger for the baby boomers than gen Xers. Usefulness of mobile data services may be a critical motivator for baby boomers to adopt mobile data services. Mobile data service marketers should focus on mobile data service usefulness when they are targeting the baby boomer cohort. 
Originality/value – The results of this study provide insights to assist marketers in developing and positioning appropriate mobile data services to targeted age cohorts during the adoption stage.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Robert V. Kozinets, “Technology/Ideology: How Ideological Fields Influence Consumers’ Technology Narratives,” Journal of Communication Research, 34.6 (2008): 865-881.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Through a systematic study of consumer narratives, this article models how technology ideologies influence consumer-level thought, speech and action. Applying critical discourse analysis and articulation theory approaches, a semiotic square model represents the relations between Techtopian, Green Luddite, Work Machine and Techspressive ideological elements in an ideological field. The narratives of individual consumers move between ideological elements in ways suggested by the model’s semantic relations. The results reveal novel aspects of consumers’ dynamic relations to technology ideology and invite further investigations of technology and consumption ideology.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Social Interaction

Louisa Ha, “Online Advertising Research in Advertising Journals: A Review,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 30.1 (Spring 2008): 31-49.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Along with the rapid increase in the number of Internet users around the world, the World Wide Web has become the fastest growing advertising medium in this decade. The Interactive Advertising Bureau (2007) reported US online advertising revenue’s growth from 1998’s US $l .8 billion to $20 billion in 2007. The 10-fold increase not only signifies the importance of online advertising to the advertising and media industry, but also the rapid advancement of technology in online advertising delivery and display formats that requires researchers to help the media and advertisers to capitalize on the new medium and the society in understanding the increasing impact of the medium. Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Harsha Gangadharbatla, “Facebook Me: Collective Self-Esteem, Need to Belong, and Internet Self-Efficacy as Predictors of the iGeneration’s Attitudes toward Social Networking Sites,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 8.2 (2008).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Within the user-generated content sites, the role and growth of social networking sites has been undeniably overwhelming. Social networking sites (SNS) generate millions of dollars in revenue and advertising, yet little is known about why college students join and participate in these sites, which allow users to create their own content or space. This study adopts survey methodology to investigate the influence of college students’ level of Internet self-efficacy, need to belong, need for cognition, and collective self-esteem on their attitude toward SNS. Internet self-efficacy, need to belong, and collective self-esteem all have positive effects on attitudes toward SNS. Furthermore, attitude toward SNS mediates the relationship between willingness to join SNS and (1) Internet self-efficacy and (2) need to belong, and the mediation is only partial between willingness to join and collective self-esteem. The author also draws managerial implications.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Terry Daugherty, Matthew S. Eastin and Laura Bright, “Exploring Consumer Motivations for Creating User-Generated Content,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 8.2 (2008). 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The advent of Web 2.0 technologies has enabled the efficient creation and distribution of user-generated content (UGC), resulting in vast changes in the online media landscape. For instance, the proliferation of UGC has made a strong impact on consumers, media suppliers, and marketing professionals while necessitating research in order to understand both the short and long-term implications of this media content. This exploratory study (n = 325) seeks to investigate consumer consumption and creation of UGC and the attitudinal factors that contribute to these actions. The data confirm the established relationship between attitude and behavior and indicate attitude serves as a mediating factor between the use and creation of UGC. With regard to the creation of UGC, the ego-defensive and social functions of attitude were found to have the most explanatory power.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Shu-Chuan Chu and Sara Kamal, “The Effect of Perceived Blogger Credibility and Argument Quality on Message Elaboration and Brand Attitudes: An Exploratory Study,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 8.2 (2008). 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: To understand information processing on blogs, this study investigates how perceived blogger trustworthiness affects blog readers’ elaboration of brand-related messages and its interaction effects with argument quality. The results reveal that the degree of perceived blogger trustworthiness affects the extent of message elaboration, and findings from a 2 X 2 (perceived blogger trustworthiness X argument quality) factorial experiment suggest a significant interaction effect on brand attitudes. This interaction reveals that when perceived blogger trustworthiness is high, argument quality has a greater impact on brand attitudes than when perceived blogger trustworthiness is low. The authors discuss some implications and suggestions for further research.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Hyuk Jun Cheong and Margaret A. Morrison, “Consumers’ Reliance on Product Information and Recommendations Found in UGC,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 8.2 (2008). 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In the time since the advent of the Internet, the influence of online recommendations on consumer decision making has attracted great attention. YouTube and sites with blogging capabilities, such as MySpace and Facebook, are growing rapidly and frequently feature comments about brands and products. These comments, whether positive or negative, represent a form of user-generated content (UGC). Although recent research on peer recommendations considers electronic word of mouth, few studies focus on UGC. Using interviews with 17 participants, this study examines consumers’ opinions of online recommendations embedded in UGC compared with those of producer-generated content.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Lan Xia and Nada Nasr Bechwati, “Word of Mouse: The Role of Cognitive Personalization in Online Consumer Reviews,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9.1 (2008).
Keywords: Word of mouse, online reviews, personalization.
Abstract: This research attempts to understand the mechanisms underlying the differential impacts of online consumer reviews, using the concept of cognitive personalization. In two experiments, the authors show that the level of cognitive personalization developed while reading an online review influences consumers’ purchase intentions. The level of cognitive personalization is a function of the reader’s affect intensity, the nature of the product reviewed (experience vs. search), and the content of the review (experiential vs. factual); in addition, the effect of cognitive personalization on purchase intention is moderated by valence (positive vs. negative).
Method: Experiment   
Theory: Social Interaction

Anca Cristina Micu and Esther Thorson, “Leveraging News and Advertising to Introduce New Brands on the Web,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9.1 (2008).
Keywords: Integrated marketing communications, Internet advertising, news.
Abstract: Previous studies using the integrated marketing communications framework have examined the increased effectiveness of combining either multiple media or different tactics when promoting a brand. This study considers integrating advertising and publicity to promote an unknown brand on the Internet. Experiment results indicate that when exposure to advertising combines with exposure to objective news about a new brand, effectiveness increases in terms of both brand attitudes and behavioral intentions. For sequencing exposures for technical brands, the news-then-advertising condition offers more effectiveness than the reverse sequence. When introducing non-technical brands on the Web though, using advertising first is more effective in terms of brand attitudes. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Branding)

Kevin Wise, Paul D. Bolls, Hyo Kim, Arun Venkataraman and Ryan Meyer, “Enjoyment of Advergames and Brand Attitudes: The Impact of Thematic Relevance,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9.1 (2008).
Keywords: Advergames, Brand Attitude, and Relevance.
Abstract: Campaigns increasingly implement advergames to engage consumers with a brand through interactive, entertaining media content. However, little research tests the effects of specific features of advergames on desired advertising outcomes. This article reports the results of an experiment designed to examine how variation in the thematic connection between the game associated with an advergame and the brand affects the relationship between attitude toward the game (equated with attitude toward the ad) and attitude toward the brand. The analysis reveals a stronger positive relationship between attitude toward the advergame and attitude toward the brand when participants play games with a high thematic connection to the brand’s product. Therefore, designing advergames that relate thematically to the product of the sponsoring brand should increase the likelihood of positive conditioning of brand attitudes evoked by playing an advergame.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Branding)

Seunghee Im, Doo-Hee Lee, Charles R. Taylor and Catherine D’Orazio, “The
Influence of Consumer Self-Disclosure on Web Sites on Advertising Response,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9:1 (2008). 
Key Words: Transference effect, online self-disclosure, Internet advertising
Abstract: This article assesses the consequences of consumer self-disclosure by examining the disclosure-liking effect in the context of advertising. Of particular interest is whether self-disclosure by visitors to a Web site leads to more positive reactions to subsequent advertising for the products/services offered on that site. Brand relationship theory and social response theory provide the theoretical basis for predictions about the potential influence of the disclosure-liking effect in the non-interpersonal context of the World Wide Web. Specifically, this research posits a transference effect of self-disclosure in three hypotheses, tested with two experiments that identify some moderating and mediating variables. The results demonstrate that the positive attitude that self-disclosure can elicit favorably influences subsequent attitudes toward ads and behavior toward the target of the disclosure.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Bernard J. Jansen, Karen Hudson, Lee Hunter, Fang Liu and Jamie Murphy, “The Google Online Marketing Challenge: Classroom Learning with Real Clients, Real Money, and Real Advertising Campaigns,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9.1 (2008).
Keywords: Sponsored search, online marketing, online advertising
Abstract: The advent of keyword advertising has had a tremendous effect on online advertising, Internet marketing, search engines, and Web sites that earn advertising revenue. Pay-per-click advertising therefore provides a critical topic for educators who hope to prepare students for professional careers in advertising and related areas. The Google Online Marketing Challenge offers an innovative way to achieve this goal in a unique hands-on context. With more than 8,000 participating students from 47 countries, the 2008 Challenge is, as far as the authors know, the largest in-class academic competition ever undertaken. The Challenge is also unique in its linkages among students, businesses, and the classroom. This article briefly reviews online marketing and Google’s advertising platform.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Michael Hanley, Jennifer George-Palilonis and Vinayak Tanksale, “Research-Informed Development for Interactive Media: Enhancing Learning by Engaging Students with Users,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9.1 (2008).
Keywords: Interactive, media, pedagogy
Abstract: This case study investigates how the research-informed development model affects the pedagogical learning outcomes and design solutions of university students responsible for creating interactive advertising and news content for television and the iPhone mobile device. An interdisciplinary group of three professors and 31 undergraduates from advertising, computer science, journalism graphics and telecommunications employed a research-informed development process to create interactive design products and collect feedback from target users about the interactive advertising, news content, and interface designs and functionality. Students used the feedback from user focus groups to revise and improve the design work before each of three rounds of usability tests. 
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Marci Troutman and Steve Timpson, “Effective Optimization of Web Sites for Mobile Access: The Transition from eCommerce to mCommerce,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9.1 (2008).
Keywords: Mobile site optimization, WAP, e-commerce
Abstract: As the number of mobile phone users exceeds that of PC users in many countries, how to optimize PC-based web sites for mobile phone users becomes an important issue. This article reviews several popular approaches and introduces a method that the authors’ firm has developed. Major advantages of this method are that firms can use the same URL for both PC-based and mobile phone-based Web sites and both groups of users can get the layout and content that best fit their devices. The article presents examples to illustrate the features of the optimization process.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Kaye D. Sweetser, Lance V. Porter, Deborah Soun Chung and Eunseong Kim, “Credibility and the Use of Blogs Among Professionals in the Communication Industry,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 85.1 (Spring 2008): 169-185.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examines use, credibility, and impact on the communication industry of blogs as seen by professional journalists and public relations practitioners. Informed by the uses and gratifications perspective and using an online survey, the study used factor analysis to reveal simplistic blog use categorizations as being either interactive or non-interactive. Results also indicate that those who are labeled “high users” in both factors assign more credibility to the medium. Differences between journalism and public relations professionals were examined.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Sriram Kalyanaraman and S. Shyam Sundar, “Portrait of the Portal as a Metaphor: Explicating Web Portals for Communication Research,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 85.2 (Summer 2008): 239-256.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Web portals are increasing in their presence as well as importance, yet suffer from lack of conceptual clarity. In explicating the concept of “portal” from a number of disciplinary frameworks, this article uncovers five different but inter-related metaphorical conceptions—gateways, billboards, networks, niches and brands—which, in turn, suggest five dominant features of portal sites—customization, content, control, community and commerce—for empirical examination as variables in future research on uses and effects of portals.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Zvi Reich, “The Roles of Communication Technology in Obtaining News: Staying Close to Distant Sources,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 85.3 (Autumn 2008): 625-646.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study proposes a framework for a theory of epistemological technologies in news sourcing, based on research on communication channels (technology-mediated and non-mediated) used to acquire information for stories published or aired by nine Israeli news organizations, employing face-to-face reconstruction interviews with reporters. Findings reveal only marginal differences among media in use of various channels. Technology enables distant coverage while keeping close contact with human sources. Nearly all news information is technology-mediated, transmitted primarily via oral channels. Although reporters use the Internet extensively, their reliance on the World Wide Web as a news source is negligible, even among online reporters.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Ester de Waal and Klaus Schoenbach, “Presentation Style and Beyond: How Print Newspapers and Online News Expand Awareness of Public Affairs Issues,” Mass Communication and Society, 11:2 (2008): 161-176.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Traditional newspapers have been shown to improve knowledge about politics and other societal issues and to widen the perceived public agenda, but what of their online counterparts and other news sites on the Internet? The consequences of differences in presentation style are addressed. A large survey representative of the Dutch adult population is used to examine how much print newspapers and online news expand the perceived public agenda, both in terms of its extent in general and within politics in particular. Our results show that printed newspapers are more effective than online newspapers in increasing the overall number of perceived topics and the number of political topics, but only if readers are interested and rely on newspapers. Non-paper news sites, however, seem to widen the overall and the political public agenda even without specific interest and reliance of their users.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Kaye D. Sweetser, Guy J. Golan and Wayne Wanta, “Intermedia Agenda Setting in Television, Advertising, and Blogs During the 2004 Election,” Mass Communication and Society, 11.2 (2008): 197-216.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examined whether the candidate-controlled public relations tools of political ads and candidate blogs were successful in influencing the issue and news agenda of the major television news networks during the 2004 presidential election. Data showed strong correlations between blogs and the media agenda. Advertisements did not correlate with the media agenda. Cross-lag analyses showed that the media set the candidates’ agenda. The authors suggest intermedia agenda setting occurred as the media transferred their agenda to campaign blogs.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Agenda Building/Setting

Joshua D. Atkinson, “Towards a Model of Interactivity in Alternative Media: A Multilevel Analysis of Audiences and Producers in a New Social Movement Network,” Mass Communication and Society, 11.2 (2008): 227-247.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This research utilized multilevel analysis to explore interactive alternative media production in a new social movement network. Interviews with audiences, local producers, and global producers provide evidence of interactivity between local audiences and local producers and between local producers and global producers. The local audiences provided encouragement to local producers through face-to-face interactions that aided in the establishment of organizational support for the local producers but acted as a discursive closure that blinded local producers to potential problems with their alternative media. The global producers revealed that they received content-oriented interactions from audiences via e-mail, which corresponded with data collected from the local producers who claimed to interact with global producers via e-mail. The findings establish a preliminary model of interactivity in alternative media production that links research concerning new social movement networks and alternative media and builds on research concerning the decentralized structure of new social movement networks.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Deborah S. Chung and Chan Yun Yoo, “Audience Motivations for Using Interactive Features: Distinguishing Use of Different Types of Interactivity on an Online Newspaper,” Mass Communication and Society, 11.4 (2008): 375-397.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examines audience uses of three types of interactivity, user motivations for visiting an online newspaper, and the relationship between user motivations and use of the different types of interactive features. There are three types of interactivity on a continuum: medium, human=medium, and human interactivity. In an online survey of 542 respondents, results indicate that medium interactive features were used most frequently and human interactive features used the least. Three motivations for using online newspapers emerged—information seeking=surveillance, socialization, and entertainment. In addition, further analysis found that although all three motivations were predictors of use of medium interactive features, the information seeking= surveillance motivation was not a significant predictor of use of human= medium and human interactive features.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Xiaoquan Zhao and Xiaomei Cai, “From Self-Enhancement to Supporting Censorship: The Third-Person Effect Process in the Case of Internet Pornography,” Mass Communication and Society, 11:4 (2008): 437-462.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between self-enhancement and third-person perception. It also investigated the behavioral consequences of third-person perception within a theory of reasoned action framework. A survey on the issue of Internet pornography was administered to 462 undergraduate students. A positive relationship was found between self-enhancement and third-person perception. Behavioral attitude emerged as a key mediator in the relationship between third-person perception and intention to support Internet censorship. Subjective norm overall was not an important factor in the perception–intention relationship. The lack of impact for subjective norm, however, had causes that varied across gender.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Amy L. Gonzales and Jeffrey T. Hancock, “Identity Shift in Computer-Mediated Environments,” Media Psychology, 11.2 (2008): 167-185.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The present study uses a public commitment framework to examine how computer-mediated self-presentations can alter identities. Participants were asked to present with one of two traits, extroversion or introversion, in public or private computer-mediated communication. Public presentations were online, whereas private presentations took place in a text document. Only participants that presented themselves publicly internalized the trait presentation, suggesting that identity shift took place. Public self-presentations also contained more certain and definite forms of language than private self-presentations, suggesting that audiences evoke a more committed form of self-presentation. The findings in this research have important implications for the self-construction of identity online, particularly for individuals that use the Internet as a tool for public self-presentation, such as dating sites, social network sites, or blogs. Also, the findings highlight opportunities for theoretical development on identity construction as a function of computer-mediated communication. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Jochen Peter and Patti M. Valkenburg, “Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Preoccupancy: A Three-Wave Panel Study,” Media Psychology, 11.2 (2008): 207-234.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The main aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents’ use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) increased their sexual preoccupancy (i.e., a strong cognitive engagement in sexual issues). Further, authors wanted to know (a) whether subjective sexual arousal mediated a potential influence of exposure to SEIM on sexual preoccupancy and (b) whether this process differed between male and female adolescents. Over the course of one year, authors surveyed 962 Dutch adolescents aged 13–20 years three times. Structural equation modeling showed that exposure to SEIM stimulated sexual preoccupancy. This influence was fully mediated by subjective sexual arousal from SEIM. The effect of exposure to SEIM on subjective sexual arousal did not differ between male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that a sexualized media environment may affect adolescents’ sexual development beyond traditionally studied variables, such as sexual attitudes and sexual behavior.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Social Interaction

Eliane M. Boucher, Jeffrey T. Hancock and Philip J. Dunham, “Interpersonal Sensitivity in Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Conversations,” Media Psychology, 11.2 (2008): 235-258.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: Two studies were designed to assess the impact of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on the development of dominant/subordinate status roles and on the accuracy of interpersonal perceptions during dyadic, text-based conversations. Results comparing face-to-face (FtF) and synchronous CMC interactions indicated: (a) that dyads established dominant/subordinate roles in both communicative environments, although these roles were more clearly differentiated in the CMC interactions; and (b) that the accuracy of interpersonal perceptions did not differ substantially during CMC and FtF interactions. Considered together, these data pose problems for theoretical accounts of CMC suggesting that the impoverished social cues in this form of text-based communication tend to equalize hierarchical differences in the status of participants and undermine the accuracy of interpersonal perceptions.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Yong Cao and John D.H. Downing, “The Realities of Virtual Play: Video Games and Their Industry in China,” Media ,Culture and Society, 30.4 (2008): 515-529.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In this study, ‘video game’ is an umbrella term for arcade games, console games, single PC games and online games. Video games have a 20-year history in China and continually impress us with their impressive statistics. With over 20 million online gamers and the largest game population in the world, China was predicted to be the largest online game market in 2007 (Game Trust and Diffusion Group, 2004). In 2005 alone, video games generated 6.7 billion RMB (US $0.8 billion) of revenue in China (Popsoft, 2006).
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

François Bar and Christian Sandvig, “US Communication Policy After Convergence,” Media, Culture and Society, 30.4 (2008): 531-550.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The laws and policies that govern communication in the US have evolved over time to treat different media with distinct doctrines. The press, the post, broadcasting and the telephone each abide by different rules, defining who can build and operate the underlying communication systems, who can use them, along what patterns, to convey what information. As these regimes evolved, they adjusted to reflect social, political, economic and technological change. Occasionally over the past century, the advent of a major new communication technology – radio, television, cable, microwave – changed the system of incentives and thus the equilibrium of the policy environment. This prompted more than a marginal adjustment to the rules, resulting in new rules within existing categories, or the creation of new categories to encompass the new technology.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Marcel Machill, Markus Beiler and Martin Zenker, “Search-engine Research: a European-American Overview and Systematization of an Interdisciplinary and International Research Field,” Media, Culture and Society, 30.4 (2008): 591-608. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: It is no longer possible to imagine the internet without search engines. The growth of net contents, helped by the low communicative access barriers, makes the selection of relevant contents necessary. Search engines assume this selection and mediation function at the interface between public and individual communication. Their ability to reduce the complexity of the web and extend the horizon of the purely human search in many cases enables certain information to be accessed at all (Rieder, 2005: 29f.). They therefore perform a function similar to that of the classical gatekeepers (Machill et al., 2004: 322). In line with the key role that they play, search engines are regularly called upon, in the US for example by 84 percent of internet users; 56 percent of internet users even access them on a daily basis (Fallows, 2005). In contrast to the considerable social importance of search engines and the power that they wield, large gaps in research are evident. These gaps must be closed. This contribution aims to elaborate the central dimensions of search-engine research, gather together existing insights and make suggestions for future research.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Shahira Fahmy, “How Online Journalists Rank Importance of News Skills,” Newspaper Research Journal, 29.2 (Spring 2008): 23-42.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: While students should focus on traditional journalism skills, a new survey of online editors shows digital skills rise in importance when these editors are asked what kind of training they want new employees to have five years from now. The technology of the news industry has dramatically changed in the last decade, and the question of whether there are implications for journalism skills required to face these new challenges has developed in a number of empirical studies. With the expansion of the Web, traditional mass media encountered a new mediated world with specific features, different contents and diverse audiences. As a consequence of this emerging technology, and with the news industry looking at cross-platform newsrooms as the future, this study focuses on current trends in online news operations and projects into the future by specifically assessing the importance of traditional journalism skills, digital journalism skills and Web-coding skills as perceived by online editors today.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Stephen Siff, “Attitudes Differ for Online Reporting Versus Editorials,” Newspaper Research Journal, 29.4 (Fall 2008): 18-35.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: As blogs have become increasingly popular, newspapers have attempted to adapt by incorporating the casual, amateur-appearing blogs into their online products. In 2007, the Gannett Company announced it planned to redesign operations at its 90 American newspapers in order to involve readers in newsgathering and use more reader-created citizen journalism in their online newspapers. Many both within and outside the newspaper industry have raised questions about the credibility of journalistic products created by non-professionals. […] the study used students in communications classes, many of whom may be inclined to be more knowledgeable about the issues being studied than would students in classes in a variety of subjects.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Larry Dailey, Lori Demo and Mary Spillman, “Newspaper Political Blogs Generate Little Interaction,” Newspaper Research Journal, 29.4 (Fall 2008): 53-65.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The literature offers some support for the notion that blogs may foster the civic discussion that is so important to a democratic society. Of particular interest to those who study communication and journalism is the notion that blogs shift control of information from traditional authorities to individuals who now have unprecedented opportunities for personal expression. Citizen- produced blogs are beginning to enjoy audience numbers that rival those of traditional newspaper Web sites-especially among the treasured younger demographics. Research suggests Internet use in general and participation in online political discussion in particular are strong predictors of political participation. Blogs’ power at the grassroots level and their potential to reshape the political landscape caught the eye of people pursuing more mainstream activities. Howard Dean’s use of blogs and other interactive Web features to create excitement and bring attention to his campaign during the 2004 presidential primary season is credited with his early popularity. His efforts and the fact that candidates for the 2008 elections are already building and using blogs suggests the new technologies likely will play a key role in future elections.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Michael L. Kent, “Critical Analysis of Blogging in Public Relations,” Public Relations Review, 34.1 (2008): 32–40.
Keywords: Blog; Blogging; Public relations; News technology; RSS; Critical
Abstract: This essay conducts an analysis of blogs as public relations tools. Following an overview of blogs, attention is given to how blogs can be used more effectively by public relations professionals, and how blogs are favored by communication firms and consultants as essential public relations tools. The essay concludes that while blogs have incredible potential as research, framing and persuasion tools, their utility as a public relations tool is currently limited.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Social Interaction

ChangWanWooa,, Seon-Kyoung Ana, and Seung Ho Chob, “Sports PR in Message Boards on Major League Baseball Websites,” Public Relations Review, 34.2 (2008): 169-175.
Keywords: Sports PR, Message board, Online community, Interactivity, Two-way symmetrical, Major League Baseball, Uses and gratifications, Content analysis
Abstract: Message boards are possible places for sports fans to actively express and exchange their opinions. The purpose of this study is to explore the typology of message board uses on sports websites. The analysis of 1350 topics on eight Major League Baseball teams’ websites for 10 days revealed that: (1) the cognitive need of using message boards in a sports organization’s website was an outstanding motivation; (2) sharing opinions was a new motivation category (compared to traditional uses and gratifications) that was found to be dominant; and (3) winning teams and losing teams’ message boards were significantly different in terms of number of topics, number of users, and optimism score; however, messages seemed to be optimistic. Implications for public relations practitioners suggest that the message board is an excellent monitoring tool for them as well as a fine communication tool between sports organizations and fans.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jordi Xifra and Assumpcio Huertas, “Blogging PR: An Exploratory Analysis of Public Relations Weblogs,” Public Relations Review, 34.3 (2008): 269-275.
Keywords: Weblog, Public relations, Interactivity, Usability
Abstract: Although there are ever more weblogs on the Internet, this is an area that has been little researched in public relations, and where they have been analyzed it has been as a tool for communication rather than a primary information source in the public relations body of knowledge. This paper provides an exploratory study of the structure and content of 67 blogs on public relations to determine what issues they deal with and whether they are a tool for the theoretical development of the field. In addition to their content we have looked at the structure, usability and interactivity of the blogs.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Lynn M. Zoch, Erik L. Collins, Hilary Fussell Sisco, and Dustin H. Supa, “Empowering the Activist: Using Framing Devices on Activist Organizations’ Web Sites,” Public Relations Review, 34.4 (2008): 351-358.
Keywords: Activist organizations, Framing, Web sites
Abstract: The researchers analyzed activist organization web sites to determine the framing techniques employed in their public relations messages. The macro framework for this study was based on the work of sociologists David Snow and Robert Benford, who focus on how social activist organizations frame their messages. At the micro level, the researchers examined the web sites for the presence or absence of five devices identified by Gamson and Modigliani (American Journal of Sociology 1989;95:1–37) as commonly used when framing issues. The findings suggest that public relations practitioners working for activist groups are not making use of most of these message-framing devices in their issue-related messages on their web sites. Based on Gamson and Modigliani’s work, it would seem that practitioners incorporating these devices would only add to the persuasive power of their messages.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Hyojung Park and Bryan H. Reber, “Relationship Building and the Use of Web Sites: How Fortune 500 Corporations Use Their Web Sites to Build Relationships,” Public Relations Review, 34.4 (2008): 409-411. 
Keywords: Dialogic Web sites, Relationship management, Corporate public relations
Abstract: This study examines the dialogic features of corporate Web sites in order to determine the Web site practices of the corporations for building relationships with their publics. Content analysis of 100 Fortune 500 companies’ Web sites revealed that the corporations designed their Web sites to serve important publics and foster dialogic communication. The corporate Web sites appear to promote control mutuality, trust, satisfaction, openness, and intimacy. However, the corporations need to maintain repetitive interactions with their publics to enhance trust, commitment, and exchange relationship.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Daniel Riffe, Stephen Lacy and Miron Varouhakis, “Media System Dependency Theory and Using the Internet for In-depth, Specialized Information,” Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 11 (January 2008).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This national survey found that a notable percentage of people depend on the Internet as a valued source of in-depth information about health, science, and business. Between 31% and 50% of the respondents said they use the Internet weekly for in-depth information in one of the three areas. These respondents valued the Internet more than magazines, books, or friends and families as a source of in-depth information. In-depth information is useful to people who depend on media for understanding and orientation about issues and topics. Individual background variables were better predictors of whether people use the Internet for such information than they were of people’s evaluation of that information’s quality.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Nanette Hogg, Carol S. Lomicky and Syed A. Hossain, “Blogs in the Media Conversation: A Content Analysis of the Knowledge Stage in the Diffusion of an Innovation,” Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 12 (December 2008)
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examined the media’s role in the spread of information about the innovation of blogging in the context of Rogers’ first step in the innovation-diffusion process. This content analysis of 994 stories in national media found the first mention of blogs in 2000 with increases every year thereafter through 2004 when the rate of increase slowed. This study found that media coverage about blogs changed over time. Initially media focused on background information about the innovation, although attention soon shifted to coverage about how people were using blogs. The media did not begin to produce stories about the impact of the blogging phenomenon until 2003. Consistent with previous research, this study found the media discussion to be non-critical about the innovation.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

2009

Joseph B. Walther, Brandon Van Der Heide, Lauren M. Hamel and Hillary C. Shulman, “Self-Generated Versus Other-Generated Statements and Impressions in Computer-Mediated Communication: A Test of Warranting Theory Using Facebook,” Communication Research, 26.2 (2009): 229-253.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, warranting, Facebook, negativity, impression formation
Abstract: The warranting principle pertains to impression formation in Internet communication. It posits that perceivers’ judgments about a target rely more heavily on information that the targets themselves cannot manipulate than on self-descriptions. Two experiments employed mock-up profiles resembling the Internet site, Facebook, to display self-generated clues and to display other-generated clues about a Facebook user. The first experiment (N = 115) tested perceptions of extraversion. Although warranting was supported, rival explanations (negativity and additivity) also pertained. The second experiment (N = 125) tested perceptions of physical attractiveness. Friends’ comments overrode self-comments, supporting warranting theory exclusively. Implications concern boundary-setting research for warranting and potential effects of social comments on a variety of new information forms.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Young Mie Kim, “Issue Publics in the New Information Environment: Selectivity, Domain Specificity, and Extremity,” Communication Research, 26.2 (2009): 254-284.
Keywords: issue publics, Internet, selectivity, domain specificity, extremity, citizen competence
Abstract: The present research revisits citizen competence in the changing political and information environment, considering citizens as pluralistic issue publics. Using 2000 and 2004 American National Election Study data, Study 1 explores the conceptual premises of issue uses a unique data set combining an innovative direct measure of users’ Web behavior records with survey responses from those users in the context of the 2004 U.S. general election. The results shed light on issue publics’ information acquisition on the Web. This complementary data set provides a more complete picture of how issue publics develop unique patterns of information acquisition and make voting decisions. The findings indicate that issue publics enhanced their domain-specific knowledge by using information highly selectively. In addition, their selective information use contributed to increases in extremity and issue voting patterns. Implications for the functioning of democracy are discussed.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Policy

Edward Castronova, James J. Cummings, Will Emigh, Michael Fatten, Nathan Mishler, Travis  Ross and William Ryan, “Case Study: The Economics of Arden,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 26.2 (2009): 165-179.
Keywords: Virtual Worlds, Economics, Game Design
Abstract: A synthetic world is a computer-generated Earth-like environment that is accessible online to hundreds or thousands of people on a persistent basis. Due to the genuine human interactions that are cultivated in these environments, this technology may stand to offer much as a social science research tool. In this paper we describe a synthetic world, Arden, which has been designed and constructed for use in macroeconomic experiments. We detail the basis of the Arden economy, the resources and production technologies involved, the game structures that will entice players to make use of them, and the monetary and fiscal policy tools available for regulating the virtual market. The paper concludes with a description of example experiments that could be conducted, as well as a review of key principles and practical considerations to keep in mind when employing this new research tool.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Social Interaction

Aaron Hess, “Resistance Up in Smoke: Analyzing the Limitations of Deliberation on YouTube,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 26.5 (2009): 411-434.
Keywords: YouTube, War on Drugs, Deliberation, Democracy; Vernacular Discourse
Abstract: In September of 2006, the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) appeared on the popular video website, YouTube, posting eight of its television commercials. YouTube members responded with a variety of video posts and comments that challenged both the content and structure of the message offered by the ONDCP. Using this controversy as a focal point, this essay is a dual analysis of the discursive content and structural features of YouTube. The response from the YouTube community is characterized in terms of vernacular and outlaw discourse, following Sloop and Ono (1997). Through strategies of re-posting and parodying the original videos and discussions on comment boards between members, select YouTubers dispute the logic of prohibition in America’s war on drugs, resisting the ONDCP message. However, the structural limitations of the medium of YouTube and the overwhelming use of YouTube for entertainment diminish the response. Ultimately, YouTube’s dismissive and playful atmosphere does not prove to be a viable location for democratic deliberation about serious political issues.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Other (Critical Rhetorical)

Nathan Crick, “The Search for a Purveyor of News: The Dewey/Lippmann Debate in an Internet Age,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 26.5 (2009): 480-497.
Keywords: Art, Science, Democracy, Public Sphere, Public Journalism
Abstract: The rise of the critical blogosphere has challenged the authority of the mainstream media while sparking discussion concerning the proper relationship between news production and popular democracy in an Internet Age. All too often, however, this discussion is framed as a stark tension between aristocratic defenders of Old Media professionalism and democratic proponents of New Media egalitarianism. Lost in this framing is the tacit agreement, by both sides, that a solution must be found within the constraints of a corporate liberal media structure. This essay argues that if we are to make full use of the opportunities presented to us by new technologies, we must move beyond the discourse of corporate liberalism. Toward this end, I return to the philosophical debate between John Dewey and Walter Lippmann that occurred in the early part of the twentieth century. Based both on their shared principles and their points of departure, I argue that any productive discussion about democratic media reform must begin on the premise that we must supplement the current communication practices of corporate liberalism with noncommercial agencies of cooperative social inquiry and artistic news production. For both Dewey and Lippmann, only through creative investment of public resources can we facilitate intelligent and sympathetic collective judgment in a complex global environment. Their debate concerned only how and where to invest them.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Pradip Thomas, “Selling God/Saving Souls: Religious Commodities, Spiritual Markets and the Media,” Global Media and Communication, 5.1 (2009): 57-76.
Keywords: Christian fundamentalism, commodities, market, media, Pentecostalism, religion
Abstract: The relationship between the religious commodity market, popular culture and political economy remains under-theorized. The globalization of religion has led to a massive global trade in on-line and off-line religious commodities. This article explores the mobile Christian commodity form and its specific politics of use. Using examples from India and the US, it explores the ways in which Pentecostal and neo-Pentecostal groups use multi-media products and platforms for evangelization. The profit potential in religious fare has not gone unnoticed in corporate circles, and synergistic relationships have developed between media corporations and Christian production houses involved in creating commodities for segmented audiences. The article argues that in the context of the global expansion and export of Christian fundamentalism, the increasingly close relationship between mediated Christianity and the commodity form facilitates the extension of specific, conservative, forms of values-based capitalism.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Social Interaction

Serge Proulx, “Can the Use of Digital Media Favor Citizen Involvement?” Global Media and Communication, 5.3 (2009): 293-302.
Keywords: community politics, information technologies, knowledge-sharing society, politicization, technological structures, technology activist groups
Abstract: We present here the results of recent studies on the emergence in Quebec of associations of a new kind, which we call technology activist groups. These groups consist of individuals who, on the basis of their own expertise in computer programming or in establishing specialist technological structures (WiFi hotspots), are developing social practices involving information technologies (ICTs). We try to give some elements of a response to some specific questions such as: What effects are these technology activists having on the dynamics of community activism in Quebec? In a broader context, at the level of political imagination in today’s societies, how far can these technical activist groups act politically to help redefine the project of the coming ‘information society’? And conversely, can the project of a ‘knowledge-sharing society’ – as formulated by the representatives of civil society organizations at the WSIS (World Summit on the Information Society) in Tunis – help to redefine the aims and actions of actors in community politics?
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Social Interaction

Tristan Mattelart, “Audio-Visual Piracy: Towards a Study of the Underground Networks of Cultural Globalization,” Global Media and Communication, 5.3 (2009): 308-326.
Keywords: audio-visual products, cultural globalization, developing countries, digital
Piracy, Motion Picture Association of America
Abstract: With the availability of increasingly powerful means of digital reproduction, an extensive literature has developed on the pirating of audio-visual products, films, music and software, which discusses the threat this represents to Western cultural industries. This article seeks to move on from the context within which piracy has mostly been considered since the end of the 1990s – that of illicit downloading in developed countries – and to describe the phenomenon in all its many manifestations, especially in countries of the South and the East. We try here to understand to what extent pirated goods constitute, for millions of consumers in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Maghreb, the Middle East, Asia, Latin America, and also in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia, a major means of access to the products of local, regional and international cultural industries. By doing this, we will shed light on some of the underground channels through which cultural globalization is operating.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy
 
Zuoming Wang, Joseph B. Walther and Jeffrey T. Hancock, “Social Identification and Interpersonal Communication in Computer-Mediated Communication: What You Do Versus Who You Are in Virtual Groups,” Human Communication Research, 35.1 (2009): 59–85.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study investigates the influence of interpersonal communication and intergroup identification on members’ evaluations of computer-mediated groups. Participants (N = 256) in 64 four-person groups interacted through synchronous computer chat. Subgroup assignments to minimal groups instilled significantly greater in-group versus out-group identification. One member in each group was instructed to exhibit interpersonally likable or dislikable behavior. Analysis revealed that confederates acting likably were more attractive than those acting dislikably regardless of their in-group or out-group status. Further results indicated that interpersonal behavior interacted with subgroup membership on identification shifts following online discussions. Interpersonal dynamics generally provided stronger effects on members in virtual groups than did intergroup dynamics, in contrast to predictions from previous applications of social identification to computer-mediated communication.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Jochen Peter and Patti M. Valkenburg, “Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study,” Human Communication Research, 35.2 (2009): 171–194.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate, within a social comparison framework, the causal relationship between adolescents’ use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and their sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested which adolescents were most susceptible to a potential influence of SEIM on sexual satisfaction. Between May 2006 and May 2007, we conducted a three-wave panel survey among 1,052 Dutch adolescents aged 13–20. Structural equation modeling revealed that exposure to SEIM consistently reduced adolescents’ sexual satisfaction. Lower sexual satisfaction (in Wave 2) also increased the use of SEIM (in Wave 3). Moderator analyses showed that the negative effect of SEIM on sexual satisfaction was stronger for adolescents who had no or limited sexual experience as well as for adolescents who perceived the majority of their peers to be sexually inexperienced. The effect of exposure to SEIM on sexual satisfaction did not differ among male and female adolescents.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Social Interaction

Paul M. Leonardi, “Why Do People Reject New Technologies and Stymie Organizational Changes of Which They Are in Favor? Exploring Misalignments Between Social Interactions and Materiality,” Human Communication Research, 35.3 (2009): 407–441
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article explores the relationship between users’ interpretations of a new technology and failure of organizational change. Author suggests that people form interpretations of a new technology not only based on their conversations with others, but also through their use of technology’s material features directly. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis of ethnographic data on the implementation and use of a computer simulation technology at a major automotive firm, Author shows that engineers’ communication with managers, coworkers, and customers led them to develop an interpretation about what the technology was supposed to do while their interactions with the material features of complementary technologies led them to develop an interpretation that the new simulation technology was not an efficient tool for that specific purpose. Author shows how the interpretations developed from people’s material interactions moderate the effects of the interpretations developed through social interactions on willingness to use the technology in the future. Author then demonstrates that, in this particular setting, engineers inadvertently stymied an organizational change of which they were very much in favor by reducing their use of the new technology. Author concludes by discussing how misalignments between the information generated in users’ interactions with others and with technologies’ material features can lead to the failure of planned organizational change.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Other (Structuration)

Shintaro Okazaki and Morikazu Hirose, “Effects of Displacement–Reinforcement Between Traditional Media, PC Internet and Mobile Internet: A Quasi-Experiment in Japan,” International Journal of Advertising, 28.1 (2009): 77–104.
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: The purpose of this investigation is to examine media displacement–reinforcement effects between traditional media, PC internet and mobile internet. The theoretical foundations draw on niche theory and enduring involvement, and adopt the satisfaction– attitude–loyalty chain as a core model. The surveys were conducted in Japan and resulted in 992 responses from a general consumer sample. Two scenarios (dining out and travel planning) were created to manipulate the level of enduring involvement. Our data fit the proposed model reasonably well, supporting 12 out of 14 hypotheses. The findings indicate that the more satisfied consumers are with traditional media and mobile internet, the more likely they are to perceive PC internet unfavorably as an alternative information source in both involvement situations. However, a favorable attitude towards mobile internet could act as a reinforcement motivator to use PC internet in high-involvement situations. Therefore, our findings support cross-media campaigns in high-involvement situations. In closing, significant limitations are recognized, and future research directions suggested.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Hairong Li, Ang Li, and Shuguang Zhao, “Internet Advertising Strategy of Multinationals in China: A Cross-Cultural Analysis,” International Journal of Advertising, 28.1 (2009): 125-146.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examines the creative, placement and budget strategy of Internet advertising by Eastern and Western multinationals in China. A content analysis of 47,131 online ads indicates that both Eastern and Western companies dominantly use individualist appeals for Internet advertising in China, a collectivist country. However, Eastern multinationals also rely on emotional appeals, whereas Western companies generally adopt rational appeals. This study offers several theoretical and managerial implications, including that multinationals appear to recognize the changing culture of internet users and especially the younger generation, as well as some future research directions for internet advertising.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Shintaro Okazaki, “Social Influence Model and Electronic Word of Mouth: PC Versus Mobile Internet,” International Journal of Advertising, 28.3 (2009): 439-472.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Compared with laptop or desktop computers, mobile devices offer greater flexibility in time and space, thus enabling consumers to be connected online more continually. In addition, their small size, portability and ease of use with location-based capabilities facilitate sending and receiving timely information in the right place. Drawing upon asocial influence model proposed by Dholakia et al. (2004), this paper proposes a causal model for consumer participation in electronic word of mouth (eWOM), and compares the effects of PC-based and mobile-based eWOM (hereafter pcWOM and mWOM, respectively). The paper posits social identity, motivations (purposive value, social enhancement and intrinsic enjoyment), inherent novelty seeking and opinion leadership as antecedents affecting desire (individual-level driver) and social intention (group level driver) to engage in eWOM. A total of 271 survey responses was collected from consumers in Japan. The proposed model fits the data reasonably well; all hypotheses are supported. The results reveal that desire only partially mediates the effects on social intention of social identity. Compared with pcWOM participants, mWOM participants exhibit significantly higher perceptions on social intention, intrinsic enjoyment and cognitive social identity. After recognizing important limitations, theoretical implications are discussed and future research directions suggested.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Mira Lee and Seounmi Youn, “Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM): How eWOM Platforms Influence Consumer Product Judgment,” International Journal of Advertising, 28.3 (2009): 473-499.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study explores whether and how different online platforms to which electronic word of mouth (eWOM) communication is posted influence consumers’ judgments of reviewed products. Additionally, this study examines the moderating role of the valence of eWOM on the platforms–consumer product judgment relationship. Our findings indicated that, other things being equal, participants exposed to the review posted on the personal blog were more likely to attribute the review to circumstances and less likely to recommend the product to friends than those who were exposed to the review either on the independent review website or the brand’s website. The effect of the eWOM platforms on consumer willingness to recommend the product to friends was found only when the review was positive. When the review was negative, however, there were detrimental effects on consumer willingness to recommend the product to friends regardless of the eWOM platform. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings were discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Other (Attribution)

Julian Ming-Sung Cheng, Charles Blankson, Edward Shih-Tse Wang and Lily Shui-Lien Chen, “Consumer Attitudes and Interactive Digital Advertising,” International Journal of Advertising, 28.3 (2009): 501-525.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This research examines consumer attitudes towards four sub-types of interactive digital advertising: internet-based e- and email advertising, and mobile-phone-based SMS- and MMS-type advertising. The differences in attitudes among these four sub-types of interactive digital advertising are also compared. Data are collected from three universities in Taiwan. Data analysis extracts three attitudinal forms (common factors) towards interactive digital advertising, namely, ‘informative’, ‘entertaining’ and ‘irritating’. Consumer attitudinal forms towards e-advertising and MMS-type m-advertising are both similar and positive (i.e. informative and less irritating and entertaining). Their attitudinal forms towards email advertising and SMS-type m-advertising are less positive (more irritating and less informative and entertaining). Furthermore, the three attitudinal forms towards the four sub-types of interactive digital advertising are compared. Consumer ‘informative’ and ‘entertaining’ attitudinal forms towards e-advertising and MMS-type m-advertising are similar, while their attitudinal forms towards email advertising and SMS-type m-advertising are equal and lower than towards the previous two sub-types of interactive digital advertising. As for the ‘irritating’ attitudinal form, consumers feel more ‘irritated’ towards email advertising and SMS-type m-advertising, while their attitudinal forms towards e-advertising and MMS-type m-advertising are equal and less irritated.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Lou Ying, Tor Korneliussen and Kjell Gronhaug, “The Effect of Ad Value, Ad Placement and Ad Execution on the Perceived Intrusiveness of Web Advertisements,” International Journal of Advertising, 28.4 (2009): 623-638.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study addresses factors in advertising that lead to interstitial ads being perceived as intrusive. Eight theory-driven hypotheses were derived and tested. The results indicate that the perception of intrusiveness of ads can be controlled by aspects of ad value, ad placement and ad execution.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Cheryl B. Preston, “All Knowledge is Not Equal: Facilitating Children’s Access to Knowledge by Making the Internet Safer,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 13 (Winter 2009): 114-132.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Access to Internet knowledge is a worthy goal, especially for the children who will populate the information society; however, access must be considered in the context of imposing Western pornography on every culture and family. This Article suggests an Internet port zoning approach to segregating Internet content. Zoning with the Ports Concept is practical, technologically feasible, and conducive to appropriate legal formulations. The Ports Concept accommodates those who want to speak and hear adult speech, while recognizing the equally legitimate interests of those who do not want pornography in their homes and businesses, eroding their cultural values. This article briefly discusses the risks facing children online and the implications of cultural imperialism in Internet expansion. It then describes the Ports Concept and a legislative framework for facilitating and maintaining ports zoning, the Internet Community Ports Act (ICPA). Such a zoning scheme can work with an Internet governance structure relying on a specialized central global authority, or with governance seated in individual national authorities. It suggests various options for trans-national implementation and enforcement if the Ports Concept is applied in a national, rather than centralized, governance approach. The Article also addresses the limitations and risks of this approach. Finally, this Article links the possibilities of Internet port zoning and principles of cultural self-determination. Nations, communities, and parents must be given the opportunity to access the Internet without drowning in sexually explicit content. Dividing content types on ports permits a simple, electronically-enabled choice about what “wonders” of the Internet must be welcomed into homes in Western and non-Western cultures.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis         
Theory: Policy

Konstantinos Komaitis, “Internet Governance: Why Plato Is Still Relevant,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 13 (Winter 2009): 133-152. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In December 2008, the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) has successfully completed its third installment on issues pertaining to Internet governance. The IGF promotes a multi-stakeholder environment, where protagonists engage in an extensive debate to discuss how the Internet should look in the future; with these discussions in place issues of cultural diversity and cultural relativism become more relevant than ever before. However, culture is normally followed by zeal; zeal to preserve it and to adhere to its historical significance. This is like a Damocles sword, since tradition and its relative – custom – can potentially prohibit progress and pose threats to social structures; more precisely, in international environments, like the Internet, certain traditions can be mistakenly considered as more valuable and exhibited thereon as more ‘exclusive’ than others. This being the case, it is undeniable that custom not only will play a significant role in the governance of the Internet, but this role will, in turn, be able to determine the dynamics within its structure. This paper discusses the influential role of custom and its effects within the society of Internet Governance; it then proceeds to discuss an interpretation of justice, which demonstrates the way custom might be enforced and imposed upon various subjects. Finally, this paper shows that these conflicting customs should not necessarily annihilate multi-participatory governance structures, but rather should assist in their progress.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis         
Theory: Policy

Rolf H. Weber, “Accountability in Internet Governance,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 13 (Winter 2009): 152-167.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Internet governance and Internet-related decision-making processes are gaining importance due to the increased use of new technological possibilities. Since a fundamental change of the present self-regulatory regime with ICANN as main organizational body is not likely to be realized in the near future, means of improvement of the present mechanisms need to be tackled. A key issue is accountability, apart from transparency. Accountability is the assumption of responsibility for actions, decisions, and policies within the scope of the designated role. So far, accountability, helping to improve the governance regime of ICANN in order to enhance its legitimacy, has become a discussion topic within ICANN and a certain progress in its implementation can be observed. A further enhancement of accountability in Internet governance, however, is needed: On the organizational level, the introduction of specific standards designing accountability requirements should be introduced. Information has to be made more easily available to accountability-holders. Furthermore, sanctions attaching costs to the failure to meet the standards are worthwhile to consider in order to give respective incentives to comply with accountability standards.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis         
Theory: Policy

Laura DeNardis, “Open Standards and Global Politics,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 13 (Winter 2009): 168-184. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: A central purview of Internet governance is the development of Internet technical protocols, the standards that enable interoperability between diverse technologies and cultures. Standards are a form of technological rulemaking with public interest implications in areas such as public safety, national security, electronic medical records, eGovernment, individual privacy, and political and artistic expression. From an economic standpoint, the openness and intellectual property arrangements of technical standards can determine the extent of competition, trade, and innovation in technology markets. Universal and open technical standards have been identified as a precursor to the affordable and equitable diffusion of information and communication technologies around the globe. However, the institutional processes, technical and legal infrastructures, and underlying intellectual property arrangements of standards do not always create an opening to reflect the interests of developing countries. This paper examines ways in which the degree of openness in standards has pronounced implications for developing countries and beyond and concludes with recommendations for promoting open standards through institutional processes, intellectual property arrangements, and government procurement policies.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis         
Theory: Policy

Y. J. Park, “The National CCTLD Disputes: Between State Actors and Non-State Actors,” International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 13 (Winter 2009): 185-206. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Since 1985, non-state actors under Jon Postel’s leadership have experimented creating virtual national spaces on the Internet through so-called “country code top level domain names” (ccTLDs). There are 251 ccTLDs on the Internet. In 1998, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) – the newly established coordination body for Internet addresses including ccTLDs – stressed out the principle of private sector leadership instead of public sector administration of Internet identifiers. ICANN’s coordination of ccTLDs required state actors to comply with the principle of private sector leadership in a top-down manner. As of 2009, the question of how to govern ccTLDs is still disputed at the national level between state actors and non-state actors, with state actors starting to reassert their power over ccTLDs, ignoring the principle of private sector leadership recommended by ICANN. This study presents five different national ccTLDs dispute cases, to investigate why national ccTLDs disputes have increased after the establishment of ICANN and how are state actors trying to regain control over ccTLDs.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis         
Theory: Policy

Guosong Shao, “Understanding the Appeal of User-Generated Media: a Uses and Gratification Perspective,” Internet Research, 19.1 (2009): 7-25.
Keywords: Electronic media, Internet, User studies, Customer satisfaction
Abstract: Purpose – User-generated media (UGM) like YouTube, MySpace, and Wikipedia have become tremendously popular over the last few years. The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical framework for explaining the appeal of UGM. 
Design/methodology/approach – This paper is mainly theoretical due to a relative lack of empirical evidence. After an introduction on the emergence of UGM, this paper investigates in detail how and why people use UGM, and what factors make UGM particularly appealing, through a uses and gratifications perspective. Finally, the key elements of this study are summarized and the future research directions about UGM are discussed.
Findings – This paper argues that individuals take with UGM in different ways for different purposes: they consume contents for fulfilling their information, entertainment, and mood management needs; they participate through interacting with the content as well as with other users for enhancing social connections and virtual communities; and they produce their own contents for self-expression and self-actualization. These three usages are separate analytically but interdependent in reality. This paper proposes a model to describe such interdependence. Furthermore, it argues that two usability attributes of UGM, “easy to use” and “let users control,” enable people to perform the aforementioned activities efficiently so that people can derive greater gratification from their UGM use.
Originality/value – UGM are an extremely important topic in new media scholarship, and this study represents the first step toward understanding the appeal of UGM in an integrated way.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Efthimios Bothos, Dimitris Apostolou and Gregoris Mentzas, “Collective Intelligence for Idea Management with Internet-Based Information Aggregation Markets,” Internet Research, 19.1 (2009): 26-41.
Keywords: Innovation, Information exchange, Internet marketing, Stock markets, Ideas generation
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of information aggregation markets (IAMs) for community-based idea management and to present IDeM, a novel Internet-based software tool that can be used for generating and evaluating new ideas utilizing the concept of IAMs.
Design/methodology/approach – Starting with a review of existing methods for collective intelligence, IAMs are identified as a prominent method for collective intelligence. Specific requirements for exploring IAMs for idea management are derived. Based on these requirements, a software tool for implementing IAMs in the context of idea management is developed (IDeM). IDeM has been evaluated and evaluation results are used to identify IDeM’s benefits and limitations. A review of related work points out the innovative characteristics of IDeM.
Findings – Evaluation results indicate that IAMs is an efficient method for idea generation and evaluation. Moreover IDeM is perceived both as easy to use and efficient in supporting idea generation and evaluation.
Practical implications – IDeM can be used by commercial or other organizations for supporting generation and evaluation of new ideas.
Originality/value – IDeM’s innovative aspects are: in addition to trading, it allows users involvement by means of new idea submission, rating of ideas and commenting on ideas; it confronts the uncertainty of new idea related events by offering an expert based valuation mechanism; and it extends the typical output of IAM tools – which is price of idea-stocks – by calculating the volume weighted average price.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study        
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Erin M. Steffes and Lawrence E. Burgee, “Social Ties and Online Word of Mouth,” Internet Research, 19.1 (2009): 42-59.
Keywords: Interpersonal communications, Electronic commerce, Internet, Consumer behaviour
Abstract: Purpose – The power of word of mouth (WOM) communication and its influence on consumer decision making is well established in academic literature. The recent adoption of online communication by many consumers has facilitated a fundamental change to the structure of many WOM interactions by exposing consumers to electronic WOM (eWOM) from virtual strangers. The current study seeks to uncover whether traditional findings on social ties and WOM communication hold for eWOM information.
Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from 482 college students with varying levels of expertise with eWOM forums, specifically RateMyProfessors.com in the USA. Participants completed a 20-question survey related to university professor and class choice.
Findings – The study finds that students seeking information on which professor to take weight the information they obtain from eWOM forums to be equally influential in their decision as their own primary experience with the professor. Furthermore, the information gained from the eWOM forum is more influential in their decision than speaking with friends in person (WOM). While existing research suggests that strong tie referral sources are more influential than weak tie information sources on decision making, this research finds that some weak tie information sources are rated as more influential.
Research limitations/implications – A limitation of the study is the focus on one eWOM forum, RateMyProfessors.com. Future research would benefit from expanding the number and type of eWOM forums.
Originality/value – While the emergence of the Internet and social networking has spawned an interest in the overall study of eWOM, this study is the first to evaluate eWOM in the context of tie strength, homophily and decision making. The study also investigates whether existing theories of interpersonal communication hold in an online context.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Rami Puzis, Dana Yagil, Yuval Elovici and Dan Braha, “Collaborative Attack on Internet Users’ Anonymity,” Internet Research, 19.1 (2009): 60-77.
Keywords: Internet, User studies, Data security
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to model and study the effectiveness of an attack on the anonymity of Internet users by a group of collaborating eavesdroppers.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on an analysis of the Internet topology. The study is based on two methods for choosing nodes that contribute the most to the detection of as many communicating Internet users as possible.
Findings – The paper illustrates that it is possible to compromise the anonymity of many Internet users when eavesdropping on a relatively small number of nodes, even when the most central ones are protected from eavesdropping.
Research limitations/implications – It is assumed that the Internet users under attack are not using any anonymity enhancing technologies, but nodes can be protected from eavesdropping. It proposes a measure of the success of an attack on Internet users’ anonymity, for a given deployment of collaborating eavesdroppers in the Internet.
Practical implications – The paper shows that several, and not necessarily the most prominent, collaborating nodes can compromise the anonymity of a considerable portion of Internet users. This study also emphasizes that when trying to completely compromise the anonymity of Internet users, an eavesdroppers’ deployment strategy that considers eavesdroppers’ collaboration can result in substantial resource saving compared to choosing a set of the most prominent nodes.
Originality/value – The paper proposes a new measure of anonymity level in the network, based on the linkability of the Internet users. This paper is the first to present results of a non-trivial Group Betweenness optimization strategy in large complex networks.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Stephanie Hackett and Bambang Parmanto, “Homepage Not Enough When Evaluating Web Site Accessibility,” Internet Research, 19.1 (2009): 78-87.
Keywords: Worldwide web, User studies, Disabilities
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine if the homepage of a web site is representative of the whole site with respect to accessibility.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents an intra-class correlation (ICC) between homepage web accessibility barrier (WAB) scores and the WAB scores of web site levels 1 through 3 for 33 popular web sites.
Findings – The paper finds that the homepage is not sufficient to detect the accessibility of the web site. ICC of the homepage and average of levels 1-3 is 0.250 (p 1/4 0:062) and ICC of levels 1, 2, and 3 is 0.784 (p , 0:0001). Evaluating the homepage and first-level pages gives more accurate results of entire site accessibility.
Originality/value – This is first study correlating homepage accessibility with web site accessibility.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Access

So Won Jeong, Ann Marie Fiore, Linda S. Niehm and Frederick O. Lorenz, “The Role of Experiential Value in Online Shopping: The Impacts of Product Presentation on Consumer Responses Towards an Apparel Web Site,” Internet Research, 19.1 (2009): 105-124.
Keywords: Consumer behaviour, Electronic commerce, Experience, Internet shopping, Product design
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether Pine and Gilmore’s four experience realms (4Es) are affected by web site features; the 4Es affect consumer emotional components of pleasure and arousal; and pleasure and arousal lead to enhanced web site patronage intention.
Design/methodology/approach – For the main experiment, two stimulus web sites reflecting high experiential value and low experiential value were developed. Data were collected in a laboratory setting from 196 participants. An analysis of the causal model was conducted using the maximum-likelihood estimation procedure of Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) for hypotheses testing.
Findings – Using AMOS, the results indicated that web site features affected the 4Es and three of the 4Es (entertainment, escapist and esthetic experiences) influenced pleasure and/or arousal. Pleasure, arousal, entertainment, and esthetic experiences had direct effects on web site patronage intention.
Practical implications – The results present an effective way to offer experiential value, which enhances web site patronage intention, to online retailers.
Originality/value – This is the first empirical research to investigate the holistic process of the effects of product presentation on consumer responses towards an apparel web site that there is a clear need for further study.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Yuan-Chu Hwang and Soe-Tsyr Yuan, “Ubiquitous Proximity e-Service for Trust Collaboration,” Internet Research, 19.2 (2009): 174-193. 
Keywords: Trust, Social networks, Communication technologies, Computer networks
Abstract: Purpose – The authors seek to propose the notion of ubiquitous proximity e-service for exploring collective wisdom in the ubiquitous environment. Ubiquitous proximity e-service highlights the collective effort focused on collecting the user group’s power as the reference for ubiquitous trust decisions.
Design/methodology/approach – This paper provides some theoretical utility support for ubiquitous proximity e-service. The “homophily” describes the tendency of individuals to associate and bond with similar others. By highlighting the “homophily” of e-service participants, these isolated individuals can be treated as a group with proximity. The main value of ubiquitous proximity e-service utilizes the network effect from the collective effort of interpersonal social network.
Findings – In order to leap the trust barrier for users to embrace these ubiquitous e-services, ubiquitous proximity e-service makes it possible for users to collaborate with their nearby user groups to establish a reliable and trustworthy interaction environment. The simulation outcomes for trust decision quality enhancement show a significant improvement in a variety of environment settings. 
Practical implications – A significant value of ubiquitous proximity e-service lies in the increased possibility of establishing innovative social network relationships. From the interpersonal perspective, unfamiliar strangers can make connections with individuals who are proximal and homoplastic to them. The strength of proximity gives people better chances to make interpersonal connections, including both weak ties and strong ties. By combining those interpersonal tie relationships, ubiquitous proximity e-service can easily cause information diffusion and effectively encourage collective wisdom.
Originality/value – The paper advocates the utility of ubiquitous proximity e-service that can be realized in the e-commerce environment and which enables information diffusion effectively.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Maria Karyda, Stefanos Gritzalis, Jong Hyuk Park and Spyros Kokolakis, “Privacy and Fair Information Practices in Ubiquitous Environments: Research Challenges and Future Directions,” Internet Research, 19.2 (2009): 194-208.
Keywords: Intelligence, Privacy, Data security, Computer networks
Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to contribute to the ongoing discourse about the nature of privacy and its role in ubiquitous environments and provide insights for future research.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper analyses the privacy implications of particular characteristics of ubiquitous applications and discusses the fundamental principles and information practices used in digital environments for protecting individuals’ private data.
Findings – A significant trend towards shifting privacy protection responsibility from government to the individuals is identified. Also, specific directions for future research are provided with a focus on interdisciplinary research.
Research limitations/implications – This paper identifies key research issues and provides directions for future research. 
Originality/value – This study contributes by identifying major challenges that should be addressed, so that a set of “fair information principles” can be applied in the context of ubiquitous environments. It also discusses the limitations of these principles and provides recommendations for future research.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Daphne R. Raban and Eyal Rabin, “Statistical Inference from Power Law Distributed Web-based Social Interactions,” Internet Research, 19.3 (2009): 266-278.
Keywords: Knowledge sharing, Polynomials, Statistical analysis, Social interaction, Internet
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for statistical inference on data from power law distributions in order to explain behavior and social phenomena associated with web-based social spaces such as discussion forums, question-and-answer sites, web 2.0 applications and the like.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper starts by highlighting the importance of explaining behavior in social networks. Next, the power law nature of social interactions is described and a hypothetical example is used to explain why analyzing sub-sets of data might misrepresent the relationship between variables having power law distributions. Analysis requires the use of the complete distribution. The paper proposes logarithmic transformation prior to correlation and regression analysis and shows why it works using the hypothetical example and field data retrieved from Microsoft’s Netscan project.
Findings – The hypothetical example emphasizes the importance of analyzing complete datasets harvested from social spaces. The Netscan example shows the importance of the logarithmic transformation for enabling the development of a predictive regression model based on the power law distributed data. Specifically, it shows that the number of new and returning participants are the main predictors of discussion forum activity.
Originality/value – This paper offers a useful analysis tool for anyone interested in social aspects of the Internet as well as corporate intra-net systems, knowledge management systems or other systems that support social interaction such as cellular phones and mobile devices. It also explains how to avoid errors by paying attention to assumptions and range restriction issues.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Social Interaction

Kuo-Ming Chu, “A Study of Members’ Helping Behaviors in Online Community,” Internet Research, 19.3 (2009): 279-292.
Keywords: Online operations, Community behaviour, Taiwan
Abstract: Purpose – The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical model that enables us to examine the antecedents and consequences effects of members’ helping behavior in online communities. It also aims to develop a complete model for empirical testing.
Design/methodology/approach – The sample is 425 participants including nine online communities in Taiwan, including Yahoo! Kimo, CPB, Sony music, etc.. who were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Data were collected between August and December 2007 via the web for Internet users using a standardized questionnaire. Excluding those surveys that were undeliverable and those who believed that it was inappropriate to respond, the overall effective response rate was 84 percent (355 of 425).
Findings – The empirical results suggested that online communities’ members’ helping behavior represents a large pool of product know-how. They seem to be a promising source of innovation capabilities for new product development.
Research limitations/implications – The research only aims to experimentally investigate complete model of helping behavior in online communities. But this research has not dealt with a double role of online communities’ members so far, linking innovation with commercialization. They seem to be a promising source of innovation capabilities for new product development.
Practical implications – The phenomenon of helping behavior among members may become a major source and channel for information in the decision making process for the purchase of products. Therefore, a major finding derived from the empirical application is that community members are capable and willing to contribute to virtual co-development.
Originality/value – Many variables have been evaluated for their influences on the helping behaviors of the members of the online communities. However, none of the previous studies have integrated these variables into a more comprehensive framework
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Antonio Ruiz-Martınez, Oscar Canovas and Antonio F. Gomez-Skarmeta, “Design and Implementation of a Generic Per-Fee-Link Framework,” Internet Research, 19.3 (2009): 293-312.
Keywords: Payments, Electronic funds transfer systems, Internet, Electronic commerce
Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to present a viable approach for designing and implementing a generic per-fee-link framework. It also aims to design this framework to be used with any payment protocol and test it with two existing ones.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents a per-fee-link framework based on several generic components. These components have been developed and tested in order to prove the viability of the proposed framework.
Findings – The results show that is possible to establish a per-fee-link framework. Four core components are defined: first, the different modules needed for browsers and web servers, second, an extended payment protocol (EPP), which negotiates the payment protocol to use and encapsulates its related messages, third, an API for e-wallets, which is independent of the payment protocol, to incorporate the protocols to use with EPP and finally, the definition of a per-fee-link that associates payment information to a link.
Practical implications – The framework presented shows a uniform way of using payment protocols that can increase the trust of end users. Furthermore, it has been developed and tested.
Originality/value – The contribution describes the components needed for supporting the framework. Its feasibility has been checked through an implementation and it facilitates the payment for content on the web. Thus, content providers can obtain an alternative revenue source to advertisement or subscription. Furthermore, developers, vendors and customers can see that the incorporation of payment protocols to the system is facilitated. Finally, the users obtain a uniform way to make payments that increases the perception of trust.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Paulina Papastathopoulou and George J. Avlonitis, “Classifying Enterprises on the Basis of WWW Use: a Behavioral Approach,” Internet Research, 19.3 (2009): 332-347.
Keywords: Worldwide web, Electronic commerce, Classification, Organizations
Abstract: Purpose – Research studies have started to appear in recent years about the use of world wide web (WWW) by organizations. In an attempt to shed more light into this issue, this study seeks to take a behavioral approach for classifying enterprises on the basis of WWW use. It aims to address two research questions: Can different organizational profiles reveal as a result of a classification scheme/taxonomy of enterprises based on WWW use? And If such a classification is possible, to what extent are the WWW usage profiles related to specific market, organizational and demographic characteristics?
Design/methodology/approach – The sampling frame of the study consisted of the largest 1,250 firms in Greece in terms of sales turnover that had already adopted information and communication technologies. After three follow-up contacts by telephone, e-mail and fax the cooperation of 500 companies was secured (40 percent response rate). Data collection was carried out by a professional market research firm by means of computer-aided personal interviewing (CAPI) system. The research instrument was a structured questionnaire. Findings – Five distinct WWW usage profiles of enterprises were identified, namely “E-merchants”, “Information seekers”, “E-purchasers”, “E-transaction adopters” and “WWW experimentalists”. These profiles are found to be associated with different market, organizational and demographic characteristics.
Practical implications – This classification scheme can be viewed as a behavioral segmentation exercise based on the application/use criterion that is used for segmenting B2B markets by web service providers. The present classification may also help suppliers of networking infrastructure and e-business software. E-commerce policy makers can also benefit from the results of this study. The different types of WWW adopters that have been uncovered in the present study practically map the extent of combined WWW uses by various types of enterprises. Such information is important for future WWW promotions and the design of funding projects to further promote WWW.
Originality/value – The paper is important because, despite its acknowledged importance, only limited research has been conducted on the commercial use of the WWW, mainly, through examining the use of WWW home pages of various organizations and their effect in marketing. Similarly, despite the fact that various European Union-sponsored studies are conducted regularly by the National Statistical Offices of the member states and the European E-Business Market W@tch, these studies limit their analysis to descriptive statistics.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jennifer Rowley, “Online Branding Strategies of UK Fashion Retailers,” Internet Research, 19.3 (2009): 348-367.
Keywords: Online operations, Brands, Fashion industry, Retailing, Brand management, United Kingdom
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on exploratory research that aims to contribute to knowledge on online branding, and the way in which the online channel is being used to support brands. The focus of this research is the top multi-channel UK fashion retailers.
Design/methodology/approach – Content analyses were performed on the web sites of a number of top fashion and clothing retailers, plus three supermarket chains with a strong presence in clothes retailing. An analysis of the extent to which the retailers were using their web site to provide online services and information provided a context for a more detailed analysis of online branding strategies, including communicating brand identity and presence, and building brand relationships.
Findings – Most top “non-value” fashion retailers offer transactions through their web site, offering extended opportunities for brand engagement and experience. While all fashion retailers achieve consistency of visual identity between the online and other channels, their use of the online channel to communicate brand values, and to promote brand relationships is underdeveloped. There is evidence of some innovative practice, but also scope for considerable further development of the notion of online branding. Research into online and multi-channel branding has a role to play in supporting this process.
Originality/value – This study makes an important contribution to the under-researched area of online branding, through a study of the online branding activities of top multi-channel UK fashion retailers. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Sergio L. Toral, M. Rocıo Martınez-Torres, Federico Barrero and Francisco Cortes, “An Empirical Study of the Driving Forces Behind Online Communities,” Internet Research, 19.4 (2009): 378-392.
Keywords: Communities, Internet, Social networks, Mathematical modeling
Abstract: Purpose – A large variety of online communities have emerged during the last years as a result of the challenges faced by both the business and scientific worlds. This trend has also been promoted by the development of Internet and new Web 2.0 technologies. In this context, this paper is focused on the determinants of success of online communities. But, as a difference from other studies, these determinants are analyzed from the social network analysis perspective. Several constructs related to the community organization as a social network are proposed and their interrelations are hypothesized in a general research framework. The obtained results test the proposed model providing the most relevant antecedents of the project success.
Design/methodology/approach – A case study based on Linux ports to non-conventional processor and environments is used to test the proposed model. Structural equation modeling analysis is used to validate the structural proposed model.
Findings – The main antecedents of online communities’ success, quantifying the strength of the relation through the standardized path coefficients.
Research limitations/implications – The research is limited to a particular set of online communities engaged with the development of the non-conventional Linux ports. However, they constitute a representative set of communities in the field of the open source projects (OSS) development, which are typically developed using a community of support.
Originality/value – This paper fulfils the main antecedents causing the successful development of Internet virtual communities. Instead of using sources of data coming from users’ surveys, this study employs community interactions as a source of data. Results have important implications over the development of online communities, like software business models based on virtual communities and open source software.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Social Interaction

Chung-Chi Shen and Jyh-Shen Chiou, “The Effect of Community Identification on Attitude and Intention Toward a Blogging Community,” Internet Research, 19.4 (2009): 393-407.
Keywords Communities, Social capital, Worldwide web, Internet, Taiwan
Abstract: Purpose – Internet portals have long been providing free services (e.g. e-mail, blog) to attract new users and retain existing customers. However, it is uncertain whether the users will continue to use the present free service over time. Blog enables people to interact with others extensively and the population of blog users has been skyrocketing in recent years. This paper aims to investigate the impacts of virtual community on a user’s attitude and intention to continually use the current blog service.
Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual empirical model has been developed on the foundation of social psychology, relationship marketing, and transaction cost analysis (TCA). Users of blogging communities who have frequent experience of interacting with other members were the objects for this study. In total, 243 valid samples were obtained for empirical testing by employing structural equation model.
Findings – Results show that asset specificity and community pressure play mediating roles in the relationship between community identification and attitude toward using blog services, which in turn affects intention to stay with a blogging community. Perceived usefulness is successful in determining the attitude of using blogging community.
Originality/value – This paper is believed to be the first that uses a sociology view of community and asset specificity to investigate its impacts on online consumer loyalty. The study advances the relationship marketing literature in explaining user’s new service adoption behavior by adding community identity and community pressure generated through the process of using web-based services. The paper concludes with implications for web-based service providers, and additional extended research relevant to the study of virtual community and asset specificity is also provided. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Anssi Tarkiainen, Hanna-Kaisa Ellonen, and Olli Kuivalainen, “Complementing Consumer Magazine Brands with Internet Extensions,” Internet Research, 19.4 (2009): 408-424.
Keywords: Brands, Internet, Magazines
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the effects of web site extension on the parent-magazine brand in the context of experiential goods, and to identify factors that are related to success.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper focuses on the relationship between consumers’ experiences on magazine web sites and their loyalty towards the print magazine.
Findings – There are different ways in which the web site can complement the print version. The first mechanism is related to engaging in more frequent communication with the magazine’s readers, and the second is related to consumer-initiated interaction between other readers. In both cases something is offered that cannot be obtained from the print magazine, but is assumed to complement it.
Originality/value – The paper increases understanding of brand extensions with regard to experiential goods, but more research is needed on the factors that are related to extension success.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Francisco Javier Miranda, Ramon Sanguino and Tomas M. Banegil, “Quantitative Assessment of European Municipal Web Sites: Development and Use of an Evaluation Tool,” Internet Research, 19.4 (2009): 425-441. 
Keywords: Worldwide web, Internet, Local government, Europe
Abstract: Purpose – The internet is becoming increasingly important in the communication between local governments and citizens, which makes the usability of municipal web sites a critical factor in government-citizen communication. The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a model for evaluating the potential of municipal web sites.
Design/methodology/approach – In this work an objective investigation of the issue has been conducted by manually accessing and evaluating 84 European municipal web sites. Quality of web home pages was determined using an original Web Assessment Index, which focuses on four categories: accessibility, speed, navigability and content.
Findings – A detailed report of the results arising from this investigation is presented and systematically analyzed.
Originality/value – The most valuable output from this paper is not the ability to identify the best sites, but to see how each municipal site is compared to related sites and to spot ideas and practices that can improve city sites. These findings will be useful for both researchers and practitioners who seek to understand the issues relevant to municipal e-government.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Hsi-Peng Lu and Philip Yu-Jen Su, “Factors Affecting Purchase Intention on Mobile Shopping Web Sites,” Internet Research, 19.4 (2009): 442-458.
Keywords: Mobile communication systems, Internet shopping, Consumer behaviour
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore a conceptual model for analyzing customers’ perceptions of using mobile commerce services for online shopping. This paper provides insights into consumer behavior, and the results have important implications for designers, managers, marketers, and system providers of mobile shopping (m-shopping) web sites.
Design/methodology/approach – An empirical investigation was carried out to test the hypotheses. The samples include 369 professional participants. For testing the relationships of the model, structural equation modeling (SEM) is used.
Findings – The results demonstrate that anxiety, which is an affective barrier against using innovative systems, is a key negative predictor of a customer’s intentions to use mobile phones. Also, the consumer’s self-perception of mobile skillfulness significantly affects anxiety, enjoyment, and usefulness. Furthermore, enjoyment, usefulness, and compatibility have an impact on a customer’s behavioral intentions.
Practical implications – The findings of this study help to understand what hinders or encourages the m-shopping intention of online customers.
Originality/value – The results not only help develop a sophisticated understanding of mobile commerce theories for researchers, but they also offer useful knowledge to those involved in promoting m-shopping to potential purchasers. The value of the paper is that the results could be applied to other portable information technology service adoptions, such as personal digital assistants (PDA), smart phones, advanced mobile phones, and portable global positioning systems (GPS).
Method: Model Building
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Yu-Jen Chou, Ching-I Teng and Shao-Kang Lo, “Mutual Self-Disclosure Online in the B2C Context,” Internet Research, 19.5 (2009): 466-478.
Keywords: Disclosure, Communication, Trust, Corporate identity, Internet
Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the relationship between company identity information disclosure, trust, and consumer self-disclosure intentions during the first visit to a company website.
Design/methodology/approach – This study conducts one-factor (company identity information disclosure) between-subject experiment design. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups: company identity information disclosure – high vs. low. Furthermore, this study also uses LISREL to analyse the model.
Findings – The analytical results indicate that when a company website discloses much of its identity information, consumers trust the company more, and exhibit greater intentions to provide their personal information. Specifically, this study’s results show that consumer’s trust mediates the relationship between company identity information disclosure and consumer self-disclosure intentions.
Practical implications – Companies often invite consumers to disclose personal information on websites, and then use this information to build and maintain relationships with these customers. This study suggests that a company can disclose their information more on their website. Consequently, consumers trust more toward the company and then have higher disclosure intentions.
Originality/value – Traditionally, most interpersonal communication research indicates when someone discloses more, the other communication participant also discloses more. Although previous research investigates the impact of online information disclosure on trust and consumer self-disclosure, there are no studies that address the potential impact of a company disclosing information about its identity. This study examines the influence of company identity information disclosure and emphasizes the important role of trust during the first visit to a website.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Ching-Jui Keng and Hui-Ying Ting, “The Acceptance of Blogs: Using a Customer Experiential Value Perspective,” Internet Research, 19.5 (2009): 479-495.
Keywords: Customers, Internet, Communication
Abstract: Purpose – This study is based on the interactivity and perceived similarity between blog readers and the others, and incorporates the concepts from customer experiential value. This paper aims to examine emotional experiences that internet users gain while reading blogs, that is, assesses the attitude of blog readers through their subjective experiences within the communication process.
Design/methodology/approach – An empirical survey is used to test the hypotheses. The sample is 349 users who browse blogs frequently. Data are analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to understand the cause and effect of the entire model and to determine the goodness of fit of the conceptual model.
Findings – Empirical results demonstrate that: interpersonal interaction enhances browsers, aesthetic experiences as well as playfulness; machine interaction generates high aesthetics value which comprises visual and entertainment effects, service excellence, and CROI; perceived similarity by readers positively influences the four components of customer experiential value; and a positive correlation exists between user attitudes toward reading blogs and their experiential value in aesthetics, playfulness and service excellence.
Practical implications – The findings will help bloggers understand the factors key to success and allocate the appropriate resources to operate a blog and achieve success.
Originality/value – The value of this study is to establish the importance of customer experiential value theory. Previous research on customer experiential value primarily focuses on analyzing consumer shopping behaviors and mostly on the utilitarian value of products. This research focuses on inner pleasure gained through reading blogs, such as aesthetic experiences and emotional reactions.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Social Interaction

Hilde A.M. Voorveld, Peter C. Neijens and Edith G. Smit, “Consumers’ Responses to Brand Websites: an Interdisciplinary Review,” Internet Research, 19.5 (2009): 535-565.
Keywords: Consumers, Brands, Internet
Abstract: Purpose – The aims of this paper are to provide an integrated literature review of factors influencing consumers’ responses to brand websites; to describe the state of research in the past ten years; and to give an overview of the theories used in brand website studies.
Design/methodology/approach – Using a vote-counting procedure, 736 findings from 50 empirical studies are synthesized. In a vote-counting analysis the number of positive and negative significant relations between the same two variables is compared to the number of non-significant relationships.
Findings – The analysis reveals which person-related factors (e.g. involvement or flow) and website-related factors (e.g. usability or interactivity) influence responses to websites and brands. To explain such responses many studies integrate new theoretical concepts (e.g. interactivity or telepresence) into traditional theories. Furthermore, the review shows that the current state of research is limited by the use of forced exposure, student samples and the measurement of affective responses.
Practical implications – The present study investigates an increasingly popular approach to promote brands at the Internet: the use of brand websites. The study gives insight into factors influencing the effectiveness of these websites. Marketers can use this knowledge to improve the effectiveness of their websites.
Originality/value – The paper provides a valuable contribution to the literature on brand websites. The paper can form the basis for future research on this topic.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Hye-Jin Paek, Jay (Hyunjae) Yu and Beom Jun Bae, “Is On-Line Health Promotion Culture-Bound? Cultural Characteristics Manifested in U.S. and South Korean Antismoking Web Sites,” Journal of Advertising, 38.1 (Spring 2009): 35-48.
Keywords: Web sites, health promotion, computer network resources, anti-smoking movement, cross-cultural studies
Abstract: Our study examined three aspects of cultural characteristics manifested in U.S. and South Korean antismoking Web sites: cultural values (i.e., Hofstede’s [1980] individualism/collectivism), cultural contexts (Hall’s [1976] high/low cultural context), and culture-bound health promotion strategies drawn from existing theories in other disciplines. Our findings seem to partially support Hall’s cultural context framework, but not Hofstede’s cultural value framework. They also indicate that on-line health promotion is indeed culture bound in the sense that health promotion strategies—that is, subjective norm, social support and modeling–are used more frequently in South Korean antismoking Web sites than in their U.S. counterparts. Managerial and academic research implications for global advertising researchers and marketers, as well as health promotion practitioners, are provided.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Yuping Liu and L. J. Shrum, “A Dual-Process Model of Interactivity Effects,” Journal of Advertising, 38.2 (Summer 2009), 53-68.
Keywords: Persuasion, Web site usability, Attitude, Interactive marketing, Web sites, Internet Publishing and Broadcasting and Web Search Portals, Human-computer interaction
Abstract: Interactivity is generally considered to enhance persuasion. However, there are circumstances in which interactivity may serve as an inhibiting factor. This paper proposes and tests a dual-process model of interactivity effects that posits differential effects of interactivity on persuasion depending on person and situation factors. Results of an experiment that manipulated level of website interactivity and task involvement and measured user ability (Internet usage experience) show that under low-involvement conditions, the mere presence of interactivity served as a peripheral cue that led to more positive attitudes regardless of ability (experience). However, under high-involvement conditions, interactivity elicited more positive attitudes for experienced users but less positive attitudes for inexperienced users. Implications for the use of interactivity in advertising and promotions are discussed.  
Method: Model Building
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Justine Rapp, Ronald Paul Hill, Jeannie Gaines and R Mark Wilson, “Advertising and Consumer Privacy: Old Practices and New Challenges,” Journal of Advertising, 38.4 (Winter 2009): 51-61. 
Keywords: Consumer behavior, Internet marketing, Advertising, Consumers, United  States, Purchasing, Moral and ethical aspects, Attitudes
Abstract: It is every company’s goal to gain the most from investments in advertising. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that sustained spending in advertising is needed to maintain high levels of sales, the concept of marketing persistence suggests that short-term advertising campaigns can have long-lasting impacts on sales. This study offers a first glimpse of the long-term effect of television advertising on sales in China through the use of a marketing-persistence model. Significant marketing persistence was found in sales of consumer durables, whereas there were mixed results in sales of non-durables. Based on the findings, implications for long-term marketing resource deployment are suggested.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Anthony D. Miyazaki, Andrea J. S. Stanaland and May O. Lwin, “Self-Regulatory Safeguards and the Online Privacy of Preteen Children,” Journal of Advertising, 38.4 (Winter2009): 79-91.
Keywords:  Internet advertising, Internet and children, Privacy, Advertising laws, Disclosure of information, personal information management
Abstract: Online advertisers are increasingly enjoying the ability to target messages to specific segments based on information collected at Web sites. Information collection, particularly from children, has been an ongoing concern of regulators, consumer advocates, and advertising industry organizations. Although the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has advocated the implementation of safeguards (such as warnings, threats, and barriers) designed to limit children’s online disclosure of sensitive information, little research to date has examined the effectiveness of these safeguards. We address this issue by first examining the current state of online safeguards for Web sites that target preteen children, a group shown to be particularly vulnerable to the persuasive efforts of marketers. We then present a quasi-experimental investigation of online safeguard types and how their effectiveness in limiting preteen information disclosure is moderated by the mediation strategies of parents. Implications for advertisers, policymakers, parents, and educators are discussed. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Policy

George R. Milne, Andrew Rohm and Shalini Bahl, “If It’s Legal, Is It Acceptable? Consumer Reaction to Online Covert Marketing,” Journal of Advertising, 38.4 (Winter 2009): 107-122.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The authors examine the impact on consumers’ purchase likelihood after learning about online covert marketing practices. The findings suggest that while learning of online covert marketing practice lowers purchase likelihood, it is moderated by contextual factors including prior purchase experience, whether the company is well known or a start-up, and whether covert marketing involved information gathering or promotions. Consumer background variables were also found to moderate the negative impact on purchase likelihood resulting from consumers learning about online covert marketing activities. Conjoint scenarios were examined and a segmentation study was conducted based on a national survey of U.S. consumers. Implications for advertisers and regulatory action are discussed. 
Method: Meta-Analysis 
Theory: Policy

Shintaro Okazaki, “The Tactical Use of Mobile Marketing: How Adolescents’ Social Networking Can Best Shape Brand Extensions,” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.1 (March 2009): 12-26.
Keywords: Consumers, Internet marketing, Wireless communication systems, Internet  advertising, Interactive marketing, Direct marketing, Attitudes, Research, Evaluation, Management science
Abstract: The accelerating growth in mobile Internet communications is giving rise to a new form of interactive marketing. This research identifies the factors that affect youth consumer participation in a mobile-based word-of-mouth (WOM) campaign. The study used a “real” brand promotion—a new men’s hairstyling wax launched in the adolescent market—to stimulate interest and participation. Specifically, consumers were encouraged to spread the information via WOM and participate in a hairstyle photo contest. A core attitudinal model consisted of interpersonal connectivity, self-identification with the mobile device, affective commitment to the promoted brand, attitude toward the campaign, and willingness to make referrals. The data—based on the responses from 1,705 teenagers between the ages of 13 and 18 years—fit the model well and provided empirical support for all the hypothesized relationships. The model was further analyzed in terms of latent mean structures, which revealed that face-to-face WOM elicited stronger affective brand commitment and attitude toward the campaign than mobile-based WOM. This pattern is reversed, however, in the willingness to make referrals, suggesting that mobile-based WOM may be persuasive even when adolescents are less interested in the campaign content.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Joe Laszlo, “The New Unwired World: An IAB Status Report on Mobile Advertising,” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.1 (March 2009): 27-43.
Keywords: Internet marketing, Internet advertising, Market penetration, Telecommunications, Wireless Application Protocol (Computer network protocol), Interactive marketing, Research, Technological innovations, Internet industry
Abstract: Mobile advertising is one of the most exciting new frontiers in interactive advertising in the United States. As the internet is reinvented on mobile devices–smaller, more personal and personalized, ubiquitously accessible–established forms of interactive advertising will also evolve as they migrate from PCs to mobile devices. This study offers a guide to this emerging platform in the United States. It was compiled by the author with input from the Interactive Advertising Bureau Mobile Advertising Committee, a group including more than 100 agencies, advertisers, and media companies committed to making mobile a more efficient and effective platform. 
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Sheena Leek and George Christodoulides, “Next-Generation Mobile Marketing: How Young Consumers React to Bluetooth-Enabled Advertising,” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.1 (March 2009): 44-53.
Keywords: Bluetooth technology, Wireless communication systems, Marketing, Internet marketing, Advertising, Management, Research, Customer services 
Abstract: Mobile devices are attractive media for directly communicating with consumers who have become busier and more difficult to reach. While SMS (short message service) advertising has received some attention in the literature, Bluetooth-enabled advertising is still unexplored. This research aims to investigate younger consumers’ acceptance of Bluetooth-delivered advertising. Although the majority of the respondents were willing to accept this form of advertising, they needed both to be in control of the frequency with which they receive messages and also to be reassured that the medium could ensure privacy and security. The research further indicated that peers influence the acceptance of Bluetooth-driven advertising. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Roman Friedrich, Florian Gröne, Klaus Hölbling and Michael Peterson, “The March of Mobile Marketing: New Chances for Consumer Companies, New Opportunities for Mobile Operators,” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.1 (March 2009): 54-61.
Keywords: Marketing, Consumer satisfaction, Consumer relations, Cell phone advertising, Advertising, Customer services, Customer lifetime value  
Abstract: The mobile channel offers an exciting opportunity for marketers–one that most have yet to fully embrace. One avenue to pursue is the creation of a branded mobile offering, in which the marketer creates a portal dedicated to its product, service, or brand. With constant access to each customer, branded mobile portals can build interactive relationships by identifying consumers not only in terms of personal identity, but also in terms of commercial behavior, geographic location, and social and communication patterns. When consumers sign up for a branded mobile channel, they get access to a variety of distinct offerings that can include exclusive content as well as applications, games, special opportunities, incentives, and emotional experiences–all of which reinforce the value of the sponsoring m brand far beyond its standard uses. The rewards for companies that capitalize on these possibilities–deeper engagement with consumers, increased brand loyalty, and enhanced customer lifetime value–are not to be missed.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Dinaz Kachhi and Michael W. Link, “Too Much Information: Does the Internet Dig Too Deep?” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.1 (March 2009): 74-81.
Keywords: Consumers, Marketing, Management, Right of Privacy, Privacy, Internet, Marketing Research, Evaluation, Social aspects
Abstract: A lot of attention has been focused on the array of digital measurement tools; relatively less consideration has been given to people’s acceptance of these devices. There is no limitation in developing sophisticated measurement tools. However, the challenge is overcoming the perception of these devices as a privacy threat. Therefore, a set of questions was designed to determine people’s attitudes and behaviors toward privacy issues linked to participation in television and internet measurement by recruiting 2,900 respondents using the Intercept methodology. The data analysis indicated distinct demographic patterns of attitudes and behaviors toward privacy issues. These findings are discussed in terms of determining strategies to improve participation in research efforts. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Gian M. Fulgoni and Marie Pauline Morn, “Whither the Click? How Online Advertising Works” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.2 (June 2009): 134-142.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Online advertising spending In the United States exceeds $20 billion annually.  However, click rates on display advertisements average only 0.1 percent. Are low click rates evidence that display advertisements have no impact on consumer behavior? Or, does display advertising work in a manner similar to traditional “branding” advertising, with multiple exposures being required to effect a change in consumer behavior? This article shows that the click is not an accurate indicator of the effectiveness of online display advertisements. Even when click rates are minimal, display advertisements can generate meaningful increases in site visitation, trademark search, and both online and offline sales. 
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jenni Romaniuk, “The Efficacy of Brand-Execution Tactics in TV Advertising, Brand Placements, and Internet Advertising” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.2 (June 2009): 143-150.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This article examines brand-execution tactics in television, internet video advertising, and in brand placement within TV programs. Multiple studies provide evidence that showing the brand early and often—and having at least one verbal mention enhances brand recall. By contrast, the evidence is mixed for verbal frequency, and there is not support for the brand simply being present for a long time. A review of current practice across a variety of media finds considerable scope for improvement in brand execution.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Alan Wurtzel, “Now. Or Never: An Urgent Call to Action for Consensus on New Media Metrics,” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.3 (September 2009): 263-266.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: As we all wait for the upfront season to begin— presumably before the first snowfall—we are still in the middle of an economic crisis that is rocking the media industry: whether you are a content provider, a buying agency, a creative agency or a client who needs to market and advertise through the media, you are facing some serious challenges. Moreover, there is another looming crisis that, if not addressed now, could have a profoundly detrimental effect on the media business long after the end of the current recession. It’s the crisis in measurement. You can’t sell what you can’t measure, and, unfortunately, our measurement systems are not keeping up with either technology or consumer behavior.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Leah Spalding, Sally Cole and Amy Fayer, “How Rich-Media Video Technology Boosts Branding Goals: Different Online Advertising Formats Drive Different Brand-Performance Metrics,” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.3 (September 2009): 285-292.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Why use rich media in brand campaigns? More than 4,000 online campaigns in Dynamic Logic’s MarketNorms® database were compared to identify the brand impact of those campaigns that used rich media as compared to those that used “simple” Flash and image formats. Delta scores for the campaigns were compared across five branding metrics. Results indicated that campaigns using rich-media formats generally had stronger branding effects compared to campaigns using GiF/JPG and “simple- Flash formats. Campaigns using rich-media advertisements with video features showed the strongest performance. The results suggest new strategies for improving brand campaign performance based on advertising format choice. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Caleb J. Siefert, Ravi Kothuri, Devra B. Jacobs, Brian Levine, Joseph Plummer and Carl D. Marci, “Winning the Super ‘Buzz’ Bowl: How Biometrically-Based Emotional Engagement Correlates with Online Views and Comments for Super Bowl Advertisements,” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.3 (September 2009): 293-303.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Super Bowl advertisements have become almost as famous as the game itself. Between production costs and the price of air time, companies who advertise in the Super Bowl do so at considerable expense. Return on investment for Super Bowl advertisements is strengthened by wide viewership, pre-game media chatter, and post-game buzz among consumers. Not all advertisements, however, generate the same degree of buzz. Recent models of advertising effectiveness have emphasized the importance of emotions, suggesting that advertisements that engage consumers on emotional levels will be most effective. This study examines how emotional engagement with Super Bowl advertisements relates to an important area of consumer response: online buzz. A biologically-based measure of audience engagement was used to monitor a sample of adults {N = 30) as they viewed Super Bowl XLII live. Advertising scores derived from biometric response ratings for Super Bowl advertisements were highly correlated with online buzz (i.e., the number of times an advertisement was commented on and the number of times it was viewed online). Results of the study are discussed with regard to the role of emotions in advertising and the utility of biometric measures for assessing consumers’ emotional engagement with advertising content.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Lea M. Wakolbinger, Michaela Denk and Kuus Oberecker, “The Effectiveness of Combining Online and Print Advertisements: Is the Whole Better than the Individual Parts?” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.3 (September 2009): 360-372.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract:  Cross-media advertising has received wide attention from practitioners over the last years, but there are only few experimental studies that analyze the effectiveness of integrating online and print advertising. Contributing to this relevant research field, this article analyzes advertising effectiveness of print and online media as well as the impact of combining these two media forms on overall advertising effectiveness. This study supports existing findings that print and online advertising feature the same advertising effectiveness. The experimental data, however, also indicate advantages of cross-media advertising. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Kartik Pashupati, “Beavers, Bubbles, Bees, and Moths: An Examination of Animated Spokescharacters in DTC Prescription-Drug Advertisements and Websites,” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.3 (September 2009): 373-393.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Several prescription drug brands use animated characters in direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. This article draws on the literature on spokescharacters to address four research questions:
• What different types of animated spokescharacters are used in DTC advertising?
• How are prescription drug marketers using spokescharacters in DTC advertising?
• To what extent are these characters integrated into the websites for these brands?
• Is there any evidence that the use of animated spokescharacters enhances advertising effectiveness?
Animated characters are used in various ways, such as the symbol of a disease, a victim, or as the mechanism of action. Brands vary greatly in their integration of spokescharacters into DTC websites. Evidence from secondary data indicates that brands using spokescharacters perform better than average in recall and in brand-association tests. 
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Robert Walker, Raymond Pettit and Joel Rubinson, “The Foundations of Quality Initiative: A Five-Part Immersion into the Quality of Online Research,” Journal of Advertising Research, 49.4 (December 2009): 463-485.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In the pages that follow, the Journal of Advertising Research presents the preliminary results of a quality-of-research initiative—a Foundations of Quality (FoQ) collaboration that includes the likes of Procter & Gamble, The Coca-Cola Company, Kraft, Microsoft, Bayer, Capital One, General Motors, and ESPN. It’s a program driven by the research community with contributions from 17 sample providers who account for an estimated 75 percent of all online research conducted in the United States.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Maria Elizabeth Grabe, Rasha Kamhawi and Narine Yegiyan, “Informing Citizens: How People with Different Levels of Education Process Television, Newspaper, and Web News,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53.1 (March 2009): 90-111.
Keywords: Mass media and culture, Mass media, Press, Memory, Television broadcasting of news, News web sites, Newspapers, News syndicates, Television broadcasting, Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals 
Abstract: This experiment tested the interaction of media channels (television, newspaper, and the Web), time delay, and the education level of audience members, using three memory measures. The lower education group encoded, stored and retrieved television news information best while they showed less memory capacity for newspaper and Web news. For the higher education group, the opposite pattern emerged. They had better memory for newspaper and Web versions of news, compared to television. With time delay, these patterns persisted. They were also robust when controlling for participant evaluations of the news stories in terms of interest, informativeness, and understandability. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jeong Yeob Han, Robert P. Hawkins, Bret R. Shaw, Suzanne Pingree, Fiona McTavish and David H. Gustafson, “Unraveling Uses and Effects of an Interactive Health Communication System,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53.1 (March 2009): 112-133.
Keywords: Communication in medicine, Content analysis, Health education, Computer network resources, Quality of life, Health insurance, Health attitudes
Abstract: By developing a number of measures distinguishing amount, type of content, and when and how that content is used, the current study revealed effective patterns of use that are associated with quality of life benefits during an eHealth intervention. Results generally suggest that the benefits depend on how a patient uses the system, far more than on sheer amount of exposure or even what type of content is chosen. The next generation of eHealth system should focus on providing new and varying content over time, but even more on encouraging intensity of use and long-term commitment to the system.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Paul Haridakis and Gary Hanson, “Social Interaction and Co-Viewing with YouTube: Blending Mass Communication Reception and Social Connection,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53.2 (April 2009): 317-335.
Keywords: Social networks, Television viewers, Social psychology, Exchange theory (Sociology), Mass media social aspects, YouTube LLC, Other Individual and Family Services
Abstract: This study examined whether motives and individual differences (social activity, interpersonal interaction, locus of control, sensation-seeking, innovativeness and YouTube affinity) predicted viewing videos on YouTube and sharing videos with others. Consistent with uses and gratifications assumptions, motives and individual differences differentially predicted viewing and sharing behaviors. Participants viewed videos for information seeking, and viewed and shared videos for entertainment, co-viewing and social interaction. Results suggest that while people watch videos on YouTube for some of the same reasons identified in studies of television viewing, there is a distinctly social aspect to YouTube use that reflects its social networking characteristics.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Chul-Joo Lee, “The Role of Internet Engagement in the Health-Knowledge Gap,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53.3 (July 2009): 365-382.
Keywords: Internet users, Knowledge gap theory, Research, Medical care, Computer network resources, Poor and medical care Rich and medical care, Socioeconomic factors, Information behavior  
Abstract: The current research posits that education leads to differential levels of Internet engagement, which moderate the association between Internet use for health information and general health knowledge. Using a nationally representative survey that covers adults between the ages of 40 and 70 in the United States, study found that education is positively related to Internet engagement. Also, Internet use has stronger associations with health knowledge for people exhibiting high Internet engagement than for people exhibiting low Internet engagement. The implications of these findings for research on both Internet use and knowledge gaps are discussed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Edward Ted M. Kian, Michael Mondello and John Vincent, “ESPN—The Women’s Sports Network? A Content Analysis of Internet Coverage of March Madness,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53.3 (July 2009): 477-495.
Keywords: Content analysis, News web sites, Sports journalism, Hegemony, ESPN (Television network), Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals, Internet and women, NCAA Basketball Tournament, College basketball
Abstract: The primary purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if gender-specific descriptors regularly found in television and newspaper sport coverage were present in two popular online sites from the emerging medium of Internet sport journalism. Descriptors given to players and coaches during the 2006 NCAA Division I women’s and men’s basketball tournaments by ESPN Internet and CBS SportsLine were examined. Results contradicted gender-specific descriptors found in previous studies on sport media coverage that scholars have argued help uphold hegemonic masculinity in sport.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Kevin Wise, Paul Bolls, Justin Myers and Sternadori Miglena, “When Words Collide Online: How Writing Style and Video Intensity Affect Cognitive Processing of Online News,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53.4 (October 2009): 532-546.
Keywords: Online journalism, Journalism authorship, Journalism editing, Cognition and internet videos, video recordings, Mass media audiences, Mass media research, research, social aspects, Psychological  aspects
Abstract: This experiment explored how the writing style of online news, defined as inverted pyramid versus narrative, affects the cognitive processing of accompanying video clips. Forty seven participants read 4 online news stories and viewed the accompanying video clips. Results suggested that reading inverted pyramid stories may require allocation of more cognitive resources to encoding a related video clip. Recognition for story details was more accurate for stories in narrative than inverted pyramid style. Results are discussed in terms of a distinction between cognitive processing involved in “getting there” versus “being there” during exposure to online news. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Wilson Lowrey and Kyun Soo Kim, “Online News Media and Advanced Learning: A Test of Cognitive Flexibility Theory,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53.4 (October 2009): 547-566.
Keywords: Educational psychology, Online journalism, Journalism, Mass media audiences, Mass media research, Mass media social aspects, Research, Learning, Psychology of research, Cognitive learning theory 
Abstract: This study looks at how audiences of online news media could benefit from an application of cognitive flexibility theory (CFT), a constructivist theory from the field of education psychology. CFT posits that when case examples from a complex, “ill-structured” knowledge area are interwoven with conceptual perspectives, individuals can better apply learning across diverse settings. Researchers propose that news stories on complex issues lend themselves to CFT. Results suggest that the CFT format offers greater efficiency and some advantages for more knowledgeable and involved audiences, and for frequent Web users. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Monica Ancu and Raluca Cozma, “MySpace Politics: Uses and Gratifications of Befriending Candidates,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53.4 (October 2009): 567-583.
Keywords: Exchange theory (Sociology), Political candidates, Internet, Internet users, Mass Media, MySpace Inc., Online social networks, Political aspects, political activity 
Abstract: This study examines the uses and gratifications (U&G) of accessing political candidate profiles on social network Web sites. An online survey of visitors to the MySpace profiles of 2008 primary candidates revealed that voters are drawn to this source of political information mainly by the desire for social interaction with other like-minded supporters, followed by information-seeking, and entertainment. While information seeking and entertainment are common U&G of consuming online political content, they were weaker factors compared to the social interaction factor that seems to distinguish MySpace, possibly SNSs in general, from other online sources of political content. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Magdalena E. Wojcieszak and Diana C. Mutz, “Online Groups and Political Discourse: Do Online Discussion Spaces Facilitate Exposure to Political Disagreement?” Journal of Communication, 59.1 (2009): 40-59.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: To what extent do online discussion spaces expose participants to political talk and to cross-cutting political views in particular? Drawing on a representative national sample of over 1000 Americans reporting participation in chat rooms or message boards, we examine the types of online discussion spaces that create opportunities for cross-cutting political exchanges. Our findings suggest that the potential for deliberation occurs primarily in online groups where politics comes up only incidentally, but is not the central purpose of the discussion space. We discuss the implications of our findings for the contributions of the Internet to cross-cutting political discourse.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Patti M. Valkenburg and Jochen Peter, “The Effects of Instant Messaging on the Quality of Adolescents’ Existing Friendships: A Longitudinal Study,” Journal of Communication, 59.1 (2009): 79-97.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Recent studies suggest that instant messaging (IM) is positively related to the quality of adolescents’ existing friendships. However, most of these studies were based on cross-sectional correlational data. In addition, most studies have focused on direct effects of IM on the quality of friendships without exploring mediating variables that may explain these effects. The aim of this study was to fill these two lacunae in the literature. We hypothesized that IM, which is mostly used to communicate with existing friends, stimulates the quality of friendships, via its potential to stimulate intimate online self-disclosure. A sample of 812 Dutch adolescents between 10 and 17 years of age were surveyed twice within a 6-month interval. IM had a positive longitudinal effect on the quality of adolescents’ existing friendships. This direct positive effect could be explained entirely by adolescents’ tendency to disclose intimate information online.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Tom Kelleher, “Conversational Voice, Communicated Commitment, and Public Relations Outcomes in Interactive Online Communication,” Journal of Communication, 59.1 (2009): 172–188.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Organizations face unique challenges in communicating interactively online with publics that comprise dauntingly large numbers of individuals. This online survey examined the perceptions of people who had experienced interactive communication with a large consumer-tech-industry company via organizational blogs. Those reporting the greatest exposure to the blogs in this study were more likely to perceive the organization as communicating with a conversational voice. Conversational human voice and communicated relational commitment (relational maintenance strategies) correlated positively with trust, satisfaction, commitment and control mutuality (relational outcomes). Building on prior research, this survey supports a model of distributed public relations—one in which key outcomes of public relations are fostered by a wide range of people communicating interactively while representing an organization. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Jeffrey T. Hancock and Catalina L. Toma, “Putting Your Best Face Forward: The Accuracy of Online Dating Photographs,” Journal of Communication, 59.2 (2009): 367-386.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study examines the accuracy of 54 online dating photographs posted by heterosexual daters. We report data on (a1) online daters’ self-reported accuracy, (b) independent judges’ perceptions of accuracy, and (c) inconsistencies in the profile photograph identified by trained coders. While online daters rated their photos as relatively accurate, independent judges rated approximately 1/3 of the photographs as not accurate. Female photographs were judged as less accurate than male photographs, and were more likely to be older, to be retouched or taken by a professional photographer, and to contain inconsistencies, including changes in hair style and skin quality. The findings are discussed in terms of the tensions experienced by online daters to (a) enhance their physical attractiveness and (b) present a photograph that would not be judged deceptive in subsequent face-to-face meetings. The paper extends the theoretical concept of selective self-presentation to online photographs, and discusses issues of self-deception and social desirability bias.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Jochen Peter and Patti M. Valkenburg “Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Notions of Women as Sex Objects: Assessing Causality and Underlying Processes,” Journal of Communication, 59.3 (2009): 407-433.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The aim of this study was to clarify causality in the previously established link between adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and notions of women as sex objects. Furthermore, the study investigated which psychological processes underlie this link and whether the various influences varied by gender. On the basis of data from a three-wave panel survey among 962 Dutch adolescents, structural equation modeling initially showed that exposure to SEIM and notions of women as sex objects had a reciprocal direct influence on each other. The direct impact of SEIM on notions of women as sex objects did not vary by gender. However, the direct influence of notions of women as sex objects on exposure to SEIM was only significant for male adolescents. Further analyses showed that, regardless of adolescents’ gender, liking of SEIM mediated the influence of exposure to SEIM on their beliefs that women are sex objects, as well as the impact of these beliefs on exposure to SEIM.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Magdalena Wojcieszak, “‘Carrying Online Participation Offline’—Mobilization by Radical Online Groups and Politically Dissimilar Offline Ties,” Journal of Communication, 59.3 (2009): 564-586.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study analyzes survey data obtained from members in neo-Nazi and environmentalist discussion forums. It assesses the links between participation in radical and ideologically homogeneous online groups and two forms of political engagement (Movement Support and Movement Promotion). This study also tests whether perceived political dissimilarity of offline friends and family (core ties) and of more distant interpersonal associates (significant ties) encourages or thwarts political engagement and whether it moderates the influence exerted by online groups. As expected, political engagement among the analyzed respondents increases with online participation, also controlling for extremism, political discussion and news media use. Although dissimilar core ties neither encourage nor discourage political engagement, they moderate the mobilizing influence from neo-Nazi and radical environmentalist online groups. Dissimilar significant ties, in turn, do not directly affect political engagement and do not interact with online participation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Dmitri Williams, Mia Consalvo, Scott Caplan and Nick Yee, “Looking for Gender: Gender Roles and Behaviors among Online Gamers,” Journal of Communication, 59.4 (2009): 700-725.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Several hypotheses regarding the importance of gender and relationships were tested by combining a large survey dataset with unobtrusive behavioral data from one year of play. Consistent with expectations, males played for achievement-oriented reasons and were more aggressive, especially within romantic relationships where both partners played. Female players in such relationships had higher general happiness than their male counterparts. Contrary to stereotypes and current hypotheses, it was the female players who played the most. Female players were also healthier than male players or females in the general population. The findings have implications for gender theory and communication-oriented methods in games and online research—most notably for the use of self-reported time spent, which was systematically incorrect and different by gender.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

J.A. McArthur, “Digital Subculture: A Geek Meaning of Style,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 33.1 (2009): 58-70.
Keywords: subculture; cultural studies; geek; computer-mediated communication;
virtual communities
Abstract: Recent scholarship in critical/cultural studies and ethnography has suggested studies of youth subculture can no longer be solely centered around musical preference, and that the Internet may be a new resource for the affiliation and expression of sub-cultural identity. This study furthers this scholarship through the analysis of one such group: the “geeks.” Through examination of Internet sites devoted to the subculture, this analysis argues that geeks who affiliate in self-assigned Web-based chat rooms demonstrate the characteristics, community, and style common to the expanding conceptualizations of Internet-based subculture. This study adds strength to the argument that the Internet can simultaneously be a gathering site for sub-culturalists and a medium for expression of sub-cultural identity.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Mark Cenite, Michelle Wanzheng Wang, Chong Peiwen and Germaine Shimin Chan, “More Than Just Free Content: Motivations of Peer-to-Peer File Sharers,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 33.3 (2009): 206-222.
Keywords: copyright; file sharing; peer to peer
Abstract: This study explores file sharers’ reported motivations for downloading and uploading content on peer-to-peer networks, including ethical obligations guiding file sharing. Drawing on Lessig’s classification of purposes of file sharing and Giesler’s theoretical framework of gifting systems, 40 in-depth interviews were conducted with file sharers in Singapore using a standard protocol, then transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Downloading is perceived as an alternative through which users satisfy desires that existing markets do not meet. Respondents reported downloading to avoid long waits for content to arrive in Singapore; to access difficult-to-find and censored content; to sample content, including content outside their usual tastes; and because downloading is convenient and free. Respondents reported a norm of reciprocity and sense of community that motivated them to upload and an obligation to purchase content they liked. Implications for understanding and combating file sharing during the inevitable transition to other business models are discussed. 
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Andrea Hoplight Tapia, Alison Powell and Julio Angel Ortiz, “Reforming Policy to Promote Local Broadband Networks,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 33.4 (2009): 354-375.
Keywords:  broadband policy; digital inclusion; community and municipal Wi-Fi; case studies
Abstract: Most existing assessments of local Wi-Fi projects have concentrated on either top-down, government-driven endeavors, or bottom-up projects developed by volunteers or community organizations. In both Canada and the United States, existing local Wi-Fi projects—both top down and bottom up—have failed to fulfill expectations that they could increase digital inclusion. Current policy frameworks may play some role in these failures. This article argues for a policy approach that favors hybrid public broadband that is neither completely bottom up nor top down, and for the development of policy frameworks that support hybrid public broadband.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Policy

Kate Milberry and Steve Anderson, “Open Sourcing Our Way to an Online Commons: Contesting Corporate Impermeability in the New Media Ecology,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 33.4 (2009): 392-412.
Keywords: Information society; Code; Computer-mediated-communication; Corporate colonization of cyberspace; Critical communication studies
Abstract: Understanding the social dynamics shaping the Internet is vital as media power takes on new dimensions in the digital realm. The Internet is increasingly necessary for participation in social life yet corporations continue to shape the online architecture to suit their own narrow commercial interests. In their drive to enclose the Internet, online media companies create synergistic membranes with prescribed circuits that constrain user freedoms. Taken together, these synergistic membranes form a new layer of the internet – the Google layer, which constrains and commodifies users’ range of motion within a narrow, privatized slice of the world wide web. This jeopardizes the creation of a commons-based communications system with a public service orientation, something that is essential to participatory and democratic dialogue. The open architecture of the Internet, characterized and supported by free and open source software (FOSS), defends the digital commons against cyber-enclosure. Social practices and values that distinguish FOSS comprise a libratory praxis as well as an alternative vision of social organization offline that prefigures a more democratic media system, and broadly construed, a more democratic society.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Seounmi Youn, “Determinants of Online Privacy Concern and Its Influence on Privacy Protection Behaviors Among Young Adolescents,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 43.3 (Fall 2009): 389-418.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: With Rogers’ protection motivation theory as the theoretical framework, this study identified determinants of young adolescents’ level of privacy concerns, which, in turn, affects their resultant coping behaviors to protect privacy. Survey data from 144 middle school students revealed that perceived risks of information disclosure increased privacy concerns, whereas perceived benefits offered by information exchange decreased privacy concerns. Subsequently, privacy concerns had an impact on risk-coping behaviors such as seeking out interpersonal advice or additional information (e.g., privacy statement) or refraining from using Web sites that ask for personal information. Counter to our expectation, privacy self-efficacy did not appear to be related to privacy concerns. Implications of privacy education to protect online privacy among young adolescents were discussed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Amit Poddar, Jill Mosteller and Pam Scholder Ellen, “Consumers’ Rules of Engagement in Online Information Exchanges,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 43.3 (Fall 2009): 419-448.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This research reveals three perceptual themes or “rules of engagement” used by consumers when personal information is requested in online exchanges. The themes-the criticality of the exchange, felt invasion, and fair play-underlie the choice of responses from compliance to blatant falsification of information to company requests. Identified from consumers’ in-depth interviews, these themes, along with the range and variations of response behaviors, reveal that consumers’ motivations vary from very simple rules to more customized rules. Our findings may help firms understand consumers’ interpretation of online informational requests better and identify factors that influence how consumers respond.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

George R. Milne, Lauren I. Labrecque and Cory Cromer, “Toward an Understanding of the Online Consumer’s Risky Behavior and Protection Practices,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 43.3 (Fall 2009): 449-473.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This research draws upon protection motivation theory and social cognitive theory to investigate the extent to which the level of perceived threat and likelihood of threat along with online self-efficacy affect online behaviors. This article contributes to the literature by investigating a wide range of risky and protective behaviors and examining the role of online self-efficacy with a national online survey of 449 non-student respondents. Results show that both self-efficacy and demographic factors such as age have a differential impact on the type of behaviors taken online.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Andrea J. S. Stanaland, May O. Lwin and Susanna Leong, “Providing Parents with Online Privacy Information: Approaches in the US and the UK,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 43.3 (Fall 2009): 474-494.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Policy makers are faced with the task of ensuring that parents are offered information on children’s Web sites to help them reduce their children’s online privacy risks. This exploratory research compares the approaches of two countries with different regulatory philosophies regarding children’s privacy: the United States, with a limited and sectoral approach to general privacy but a formalized approach to children’s online privacy, and the United Kingdom, with a comprehensive overarching approach to privacy, but no formal stipulations for children’s privacy. Researchers examined privacy statements on 100 children’s Web sites from each country in order to compare the products of each regulatory environment.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Michelle Hough and Andrzej Kobylanski, “Increasing Elder Consumer Interactions with Information Technology,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26.1 (2009): 39-48.
Keywords: Communication technologies, older consumers, Marketing mix
Abstract: Purpose – Advances in health care are enabling individuals to live longer, healthier lives. Although the use of information technology can improve the quality of life for the elderly, many older consumers choose to limit their interactions with information technology and so may be denied its potential benefits for enhancing quality of life. This paper seeks to explore factors impacting the engagement of consumers aged 65 and older with higher forms of IT, primarily PCs and the internet, and to examine the potential effectiveness of marketing methods toward improving diffusion and increasing engagement.
Design/methodology/approach – Citing published research and using previously known models (TAM and Trocchia and Janda’s interaction themes) the study highlights possible ways of using marketing tools to increase elder consumer interaction with IT.
Findings – Marketers should focus efforts on reference group affiliation, nature of social relations, perception of reality, and physical dexterity as the interaction themes on which to focus marketing efforts, because they seem to be a most effective mechanism for influencing engagement. 
Research limitations/implications – The paper represents an initial attempt to identify potential influences toward increasing the IT adoption by elder consumers. It presents a theoretical framework for the future investigation of the diagnosed problem: what are the ways of successfully influencing the adoption of information technology by older consumers by using traditional components of marketing mix (product, price, promotion, and place)?
Originality/value – In the fast pace of technology advancement and the potential for assistance for elder members of society, the paper discusses how to market the use of IT to consumers aged 65 and older and considers the factors that could be related to product, price, place, and promotion in this context.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Policy

Carlos Flavian and Raquel Gurrea, “Users’ Motivations and Attitude Towards the Online Press,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26.3 (2009): 164-174.
Keywords: Internet, Newspapers, Motivation (psychology), Customer satisfaction, Attitudes
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain how the advent of the Internet not only affects the way in which newspapers work, but also has an impact on readers’ behavior. This research seeks to identify the readers’ motivations as the key determinants of the attitude towards digital newspapers, and to analyse their impact on that attitude.
Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative studies are used to identify the motivations and establish the hypotheses, and a survey is applied to a representative sample of users. The scales are validated and refined, after which the hypotheses are tested by way of a structural equation model.
Findings – The results confirm the existence of positive significant relationships between motivations related to the knowledge of current news, search for specific information and search for updated news, with the favorable attitude to digital newspapers. However, entertainment as a motivation for reading impacts negatively on the readers’ attitude. Also, habit as a motivation is more and more positively associated with the attitude towards the digital press.
Research limitations/implications – The main motivations that influence the attitude to the new electronic dailies should be considered by the management with the aim of differentiating the digital channel. Thus, it could be possible to calm some fears re the cannibalism between digital and traditional channels in the journalistic sector. Accordingly this research points out that the knowledge of readers’ needs and motivations could be a starting-point for developing marketing strategies.
Originality/value – The research is one of the first studies that analyses Internet user behavior on the part of press readership and employs the uses and gratifications theory for the journalistic business.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Alex Gofman, Howard R. Moskowitz and Tonis Mets, “Integrating Science into Web Design: Consumer-driven Web Site Optimization,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26.4 (2009): 286-298.
Keywords: Worldwide web, Regression analysis, Experimental design, Consumer research
Abstract: Purpose – This paper sets out to explore different approaches to optimizing web sites based on consumer preferences, introducing the most advanced form of landing page optimization, multivariate landing page optimization, and its variations. The approach aims to allow for the testing of a large number of web page prototypes with consumers and find real optimal solutions on an aggregated, segmented and individual basis. The latter aims to paving the road to individually optimized pages and one-on-one marketing in the near future.
Design/methodology/approach – The approach described employs a new variation of multivariate landing page optimization to improve customer experiences with web sites through optimal design of the landing pages. The approach uses consumer insights-driven rule-developing experimentation (RDE) introduced by the authors and developed in cooperation with Wharton School of Business.
Findings – A disciplined experimentation based on statistically sound experimental designs produces much better web page designs. The resulting web pages have increased consumer acceptability, improved conversion rates and general customer experience.
Practical implications – Consumer research should be a central part in planning how to optimize web site experiences. The steps of fitting it into the web design are shown. There are already several readily available tools for effecting this.
Originality/value – The approach could help marketers create better web sites that consumers like and which will help marketers to differentiate their respective web sites from their competitors.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Calin Gurau and Ashok Ranchhod, “Consumer Privacy Issues in Mobile Commerce: a Comparative Study of British, French and Romanian Consumers,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26.7 (2009): 496-507.
Keywords: Consumers, Privacy, Mobile communication systems, Europe
Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims on one hand to provide a comparison of mobile consumers’ perceptions regarding privacy issues in three different national and cultural contexts (England, France and Romania), and on the other hand, to investigate the strategic approach taken by respondents for protecting their privacy.
Design/methodology/approach – Both secondary and primary data are collected and analysed. Secondary data collection focuses on the topic of consumer privacy issues in mobile commerce. Primary data collection was realised between March-June 2008, when 300 mobile device users answered to a face-to-face questionnaire, in each of the three investigated countries.
Findings – Both the country of origin and the personal profile of users, are influencing their perception regarding privacy threats in the mobile commerce environment, as well as the privacy protection strategy they adopt.
Research limitations/implications – This study has an exploratory approach, the results being mostly descriptive. The findings can provide a useful insight for marketers, legislators and consumers regarding the privacy related concerns and behaviors in the mobile commerce environment.
Originality/value – This study realizes a multi-country comparative analysis regarding the perceptions of mobile device users, and investigates the influence of their profile on the personal privacy protection strategy adopted in the mobile commerce environment. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Anne Laure Sellier and Amitava Chattopadhyay, “Valuing Time: Moderate Download Times Can Improve Online Goal Pursuit,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19.2 (2009): 236–245. 
Keywords: Time perception; Motivation; E-commerce; Information search; Self regulation; Regulatory fit
Abstract: This research examines how the length of time for which a goal is interrupted affects goal pursuit, in an online context. Goal interruption duration in the form of long download time duration has been identified as a significant impediment to electronic commerce. It is believed that a faster download time is always better to motivate web users to keep surfing. We challenge this belief. In three studies, we find that, under certain circumstances, longer rather than shorter download times motivate web users to keep surfing longer. The counterintuitive pattern of effects can be explained by web users’ fit experiences (Higgins, 2000) while surfing. In particular, our findings suggest that when online surfing “feels right”, web users think that online information is right.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Ann E. Schlosser, “The Effect of Computer-mediated Communication on Conformity vs. Nonconformity: An Impression Management Perspective,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19.3 (2009): 374-388.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: There is disagreement in the literature regarding whether those communicating in computer-mediated (CM) groups are attentive or oblivious to the social situation. There is evidence on both sides, with those in CM groups sometimes modifying their public responses and other times not. This apparent contradiction may be due in part to the impression that those in CM groups wish to convey and whether modifying their responses would help convey this impression. Specifically, whereas those in face-to-face (FTF) groups may strategically alter their public responses to present themselves as part of the group, those in CM groups may strategically alter their public responses to present themselves as separate from the group and unique on a positive dimension. The results of three experiments support this impression-management account: those in CM groups strategically altered their responses when doing so produced a desirable impression. The results further suggest that visual information about the group and social distance play important roles in affecting whether those in CM groups conform or not.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Cathy Yi Chen, “Who I Am and How I Think: The Impact of Self-Construal on the Roles of Internal and External Reference Prices in Price Evaluations,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19.3 (2009): 416-426.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Drawing from self-construal studies on cognitive styles as well as reference price literature, this research investigates the impact of independent versus interdependent self-construal on consumers’ use of internal reference prices (IRPs) and external reference prices (ERPs) during price evaluations. Three experiments reveal that IRPs have a larger impact on price evaluations for participants who are primed with an independent (vs. interdependent) self-construal, whereas ERPs have a larger impact for participants who are primed with an interdependent (vs. independent) self-construal. The differential impact of self-construal on the use of IRPs and ERPs seems to be mediated by a generalized, perceived sense of connectedness/separateness. Implications on reference price research, self-construal and cognitive styles are discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Eun-Ju Lee and David W. Schumann, “Proposing and Testing the Contextual Gender Influence Theory: An Examination of Gender Influence Types on Trust of Computer Agents,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19.3 (2009): 450-460.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine gender-based determinants of consumer trust towards computer agents. Employing multiple literatures, authors propose a contextual gender influence theory (CGIT) that has direct bearing on trust in online exchange relationships. A set of studies is presented that begin to demonstrate how the effects of gender identity on human-to-computer interaction are not the same for person-to-person interaction. Indeed, employing both gaming and shopping exchange environments, the results reveal that while biological gender identity appears in a person-to-person interaction as concerns trust, psychological gender identity (specifically femininity) and not biological gender identity, influences relationship trust online.
Method: Model Building
Theory: Social Interaction

Annamma Joy, John Sherry Jr., Alladi Venkatesh and Jonathan Deschenes, “Perceiving Images and Telling Tales: A Visual and Verbal Analysis of the Meaning of the Internet,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19.3 (2009): 556-566.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This paper uses visual and verbal analysis to delve into the multi-faceted ways in which individuals construct their own meanings and shape their own experiences with the Internet. Study builds on the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique, and the principles of visual rhetoric to show how perceptual processes affect picture choices, and how these choices contribute to the narrative imagination. Numerous perceptual principles [abstraction, concept formation, perceptual problem solving, constancy, closure, symmetry and balance] are identified in the choice and organization of visual images. The argument made is that images and words (visual and textual processes) provide deeper insights into our understanding of consumer online experiences. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

June Cotte and Kathryn A. Latour, “Blackjack in the Kitchen: Understanding Online versus Casino Gambling,” Journal of Consumer Research, 35.5 (2009): 742-758.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: About $10 billion a year is spent by consumers worldwide on online gambling, and that number continues to grow. We present a qualitative, image-based study of 30 Las Vegas online and casino gamblers. By examining online gambling as a consumption experience, stud examines what happens to consumption meaning as gambling moves away from a regulated physical space to an unregulated online space, one accessed from home.  Study explores the meaning of online gambling consumption to consumers and flesh out the social welfare implications of our findings. 
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Mariko Morimoto and Susan Chang, “Psychological Factors Affecting Perceptions of Unsolicited Commercial E-mail,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 31.1 (Spring 2009): 63-73.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Using the online survey method, this study investigates how consumers regard unsolicited commercial e-mail (spam) and their possible responses. Specifically, the study closely examines the relationships among five key indicators: (a) perceived intrusiveness, (b) perceived irritation, (c) attitudes toward the advertising medium, (d) ad skepticism, and (e) ad avoidance. Also examined is the process of attitude formation concerning unsolicited commercial e-mail. The results indicate that while perceived intrusiveness increases the likelihood of avoiding unsolicited commercial e-mail, perceived irritation tends to raise the degree of ad skepticism.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Mira Lee, Shelly Rodgers, and Mikyoung Kim, “Effects of Valence and Extremity of eWOM on Attitude toward the Brand and Website,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 31.2 (Summer 2009): 1-12.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Two studies were conducted to examine the influence of valence and extremity of consumer product reviews on attitude toward the brand and attitude toward the website. Each experiment was a one factor (valence/extremity: extremely negative, moderately negative, extremely positive) between subjects design with a control group. Results in both studies showed that although extremely positive reviews increased attitude toward the brand, even a moderate amount of negativity negated this effect. Moreover, extremely negative reviews had a stronger influence on attitude toward the brand than either moderately negative reviews or extremely positive product reviews, thus supporting both negativity and extremity effect. Findings also show that varying degrees of brand review valence and extremity influenced attitude toward the website depending on website type (i.e., retailer vs. brand).
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Sara Steffes Hansen, “Brands Inspiring Creativity and Transpiring Meaning: An Ethnographic Exploration of Virtual World Play,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9.2 (Spring 2009). 
Keywords: Avatar, Brands, Games, Internet, Self-Presentation, Symbolic Interactionism, Virtual Worlds
Abstract: This study uses participant observation to undertake an ethnographic exploration of the meanings of brands and objects in an online virtual world. Through the perspective of symbolic interactionism and the theory of self-presentation, the meanings of brands and objects emerge in relation to status in game play. Players create user-generated content with brands to gain status within and outside of the game. Game advertisers encourage players to create branded objects related to their avatars through clothing, accessories, pictures, and machinima. Similarly, players use non-advertised brands to create avatar names, clothing designs, advertisements, and other communications. The process of social interaction influences status meanings in the multifaceted communication among players, the game, and advertisers, with impacts on self-presentation.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Ginger Rosenkrans, “The Creativeness and Effectiveness of Online Interactive Rich Media Advertising,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9.2 (Spring 2009). 
Keywords: rich media, interactivity, online advertising, creativity, effectiveness, rollovers, click-throughs
Abstract: This field experiment attempts to determine whether online, interactive, rich media advertising garners more user interactivity, measured as click-throughs, than non-interactive, rich media ads run during the same time frame on a major regional newspaper’s Web site. The interactive rich media ad may generate more interactivity with regard to its click-through rates compared with mouse rollovers. Various interactivity theories, creativity literature and distinctiveness theory provide a framework. The online, interactive, rich media ad designed for this study appeared on a major regional newspaper’s host site for two weeks to obtain comparative data with non-interactive, rich media ads. The analysis of the comparative data used descriptive and inferential statistics. The interactive, rich media ad earned significantly higher click-through rates than the non-interactive, rich media ads. It also garnered more user engagement and encouraged more user interactivity. The interactive ad exhibits higher levels of interactivity, which increase user involvement, as indicated by the mouse rollover findings.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Shintaro Okazaki, “Mobile Finds Girls’ Taste: Knorr’s New Product Development,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9.2 (Spring 2009). 
Keywords: Blogging, Events and experiences, Mobile-based campaign, New product development
Abstract: This paper describes one case pertaining to Knorr’s mobile-based new product development projects in Japan. Knorr Foods, a subsidiary of Ajinomoto Inc., has tried to involve younger female consumers in the development of a new Soup Pasta, announcing the project at a popular fashion event, the Tokyo Girls Collection (TGC), whose star models became official project members. Knorr created a mobile campaign site, on which star model members maintain their blogs and report their participation in the product development process. The discussion threads serve as input for the idea generation and screening. Through this project, Knorr developed a new Soup Pasta that embodies the key attributes identified in the mobile blogs. The new product was introduced at the following year’s TGC venue, during which sampling took place through catering trailers.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Kim Bartel Sheehan and Deborah K. Morrison, “The Creativity Challenge: Media Confluence and Its Effects on the Evolving Advertising Industry,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9.2 (Spring 2009). 
Keywords: Creative, new media, Internet, collaboration
Abstract: The advertising landscape has experienced dramatic change over the past several years, as consumers spend more time online, have more control over traditional advertising vehicles, and chose to create and share their own content. As a result, some advertisers are evolving to a confluence culture where traditional methods of work must adapt to embrace the new reality of interactive content, emerging media, and production/consumption methods. In this essay, we show how agencies like 22squared and advertisers like CNN are finding new ways to connect with consumers and build their brands. Implications for professionals and educators are provided.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Martha G. Russell,  “A Call for Creativity in New Metrics for Liquid Media,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9.2 (Spring 2009). 
Keywords: N/A 
Abstract: This paper presents a call for creativity, within adaptive structures, to develop new metrics for new media.  It first reviews recent innovations in audience metrics for online media, including some evolving metrics for the Web 2.0 media ecosystem.  It then describes the disciplinary roots of academic research on which the current understanding of audience engagement and persuasion are based.  It further describes current software and hardware developments that are driving a new era of liquid media.  A framework for conceptualizing layers of media delivery and audience engagement that will be enabled by these new technologies is described.  Recommendations are made for collaboration between academics and practitioners in order to rapidly pursue an understanding of advertising effectiveness in this new environment and to develop metrics that can be harnessed to monetize audience engagement, rationalize media expenditures, and create reporting structures for sharing insights. 
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Policy

Fue Zeng, Li Huang and Wenyu Dou, “Social Factors in User Perceptions and Responses to Advertising in Online Social Networking Communities,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10.1 (Fall 2009). 
Keywords: Online social networking communities, advertising responses, social factors
Abstract: With the advent of popular Web destinations such as MySpace and Facebook, online social networking communities now occupy the center stage of e-commerce. Yet these online social networking communities must balance the trade-off between advertising revenue and user experience. Drawing on the sociology and advertising literature, this study investigates the impacts of social identity and group norms on community users’ group intentions to accept advertising in online social networking communities. By outlining how this type of group intention could influence community members’ perceptions and value judgments of such advertising, this study delineates possible mechanisms by which community members may respond positively to community advertising. The authors test the proposed theoretical framework on a sample of 327 popular online community users in China and obtain general support. Implications for the prospect of advertising in online social networking communities are discussed. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis  
Theory: Social Interaction

Steven M. Edwards, Jin Kyun Lee and Carrie La Ferle,  “Does Place Matter When Shopping Online? Perceptions of Similarity and Familiarity as Indicators of Psychological Distance,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10.1 (Fall 2009).  
Keywords: Distance, Psychological Distance, Trust, Store Location 
Abstract : This research investigates the role of physical location in online consumer purchases, as demonstrated through the concept of distance. Distance conveys a sense of not only space between objects in the physical world but also psychological distance between people and others. This study tests various combinations of both physical and psychological distance between subjects and companies, brands, and cities in which the companies are located. The findings affirm the power of relationships to reduce feelings of mistrust and suggests a new avenue for research into the role of similarity and familiarity as important variables in purchase decisions online. 
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Seung-A Annie Jin and Justin Bolebruch, “Avatar-Based Advertising in Second Life: The Role of Presence and Attractiveness of Virtual Spokespersons,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10.1 (Fall 2009). 
Keywords: avatars, advergames, multimodal interaction, virtual shopping, e-commerce  
Abstract : Avatar-based, three-dimensional, virtual environments such as Second Life, the most popular and fastest growing environment, offer a promising corporate communication channel for brand marketing, advergaming and interactive advertising. Drawing on presence literature, this study examines the effects of the presence (versus absence) of spokes-avatars that provide product information and consumers’ multimodal interactions with these spokes-avatars on improvements in the consumers’ product involvement, attitude toward the product, and enjoyment of the online shopping experience. In addition, this study investigates the effects of spokes-avatars’ physical characteristics in terms of humanness (versus non-humanness) on consumers’ evaluation of their physical attractiveness and the information value of the advertisement message. A path analysis reveals a mediating role of spokes-avatars’ physical attractiveness.  
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Carolynn McMahan, Roxanne Hovland and Sally McMillan, “Online Marketing Communications: Exploring Online Consumer Behavior by Examining Gender Differences and Interactivity within Internet Advertising,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10.1 (Fall 2009). 
Keywords: Internet advertising, interactivity, online consumer behavior and gender
Abstract: To explore gender differences in Internet advertising, this study analyzes gender in relation to interactivity. Specifically, assessments of commercial Web sites help clarify the role of gender for online consumer behavior, its effect on interactivity and advertising effectiveness, and the implications for online marketing communications. This exploration relies on dimensions of consumers’ online behavior and consumers’ beliefs about the interactive communication environment in relation to three types of features: human-to-human, human-to-computer, and human-to-content. The investigation of gender differences in Internet advertising uses both computer observations with screen-capturing software and a survey. The study subjects are college-aged students, or Generation Y, a group of consumers who tend to go online in great numbers, have considerable spending power, and are computer savvy.  
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jiyoung Cha, “Shopping on Social Networking Web Sites: Attitudes toward Real versus Virtual Items,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10.1 (Fall 2009). 
Keywords: Social networking Web sites, online shopping, virtual, real, technology acceptance model
Abstract: Assuming that shopping is a business area into which U.S. social networks can expand, this study explores whether and how factors affecting shopping attitudes on social networking sites may differ according to product type. This study focuses on two types of items that social networking sites carry: real and virtual. It reveals that shopping services have different target consumers and factors according to product type. Age, usefulness, ease of use, security and fit are critical in establishing favorable attitudes toward shopping for real items. For virtual items, gender, social networking site experience, ease of use, and fit influence the attitudes.  
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Yoonhyeung Choi and Ying-Hsuan Lin, “Consumer Responses to Mattel Product Recalls Posted on Online Bulletin Boards: Exploring Two Types of Emotion,” Journal of Public Relations Research, 21.2 (2009): 198-207.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Drawn from attribution theory, this article introduces two types of emotion (i.e., attribution independent and attribution dependent emotion) and explores their role in the situational crisis communication theory (SCCT) model. A content analysis of consumer responses to the Mattel product recalls posted on online bulletin boards revealed that consumers experience a range of emotions from a crisis. A regression analysis suggests that crisis responsibility is a significant predictor of anger, fear, surprise, worry, contempt and relief, and indicates that these are attribution dependent emotions. Alert and confusion were the most frequently expressed attribution independent emotions identified in this study. In testing a revised SCCT model, a significant negative relationship was found between alert, anger, and organizational reputation. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Keri K. Stephens and Patty C. Malone, “If the Organizations Won’t Give Us Information…: The Use of Multiple New Media for Crisis Technical Translation and Dialogue,” Journal of Public Relations Research, 21.2 (2009): 229-239.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study expands crisis message strategies to include those used to communicate technical details and examines them across multiple new media. A content analysis of blogs, Web sites, news articles and press releases from the 2007 pet food recall crisis reveals that when stakeholders affected by the crisis desire emotional support—most frequently found in blogs—they do not include any types of technical explanations in their messages. Yet when they want rectification—assurance that the crisis will not happen again—they use more elaborate forms of technical translation explanations. Organizational use of technical translation explanations differ between media with Web sites and news articles containing more elaborate technical translation than press releases. When technical translation details are used, dialogic links, such as Web site links, are included.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Sung-Un Yang and Joon Soo Lim, “The Effects of Blog-Mediated Public Relations (BMPR) on Relational Trust,” Journal of Public Relations Research, 21.3 (2009): 341-359.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Key features of blog-mediated public relations are conducive to initiating and nurturing relationships with publics. As a result, blogs have emerged as a new venue for public relations in recent years. Many public relations practitioners have come to realize that blogging is not just a fad and have recognized a growing trend of blogging adoption in the industry—suggesting a need for common principles of successful public relations blogging practices. This study selected the following critical features of effective blog-mediated public relations: salience of narrative structure, dialogical self, blogger credibility and interactivity. Using these concepts, the researchers proposed a theoretical model in explaining relational trust as a central outcome of effective blog-mediated public relations. Findings showed that dialogical self in blog posts enhanced interactivity, which, in turn, led to an increase in relational trust. Additionally, this study found that blogger credibility played a positive role in relational trust.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Matthew W. Ragas and Marilyn S. Roberts, “Agenda Setting and Agenda Melding in an Age of Horizontal and Vertical Media: A New Theoretical Lens for Virtual Brand Communities,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86.1 (Spring 2009): 45-64.
Keywords:  Agenda setting theory, Mass media, Hierarchy of needs theory, Cognitive dissonance theory, Spiral of silence theory, Chipotle Mexican Grill Inc., Brand name products, Competition, Product attributes, Data analysis, Branding, Literature reviews
Abstract: This study tests agenda-setting theory and the agenda-melding hypothesis in the context of brand actors and virtual brand communities. The aggregate attribute agendas of brand-controlled communications, news media content, and a virtual brand community are analyzed. The results indicate a positive relationship between the brand agenda and brand community agenda, and an unexpected negative relationship between the media agenda and brand community agenda. In terms of agenda melding, the data indicate that the brand community, when divided by various demographic measures into subgroups, reflects attribute agendas that remain similar to the aggregate brand community agenda.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Agenda Building/Setting

Leslie-Jean Thornton and Susan M. Keith, “From Convergence to Webvergence: Tracking the Evolution of Broadcast-Print Partnership Through the Lens of Change Theory,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86.2 (Summer 2009): 257-276.
Keywords: Mass media, Newspapers, Television stations, Online journalism, Mass media, Management, Mass media and technology, Digital media, Multimedia systems, Web sites, Television broadcasting of news, Partnerships, Strategic Alliances, Economic aspects 
Abstract: This study, based on a 2008 survey of news directors in the top 100 U.S. markets and editors at U.S. newspapers with circulations greater than 25,000, found evidence of a decline in the print-broadcast convergence model. Only about half the responding newsrooms had convergence partners, and notable percentages had ended collaborations. Among the remaining partners, convergence was often practiced at a low level of integration that did not include online collaboration. Instead, most TV stations and newspapers were following what the authors call a “Webvergence” model, producing multimedia independently for their own Web sites. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Kirsten A. Johnson and Susan Wiedenbeck, “Enhancing Perceived Credibility of Citizen Journalism Web Sites,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86.2 (Summer 2009): 332-348.
Keywords:  Citizen journalism, Online journalism, Digital media, Journalism, Hypertext systems, World Wide Web, Web sites, News audiences, Internet Publishing and Broadcasting and Web Search Portals, Hyperlinks, Research, Objectivity, Social aspects, Amateur journalism, Evaluation 
Abstract: This study examined whether information about a writer and hyperlinks on a citizen journalism Web site affected the perceived credibility of stories. Participants read stories from a popular citizen journalism Web site and rated the stories in terms of perceived credibility. Results show that hyperlinks and information about the writer do enhance perceived story credibility. Credibility is enhanced most greatly when both hyperlink and writer information are included and, to a lesser extent, when just hyperlink or writer information is present.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Chan Yun Yoo, “The Effects of Persuasion Knowledge on Click-Through of Keyword Search Ads: Moderating Role of Search Task and Perceived Fairness,” Journalism Mass Communication Quarterly, 86.2 (Summer 2009): 401-418.
Keywords:  Internet advertising, Internet searching, Persuasion, Internet users, Mass media, Communication—Psychological aspects, Advertising, Research, Information-seeking strategies, Keyword spam, Psychological aspects, Keywords 
Abstract: This study examines the effects of persuasion knowledge and conditions that influence its impact in the context of keyword search ads. Students participated in an experiment featuring a 2 (persuasion knowledge: primed vs. not primed) x 2 (search tasks: complex vs. less complex) between-subjects design with a covariate (perceived fairness). Results reveal online users are less likely to click through keyword search ads when they are aware that advertisers’ persuasion attempts are at work. However, this negative impact is attenuated when the search task is complex and level of perceived fairness of the ad practice is high.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Mark Leccese, “Online Information Sources of Political Blogs,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86.3 (Fall 2009): 578-593.
Keywords: Blogs, Internet, Communication—Political aspects, Journalism—Political aspects, Citizen journalists, Mass media and education, Mass media and public opinion, Mass media and technology, Political aspects
Abstract: Bloggers claim to be crucial providers of information in American elections and -policy debates, usurping the role of mainstream media. This study coded more than 2,000 hypertext links to different sources on six widely read political blogs during seven consecutive days. Less than 15% of hyperlinks were to primary sources. Almost half were to mainstream media reports. Thus, political blogs may be comparable to a newspaper comprised of only op-ed pages and opinion columnists. The findings call into question the role of political blogging and raise concerns about how blog readers are learning about public policy and political debates. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Hsiang Iris Chyi and Mengchieh Jacie Yang, “Is Online News an Inferior Good? Examining the Economic Nature of Online News Among Users,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86.3 (Fall 2009): 594-612.
Keywords: Newspapers, Newspapers—Circulation, Web publishing, Internet users, News audiences, Press, PEW Research Center, News Syndicates; Internet Publishing and Broadcasting and Web Search Portals, Economic aspects 
Abstract: The U.S. newspaper industry is transitioning from print to online, but users’ response to online news has fallen short of expectations and thus raised questions about the economic viability of the new medium. This study explores the economic concept of “inferior goods” and its applicability to online news consumption. Analysis of Pew Research Center survey data shows that as income increases, consumption of online news decreases, other things being equal. Therefore, online news is an inferior good among users. 
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

L. Marvin Overby and Jay Barth, “The Media, the Medium, and Malaise: Assessing the Effects of Campaign Media Exposure with Panel Data,” Mass Communication and Society, 12.3 (2009): 271-290.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In this article we extend recent work on exposure to campaign advertisements, comparing the effects of television ads, radio ads, and campaign-related e-mails using an unusual panel data set that provides information on multiple media sources. Our findings, which control for the endogeneity problem that has plagued much work in political communications, confirm that media exposure does affect citizen attitudes. We also find additional evidence that the medium matters, with exposure to television ads tending to undermine system-supporting attitudes, whereas exposure to radio ads has an overall positive effect; contrary to expectations, the ‘‘new medium’’ of campaign e-mails had no discernible effect.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Sue Robinson, “The Cyber-Newsroom: A Case Study of the Journalistic Paradigm in a News Narrative’s Journey from a Newspaper to Cyberspace,” Mass Communication and Society, 12.4 (2009): 403-422.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This narrative and discourse analysis documents the multi-year news coverage of a scandalous mayoral investigation in The Spokesman-Review as it moved from a printed version to an online one. The article sought to determine how multimedia and interactivity changed the essential news’ web of facticity (a Gaye Tuchman term). A traditional understanding of the news paradigm informed this case analysis. The most significant finding was that the news story of Spokane, Washington, Mayor Jim West in the newspaper transformed into a story about the process of newsgathering on the Internet. A new, second-order newsroom – a cyber-newsroom – was created where readers and journalists jointly disseminated and repaired the news. In the process, the traditional journalistic paradigm shifted, and a new more layered, more complex news narrative resulted. A new model, called the ‘‘Cyber-Newsroom,’’ is proposed.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Kristine L. Nowak, Mark A. Hamilton and Chelsea C. Hammond, “The Effect of Image Features on Judgments of Homophily, Credibility, and Intention to Use as Avatars in Future Interactions,” Media Psychology, 12.1 (2009): 50-76.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Avatar characteristics influence the perception of the people they represent in a process that is remarkably similar to the way physical bodies influence person perception offline. This is consistent with the Social Responses to Computer Technologies model, which argues that people respond similarly to computers and people as long as sources are perceived to be intelligent. Similarly, Information Processing Theory suggests that the viewers apply the same evaluation sequences to nearly all sources and that more processing resources are allocated to perceiving an entity with social potential. To address the extent to which static avatars are perceived to be intelligent and human like, or have social potential, participants (N = 261) each evaluated a random set of 10 images as potential avatars. The avatars varied with respect to level of computer manipulation, visible indicators of masculinity, and anthropomorphism (having human characteristics). Results confirm that even static avatars are anthropomorphized and that visual characteristics influence perceptions of the avatars. Level of computer manipulation, masculinity, and anthropomorphism all influence perceived levels of realism, competence, and the sense of homophily with the avatar. The implications of these results for theory, future research, and for users and designers of communication systems are discussed.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Joachim Schroer and Guido Hertel, “Voluntary Engagement in an Open Web-Based
Encyclopedia: Wikipedians and Why They Do It,” Media Psychology, 12.1 (2009): 96-120.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is a highly successful ‘‘open content’’ project, written and maintained completely by volunteers. Little is known, however, about the motivation of these volunteers. Results from an online survey among 106 contributors to the Ger- man Wikipedia project are presented. Both motives derived from social sciences (perceived benefits, identification with Wikipedia, etc.) as well as perceived task characteristics (autonomy, skill vari- ety, etc.) were assessed as potential predictors of contributors’ sat- isfaction and self-reported engagement. Satisfaction ratings were particularly determined by perceived benefits, identification with the Wikipedia community, and task characteristics. Engagement was particularly determined by high tolerance for opportunity costs and by task characteristics, the latter effect being partially mediated by intrinsic motivation. Relevant task characteristics for contributors’ engagement and satisfaction were perceived auton- omy, task significance, skill variety, and feedback. Models from social sciences and work psychology complemented each other by suggesting that favorable task experiences might counter perceived opportunity costs in Wikipedia contributors. Moreover, additional data reported by Wikipedia authors indicate the importance of generativity motives.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Jesse Chandler, Sara Konrath and Norbert Schwarz, “Online and On My Mind: Temporary and Chronic Accessibility Moderate the Influence of Media Figures,” Media Psychology, 12.2 (2009): 210-226.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: To investigate the influence of media figures on self-perception, on-line gamers reported how central their main videogame character (avatar) is to their own identity and answered questions about their avatar’s body size either before or after questions about their own body size. When the avatar was not central to the gamer’s identity, the avatar’s body size influenced gamer’s own body judgments only when the avatar was brought to mind by preceding questions. When the avatar was central to the gamer’s identity, it influenced gamers’ own body judgments independent of question order. In both cases, accessible avatars elicited assimilation effects on self-judgment. Study  concludez that media figures exert a chronic influence on self-judgment when they are central to the self.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Sriram Kalyanaraman and James D. Ivory, “Enhanced Information Scent, Selective Discounting, or Consummate Breakdown: The Psychological Effects of Web-Based Search Results,” Media Psychology, 12.3 (2009): 295-319.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Article reports results from three experiments that broadly examined Web users’ psychological responses to search results featured on a mock search engine. Study 1 examined the interplay between search result relevance and ad relevance and showed that the former is the critical variable in affecting user attitudes toward both the search engine and the ad. Study 2 offered further evidence regarding the overwhelming influence of search relevance, with study results suggesting that neither individual motivations nor ad relevance played a significant role in affecting user attitudes. Finally, Study 3 supported the proposition that the persuasiveness of a relevant text-based ad appearing with relevant search results can be enhanced by adding a visual image to the ad. We point out the implications of the findings and recommend future directions for media effects research in the domain of search engines.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

José van Dijck, “Users Like You? Theorizing Agency in User-generated Content,” Media Culture and Society, 31.1 (2009): 41-58.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: When Time designated ‘you’ as Person of the Year 2006, the editors paid tribute to the millions of anonymous web users who dedicate their creative energy to a booming web culture. The cover story heralded the many volunteers filling so-called user-generated content (UGC) platforms. After decades of vilifying the passive coach potato, the press now venerates the active participant in digital culture. But just who is this participant? Who is the ‘you’ in YouTube and what kind of agency can we attribute to this new class of media users? Are users indeed, as Time wants us to believe, the ‘many wresting power from the few’ – a collective power that will ‘change the way the world changes’? 
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Social Interaction

Carlos Pereira, “Inequalities on the Web: Strengths and Weaknesses of a Political Economy Analysis,” Media Culture and Society, 31.2 (2009): 325-330.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Political economy has significantly contributed to media research by revealing how social processes and institutional pressures have operated and contributed to make the communication process accessible and tradable for larger audiences. However, the applicability of this theoretical tradition has been subjected to critiques with the advent and widespread use of the Internet and other quasi-synchronic means of communications. The reason for this is related to the potential empowerment of people to shape their own modes of production, distribution and consumption of content as they become able to navigate on the Internet and select what information they want to share/receive, in what format and at what moment in time. This article supports the view that the political economy tradition is still relevant in the study of present-day media and communications, particularly due to its ability to reveal social values and regimes of control that lie beyond people’s apparent autonomy in interacting with the material and symbolic aspects of the new media. This kind of research is precisely pertinent as inequality continues to exist in the digital environment, where a great number of worldwide web prime content providers still belong to a few media conglomerates.
Method: Interpretive – Policy Analysis
Theory: Policy

Dimitra L. Milioni, “Probing the Online Counterpublic Sphere: the Case of Indymedia Athens,” Media Culture and Society, 31.3 (2009): 409-432.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Although more than 40 years have gone by since Jürgen Habermas originally narrated the birth and the decline of the bourgeois public sphere (Habermas, 1989/1962), this ideal still holds a strong grip on our attempts to either critically examine or re-invent the idea of modern democracy. Since the mid- 1990s the work of Jürgen Habermas has become once again relevant, this time regarding the political impact of new information and communication technologies, and in particular the internet. Acknowledging the legitimation and steering crisis of the modern democratic state and the corrosion of the critical role of the current mass media system, many scholars turned to the new medium attempting to re-invent, on a normative as well as on an empirical basis, a politically functioning public sphere (Connery, 1997; Dahlberg, 2001; Knapp, 1997; Poster, 1997).
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Libby Lester and Brett Hutchins, “Power Games: Environmental Protest, News Media and the Internet,” Media Culture and Society, 31.4 (2009): 579-596.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Print and electronic news media have played a central role in environmental politics for 30 years: negotiating access, shaping meanings, circulating symbols. Environmentalists have responded with strategies and tactics created for and communicated through the news media. Protest action is one such strategy that has become ‘reflexively conditioned’ to an unprecedented level in its pursuit of media attention (Cottle, 2008: 853). It is for this reason that the internet and the worldwide web have been a tantalizing source of hope for activists over the past decade, offering the potential for independent information distribution devoid of the mediating effect of news journalists and the established news media industries. This article investigates and analyses how the recursive relationship between online digital ‘new media’ and print and electronic news media – or ‘old media’ – has unfolded (Jenkins, 2006), which is an important task if the precise dimensions of the power struggle occurring between environmental activists and news media sources are to be understood.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Policy

Dave Everitt and Simon Mills, “Cultural Anxiety 2.0,” Media Culture and Society, 31.5 (2009): 749-769.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Since the naming by Tim O’Reilly (2005) of ‘Web 2.0’ to signify a new phase in web development and user experience, the ‘2.0’ suffix has been applied in a number of disciplines to indicate a similarly new direction in that field. However, this borrowed branding can fail to transfer the culture of development and original intentions of the ‘Web 2.0’ label, and may therefore be applied without detailed knowledge of its origins. There is a case for examining the technical and cultural meaning of Web 2.0 in order to determine whether a deeper understanding of the history and original context of the label – and the technology behind it – have anything to offer toward a more intelligently informed ‘2.0’metaphor, or – fundamentally – whether its use in other contexts is meaningful in any case beyond the current phase of the web. To this end we explore the contrast between what may be termed ‘technology-independent’ applications of the metaphorical suffix and those that may be termed ‘technology-dependent’ with regard to how accurately they reflect the tenets behind the original concept. Additionally, we explore the drivers behind the rush to adopt the 2.0 suffix, and in particular its relation to contemporary discussion regarding how Media Studies needs to be ‘upgraded’ to Media Studies 2.0 in order to deal with new media.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Kari Andén-Papadopoulos, “Body Horror on the Internet: US Soldiers Recording the War in Iraq and Afghanistan,” Media Culture and Society, 31.6 (2009): 921-938.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Since the Kosovo conflict in 1999, attempts to manage the reporting of wars and conflicts, and specifically their visual representation, have accelerated. The global ‘information space’ is a key battlefront in the ongoing war against international terrorism, with all parties increasingly engaged in the production, distribution and mobilization of images to support their cause (Campbell, 2003; Keeble, 2004; Robinson, 2004; Webster, 2003; Taylor, 2003). The blurring of boundaries between those who are fighting and those who are documenting the war is critically manifested in the recent phenomenon of coalition soldiers logging on to the web from Iraq and Afghanistan, publicizing personal, at times shockingly brutal, photographs and video clips from the frontlines (Kennedy, 2008; Mortensen, 2007). The ability of global audiences to access the soldiers’ own images and stories directly through war blogs, mass emails and popular video-sharing sites such as YouTube and MySpace is opening up a new window on modern warfare that throws into sharp relief the ways in which mainstream media and governments cover the reality of war. The firsthand testimonials by soldiers actually living the war offer the public uncensored insights into the dark, violent and even depraved faces of warfare, thereby providing the basis for the kind of critical perspectives needed for a more open democratic debate. However, the soldiers’ visual recordings are at times so violent that they run the risk of severing the viewer’s emotional connection to what is represented. These hideous sights bring to a head the ongoing debates on the forms of witnessing called forth by the representations of distant suffering in the media (e.g. Boltanski, 1999; Chouliaraki, 2006; Hesford, 2004; Tait, 2008). If the moral justification for publicizing the death and agony of others lies in its potential for fostering an active public response,
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Policy

Deborah S. Chung, “How Readers Perceive Journalists’ Functions at Online Community Newspapers,” Newspaper Research Journal, 30.1 (Winter 2009): 72-81.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The exponential growth of online newspapers in the last decade may be considered a function of the Internet’s potential for interactivity, a key quality of new media. Such interactive qualities of the Internet provide unique opportunities for online news publications to engage their news audiences with increased control, multimedia storytelling experiences and interpersonal communication opportunities. Thus, online news publications allow their news audiences to have increased levels of experiences in their news consumption. The use of interactive features raises new questions about whether there are potentially transforming roles for journalists. In addition, the increasingly active news audiences have particular views about the news media that engage in different levels of interactivity through online news publications. This study examines an online community newspaper audience’s perceptions of current journalists’ roles, audience’s uses of interactive features and associations between the two, if any. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

John Russial, “Copy Editing Not Great Priority for Online Stories,” Newspaper Research Journal, 30.2 (Spring 2009): 6-16.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Responses from 155 U.S. newspapers revealed about half always copy edit their online stories. More than 15% reported they never copy edit, among them 25% with more than 100,000 circulation.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Brad Schultz and Mary Lou Sheffer,” Newspaper Managers Report Positive Attitudes about Blogs,” Newspaper Research Journal, 30.2 (Spring 2009): 30-43.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: A survey showed that managers were positive about the role and value of blogging. More than 61% of the managers stated that their blog site contained advertising, yet only 39% reported profits.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Seungahn Nah and Deborah Chung, “Rating Citizen Journalists Versus Pros: Editors’ Views,” Newspaper Research Journal, 30.2 (Spring 2009): 71-84.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: A statewide survey of community newspaper editors found editors rated the importance of professional journalists’ roles higher than they rated citizen journalists’ roles. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

John Russial, “Growth of Multimedia Not Extensive at Newspapers,” Newspaper Research Journal, 30.3 (Summer 2009): 58-75.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Although the industry is moving in the direction of cross-platform work, this survey of U.S. newspapers found that it is not moving as quickly or completely as some observers indicate. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Hsiang Iris Chyi and Seth C. Lewis, “Use of Online Newspaper Sites Lags Behind Print Editions,” Newspaper Research Journal, 30.4 (Fall 2009): 38-53
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Analysis of newspaper market research data found that the newspaper’s print edition reaches far more local readers than does its online counterpart across each of the 68 metro dailies examined.
Method: Meta-Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Thomas Hargrove, Jerry Miller, Carl Stempel and Guido H. Stempel III, “Web Media Important Players in Spread of Knowledge About Issues,” Newspaper Research Journal, 30:4 (Fall 2009):98-101
Key Words: Campaign information source; Issue knowledge
Abstract: National survey of 1,015 randomly selected adults during presidential campaign asked respondents whether or not network TV, daily newspapers, blogs, TV news websites, newspaper websites and other news websites were useful sources of information about the campaigns.  Respondents also were asked to identify which candidate was associated with six issue positions.  While network TV newscasts and newspapers were most often mentioned as useful sources, those who said web media were useful sources knew more about the issues.
Method: Survey
Theory: Informing public

Jolene D. Smyth, Don A. Dillman, Leah Melani Christian and Mallory McBride, “Open-Ended Questions in Web Surveys: Can Increasing the Size of the Answer Boxes and Providing Extra Verbal Instructions Improve response Quality?” Public Opinion Quarterly, 73.2 (Summer 2009):  325-337.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Previous research has revealed techniques to improve response quality in open-ended questions in both paper and interviewer-administered survey modes. The purpose of this paper is to test the effectiveness of similar techniques in web surveys. Using data from a series of three random sample web surveys of Washington State University undergraduates, we examine the effects of visual and verbal answer-box manipulations (i.e., altering the size of the answer box and including an explanation that answers could exceed the size of the box) and the inclusion of clarifying and motivating introductions in the question stem. We gauge response quality by the amount and type of information contained in responses as well as response time and item non-response. The results indicate that increasing the size of the answer box has little effect on early responders to the survey but substantially improved response quality among late responders. Including any sort of explanation or introduction that made response quality and length salient also improved response quality for both early and late responders. In addition to discussing these techniques, we also address the potential of the web survey mode to revitalize the use of open-ended questions in self-administered surveys. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Mirta Galesic and Michael Bosnjak, “Effects of Questionnaire Length on Participation and Indicators of Response Quality in a Web Survey,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 73.2 (Summer 2009): 349–360.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This paper investigates how expected and actual questionnaire length affects cooperation rates and a variety of indicators of data quality in web surveys. We hypothesized that the expected length of a web-based questionnaire is negatively related to the initial willingness to participate. Moreover, the serial position of questions was predicted to influence four indicators of data quality. We hypothesized that questions asked later in a web-based questionnaire will, compared to those asked earlier, be associated with (a) shorter response times, (b) higher item-nonresponse rates, (c) shorter answers to open-ended questions, and (d) less variability to items arranged in grids. To test these assumptions, we manipulated the stated length (10, 20, and 30 minutes) and the position of questions in an online questionnaire consisting of randomly ordered blocks of thematically related questions. As expected, the longer the stated length, the fewer respondents started and completed the questionnaire. In addition, answers to questions positioned later in the questionnaire were faster, shorter and more uniform than answers to questions positioned near the beginning.  
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Diana C. Mutz, “Effects of Internet Commerce on Social Trust,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 73.3 (Fall 2009):  439-461.
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: As of the early 21st century, one of the most popular uses of the Internet is for online shopping.  This study examines how online purchasing affects levels of generalized social trust, a quality widely believed to be central to the health and well-being of contemporary societies. Drawing on two original studies, including an experiment embedded in a representative national survey, and a hybrid laboratory/field experiment, the study finds consistent evidence that positive e-commerce experiences promote generalized social trust. Author discusses the implications of these findings for the role of business in helping to maintain attitudes supportive of democracy.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Linchiat Chang and Jon A. Krisnick, ” National Surveys Via RDD Telephone Interviewing Versus the Internet: Comparing Sample Representativeness and Response Quality,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 73.4 (Winter 2009):  641-678. 
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: In a national field experiment, the same questionnaires were administered simultaneously by RDD telephone interviewing, by the Internet with a probability sample, and by the Internet with a non-probability sample of people who volunteered to do surveys for money. The probability samples were more representative of the nation than the non-probability sample in terms of demographics and electoral participation, even after weighting. The non-probability sample was biased toward being highly engaged in and knowledgeable about the survey’s topic (politics). The telephone data manifested more random measurement error, more survey satisficing, and more social desirability response bias than did the Internet data, and the probability Internet sample manifested more random error and satisficing than did the volunteer Internet sample. Practice at completing surveys increased reporting accuracy among the probability Internet sample, and deciding only to do surveys on topics of personal interest enhanced reporting accuracy in the non-probability Internet sample. Thus, the non-probability Internet method yielded the most accurate self-reports from the most biased sample, while the probability Internet sample manifested the optimal combination of sample composition accuracy and self-report accuracy. These results suggest that Internet data collection from a probability sample yields more accurate results than do telephone interviewing and Internet data collection from non-probability samples.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Juyan Zhang and Brecken Chinn Swartz, “Toward a Model of NGO Media Diplomacy in the Internet Age: Case Study of Washington Profile,” Public Relations Review, 35.1 (2009): 47-55.
Keywords: NGO, Public diplomacy, Media diplomacy, Internet
Abstract: This qualitative study explores values, perceived effectiveness and factors that affect effectiveness of the public diplomacy-oriented international news services by a U.S.-based non-governmental, not-for-profit organization. In-depth, semi-structured interviews are conducted with the staff of the organization. Results show that the key values that guide the operations include independence from government, journalistic objectivity and balance as well as reader education. The perceived effectiveness of NGO international news service is much higher than government-sponsored news programs in terms of reaching audiences, affecting elite groups and return of investment. The factors that affect the effectiveness include use of local journalists and editors as decision-makers, the Internet, censorship by governments of the target region, vision of the NGO leaders, dialogue approach, nongovernmental funding, and target elite niche audience.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Diana Ingenhoff and A. Martina Koelling, “The Potential of Web Sites as a Relationship Building Tool for Charitable Fundraising NPOs,” Public Relations Review, 35.1 (2009): 66–73.
Keywords: Nonprofit, Online-communication, Internet, Charitable fundraising NPOs, Web 2.0, Relationship building, Dialogical communication
Abstract: The Internet and especially the new challenges within Web 2.0 provide organizations with the possibility of encouraging two-way communication and engaging publics in dialogue. Charitable fundraising nonprofit organizations (NPOs) can particularly benefit from the Web’s relationship building potential. This study aims to explore the potential of Web sites as an online-communication tool of Swiss NPOs. Via content analysis, the Web sites of 134 Swiss charitable fundraising NPOs were examined in order to point out how those organizations are using the Web to create dialogic relationships with their most important stakeholder groups, which are potential donors and the media. Results indicate that the potential of the Internet for dialogic communication is not used efficiently by most NPOs. Nevertheless, NPOs seem to be acknowledging the importance of engaging publics in dialogue, as most of them replied to information requests from potential donors and the media. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Richard D. WatersEmily Burnett, Anna Lamm and Jessica Lucas, “Engaging stakeholders through social networking: How nonprofit organizations are using Facebook,” Public Relations Review, 35.2 (2009): 102-106.
Keywords: Social networking, Facebook, Nonprofit organizations, Social media
Abstract: Since social networking sites, such as MySpace and Facebook, began allowing organizations to create profiles and become active members, organizations have started incorporating these strategies into their public relations programming. For-profit organizations have used these sites to help launch products and strengthen their existing brands; however, little is known about how nonprofit organizations are taking advantage of the social networking popularity. Through a content analysis of 275 nonprofit organization profiles on Facebook, this study examines how these new social networking sites are being used by the organizations to advance their organization’s mission and programs. Solely having a profile will not in itself increase awareness or trigger an influx of participation. Instead careful planning and research will greatly benefit nonprofits as they attempt to develop social networking relationships with their stakeholders.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Hyunjin SeoJi Young Kim and Sung-Un Yang, “Global activism and new media: A study of transnational NGOs’ online public relations,” Public Relations Review, 35.2 (2009): 123-126.
Keywords: Online public relations, Nongovernmental organizations, New media, Internet, Global activism
Abstract: This study examines how transnational nongovernmental organizations make use of new media tools in their public relation activities and what factors influence their online public relations. A survey of communication representatives at 75 transnational NGOs based in the United States found that promoting the organization’s image and fund-raising were the two most important functions of new media for the NGOs. Organizational capacity and main objective of the organization were significant predictors of NGOs’ new media use in their public relations. However, organizational efficiency and revenue did not significantly predict NGOs’ use of new media.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Sooyoung Cho and Youngshin Hong, “Netizens’ Evaluations of Corporate Social Responsibility: Content Analysis of CSR News Stories and Online Readers’ Comments,” Public Relations Review, 35.2 (2009): 147-149.
Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, News, Readers’ comments, Crisis
Abstract: Analyzing stories about corporate social responsibility (CSR) published in two online Korean newspapers and reader’s comments about them, this study investigated how the online readers interpreted the CSR activities, looking at the effect of CSR types, situations, and the degree of corporate fame. The study found that readers tend to be cynical toward CSR activities after a crisis and a monetary donation type of CSR. In addition, the more famous the company, the more likely there were cynical comments about its CSR activities.
Method:  Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Joye Gordon and Susan Berhow, “University Websites and Dialogic Features for Building Relationships with Potential Students,” Public Relations Review, 35.2 (2009): 150-152.
Keywords: Dialogue, University recruitment, Webpage, Relationship building, Content analysis 
Abstract: Using Kent and Taylor’s dialogic principles, a content analysis of 232 university websites was conducted. Results indicate that liberal arts institutions tend to use more dialogic web features than national doctoral universities. Tier 3 institutions have a more significant number of dialogic website features than Tier 4 institutions. Finally, a small correlation was found between the use of dialogic features on the websites and higher rates of student retention and alumni giving.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Po-Lin Pan and Jie Xu,  “Online Strategic Communication: A Cross-cultural Analysis of U.S. and Chinese Corporate Websites,” Public Relations Review, 35.3 (2009):  251-253.
Keywords: Cultural divergence, Online marketing interactivity, Corporate public image, Social responsibility
Abstract: This study applied a cultural divergence approach to examine online marketing interactivity and corporate public image on corporate websites. It analyzed different online strategic communication of corporate websites from two different nations—the United States and China. Results indicated that U.S. corporations were more likely to highlight online marketing interactivity and social responsibility, which integrated marketing and public relations as their online communication strategy. Chinese corporations provided more online spaces for the consumer–consumer interactions and emphasized corporation-oriented information.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Ruthann Weaver Lariscy, Elizabeth Johnson Avery, Kaye D. Sweetser and Pauline Howes, “An Examination of the Role of Online Social Media in Journalists’ Source Mix,” Public Relations Review, 35.3 (2009):  314-316.
Keywords: Social media, Public relations, Practitioner, Agenda building, Information subsidy, Journalist, Business
Abstract: Using telephone surveys of business/financial journalists in the United States (n = 200), this research investigates the agenda-building role of social media content in journalists’ work. Understanding that more non-public relations content from user-generated and social network sites, like YouTube and Twitter, are fast becoming resources for journalists to get story ideas, break scandals and find sources, the authors began this scholarly work to determine the frequency of such uses of social media. Overall, findings indicate very little use of social media by these business journalists. Results and implications for public relations practitioners are discussed in detail.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Social Interaction

Denise Sevick Bortree and Trent Seltzer, “Dialogic Strategies and Outcomes: An Analysis of Environmental Advocacy Groups’ Facebook profiles,” Public Relations Review, 35.3 (2009):  317-319.
Keywords: Social networking sites, Dialogic communication, Online relationship building, Environmental advocacy
Abstract: Previous studies of advocacy groups’ Web sites suggest that the use of dialogic strategies could lead to greater dialogic communication. This study examined whether dialogic strategies utilized by environmental advocacy groups via their social networking profiles lead to greater dialogic engagement between organizations and visitors. This study offers the first examination of the relationship between the creation of an online space for dialogue and actual dialogic engagement by identifying and measuring six dialogic outcomes. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Social Interaction

Sheila M. McAllister-Spooner, “Fulfilling the Dialogic Promise: A Ten Year Reflective Survey on Dialogic Internet Principles,” Public Relations Review, 35.3 (2009):  320-322.
Keywords: Dialogic theory of public relations, Dialogic Internet principles, Web-based public relations
Abstract: A decade ago, using the dialogic theory of public relations as the theoretical framework, Kent and Taylor [Kent, M. L., & Taylor, M. (1998).  Building a dialogic relationship through The World Wide Web. Public Relations Review, 24, 321–340; Kent, M. L., & Taylor, M. (2002). Toward a dialogic theory of public relations. Public Relations Review, 28, 21–37] provided a strategic framework to facilitate relationships with publics though the World Wide Web. Based on a review of research exploring Web-based public relations practices drawing on Kent and Taylor’s theoretical framework, this essay offers a ten-year reflective survey on past, current, and future directions of Kent and Taylor’s Internet principles, as they relate to the dialogic theory of public relations.
Method: Interpretive Essay (including History)
Theory: Social Interaction

Sung-Un Yang and Minjeong Kang, “Measuring Blog Engagement: Testing a Four-Dimensional Scale,” Public Relations Review, 35.3 (2009):  323-324.
Keywords: Blog engagement, Interactivity, Self-company connection, Company attitude, Word-of-mouth intentions
Abstract: This study proposed and validated a measurement scale of blog engagement. The researchers explicated the concept of blog engagement as the likelihood and outcomes of interactive blog communication that encompass cognitive, attitudinal and behavioral attachment. Following this definition, a four-dimensional scale was tested. This study suggests that interactive blogs can enhance self-company connection, positive attitudes toward the company and supportive WOM intentions.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Social Interaction

Gang (Kevin) Han and Ai Zhang, “Starbucks is Forbidden in the Forbidden City: Blog, Circuit of Culture and Informal Public Relations Campaign in China,” Public Relations Review, 35.4 (2009):  395-401.
Keywords:
Keywords: International public relations, Circuit of culture model, Blog, Web-based activism, Starbucks China
Abstract: This study offers an in-depth analysis on the closedown of a Starbucks café inside the Forbidden City, one of the most recognized historic sites in Beijing, China, under the pressure of a Web-based activist campaign. Adopting the circuit of culture model, this study illustrates the intricate role of culture in international public relations within an Internet-based media context, as well as the tension surrounding the conflicting identities between Starbucks’ global presence and the local sensitivity attached to the cultural heritage—the Forbidden City. This study also highlights the role of new media (e.g., blogs) in China and its impact on international public relations practice.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Policy

Ruth Avidar, “Social Media, Societal Culture and Israeli Public Relations Practice,” Public Relations Review, 35.4 (2009):  437-439.
Keywords: Social Media, Societal culture, Public relations practice, Israel, Internet
Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore Israel’s societal culture as an environment with which public relations practice has to align. It asks whether Israeli public relations practitioners use social media elements, how do they perceive these elements and what do they think about their future? A web-based survey revealed that Israeli practitioners generally are willing to use and gain experience with social media elements although this usage is still in its initial stage.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Policy

Marichris Diga and Tom Kelleher, “Social Media Use, Perceptions of Decision-making Power, and Public Relations Roles,” Public Relations Review, 35.4 (2009):  440-442.
Keywords: Public relations, Social media, Public relations roles, Decision-making power, Social network sites
Abstract: Public relations practitioners in this study who were more frequent users of social network sites and social media tools reported greater perceptions of their own structural, expert and prestige power. Forty of 115 members of a PRSA chapter responded to the survey request. In terms of day-to-day practice, the sample matched national samples of practitioners, with manager and technician questionnaire items loading on the exact same factors as in prior studies. However, those enacting predominantly manager roles did not differ significantly from those enacting predominately technician roles in social media use. This study points to the need for future research to examine more closely the use of social media in the daily roles of public relations practitioners.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Policy

Tom Robinson, Mark Callister, Brad Clark and James Phillips, “Violence, Sexuality, and Gender Stereotyping: A Content Analysis of Official Video Game Web Sites,” Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 13 (February 2009).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: To promote video games, game manufacturers create official Web sites for their games that are designed to attract consumers’ attention and push them to purchase. This paper examines the messages that these Web sites send to the public regarding violence, sexual content, drug and alcohol use, and racial and gender representations. Results show that male characters outnumber female characters, that female characters are shown in a more stereotypical and sexualized manner, and that Hispanic characters are grossly underrepresented. The majority of game Web sites display violent acts that include actual shootings with blood and that no significant difference exists between the number of violent acts on the Web sites for games rated (T)een and games rated (M)ature. Given the violent depictions, stereotyping and sexualized portrayals on these Web sites, parents should be as vigilant in monitoring their children’s exposure to the Web sites as they are to the video games. Video gaming is a mainstay of American children’s leisure time. Today, video games have become a multibillion-dollar industry, with combined computer and video game sales topping $7.4 billion and selling more than 240.7 million computer and video game units in 2006. This amount nearly matches the $9.7 billion generated by the 2007 movie box office. As for gaming equipment, 85% of teens and 77% of preteens in the United States say they own a video game console. Moreover, teens play electronic games an average of 9 hours per week, with male teens playing 3.5 times more hours per week than female teens (14 hours compared to  hours). Children ages 6 to 11 are equally engaged, playing an average of 10 hours per week, with boys playing 13 hours and girls playing 5 hours. Clearly the video game industry has become a major force in the worlds of both business and entertainment. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Information Processing/Uses and Gratification

Thomas Gould, “A Baker’s Dozen of Issues Facing Online Academic Journal Start-ups,” Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 14 (April 2009).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The rapid upsurge in online academic journal creation, publishing, and management has challenged researchers and universities. Much of the recent flurry of activity has occurred in reaction to rapidly rising costs for journals produced by for-profit publishing houses. Few guidelines and protocols have been created to assist online journal editors and boards in this new world of university/not-for-profit web publishing. This article outlines the nature of the increased publication of these new journals, as well as offers advice in 13 areas these journal editors and boards will face. This article is based on the findings of academics in a wide variety of academic fields, including library science, as well as the author’s own experience as an online journal creator and editor.
Method: Survey – Interview/Case Study
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Stephen R. Lacy, Daniel Riffe, Esther Thorson and Margaret Duffy, “Examining the Features, Policies, and Resources of Citizen Journalism: Citizen News Sites and Blogs,”  Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 15 (June 2009).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This study used content analysis to explore the policies, citizen participation features, and means of financial support for 64 citizen journalism sites–both news sites and blogs–in 15 randomly selected U.S. cities. Community size was related to number of sites in a market, and nearly half of all sites–but three-fourths of news sites–featured home-page advertising, while six of 10 news sites actively sought the time and service of citizen volunteers. However, neither type of site took advantage of the interactivity possible with the Internet, and opportunities for citizen participation (via polls and forums, and uploading of content) were limited.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Mary Lou Sheffer and Brad Schultz, “Are Blogs Changing the News Values of Newspaper Reporters?”  Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 16 (July 2009).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: Traditional news outlets such as newspapers are incorporating blogs as part of their content in an effort to reach new audiences. Because blogs are typically opinionated and personal how newspapers present their blogs could indicate a shift from traditional journalism values. This content analysis sought to investigate several categories (news, sports, politics and entertainment) of newspaper blogs in terms of personal opinion/commentary, attribution and transparency. Results indicate that reporters have not yet abandoned traditional news values, but rather treat their blogs as a different news platform. 
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Brent M. Foster, “Media Reborn: Interactive Platforms and The Digital Ripple Effect on Media Dependency,” Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 17 (August 2009).
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: The goal of this study was to find out what part interactivity plays in the dependency relationship between media and individuals. This study sought to shed light on the issue by quantitatively measuring individual dependence on traditional and digital media. The focus was on the concept of reactivity, where messages sent between senders and receivers are contingent upon the messages immediately preceding them. Digital media are considered to be more reactive than traditional media. It was discovered that participants who viewed digital reactive media messages reported significantly higher levels of cognitive media dependence than those viewing digital non-interactive media messages. Those that viewed traditional reactive and non-interactive messages showed little difference in their media dependence. Reactivity proved to play a significant role in the level of media dependence in digital realms.
Method: Experiment
Theory: Adoption/Diffusion

Hsiang-Ann Liao, “Political Efficacy and Campaign News Attention as Catalysts of Discursive Democracy: The Case of the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election,” Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 18 (December 2009)
Keywords: N/A
Abstract: This paper argues that models of discursive democracy need to be contextual and domain specific, incorporating cognitive or psychological catalysts or other situational factors that prompt people to talk about politics. Different election campaigns might require different discursive democracy models to encapsulate how and why citizens talk about politics. Based on Kim et al.’s model of deliberative democracy, a contextual model of discursive democracy is proposed for the 2004 U.S. presidential election. Political efficacy and campaign news attention were examined as psychological and cognitive catalysts to the contextual model. It was found that both internal political efficacy and attention to campaign news coverage were relevant to a discursive democracy model for the 2004 U.S. presidential campaign. Two structural equation models were formulated to examine the direct and indirect effects between variables.
Method: Survey – Content Analysis
Theory: Policy

Thomas H.P. Gould is an associate professor at the A.Q. Miller School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Kansas State University where Aobo is a second year graduate student. Jacob Mauslein is a graduate student in security studies at Kansas State University.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published.